Penalty cards are used in many sports as a means of warning, reprimanding or penalising a player, coach or team official. Penalty cards are most used by referees or umpires to indicate that a player has committed an offense; the official will hold the card above his or her head while looking or pointing towards the player that has committed the offence. This action makes the decision clear to all players, as well as spectators and other officials in a manner, language-neutral; the colour or shape of the card used by the official indicates the type or seriousness of the offence and the level of punishment, to be applied. Yellow and red cards are the most common indicating cautions and dismissals; the idea of using language-neutral coloured cards to communicate a referee's intentions originated in association football, with English referee Ken Aston. Aston had been appointed to the FIFA Referees' Committee and was responsible for all referees at the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In the quarter-finals, England met Argentina at the Wembley Stadium.
After the match, newspaper reports stated that referee Rudolf Kreitlein had cautioned Englishmen Bobby and Jack Charlton, as well as sending off Argentinian Antonio Rattín. The referee had not made his decision clear during the game, England manager Alf Ramsey approached FIFA representative for post-match clarification; this incident started Aston thinking about ways to make a referee's decisions clearer to both players and spectators. Aston realised that a colour-coding scheme based on the same principle as used on traffic lights would transcend language barriers and make it clear that a player had been cautioned or expelled; as a result, yellow cards to indicate a caution and red cards to indicate an expulsion were used for the first time in the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico. The use of penalty cards has since been adopted and expanded by several sporting codes, with each sport adapting the idea to its specific set of rules or laws. A yellow card is used in many different sporting codes, its meaning differs among sports.
Examples include: Association football: A yellow card is shown by the referee to indicate that a player has been cautioned. The player's details are recorded by the referee in a small notebook. A player, cautioned may continue playing in the game; the player may not be replaced by a substitute. Law 12 of the Laws of the Game lists the types of offences and misconduct that may result in a caution or is cautionary, it states that "only a player, substitute or substituted player" can be cautioned. In most tournaments, the accumulation of a certain number of yellow cards over several matches results in disqualification of the offending player for a certain number of subsequent matches, the exact number of cards and matches varying by jurisdiction. For more details, see Yellow card Athletics: In track events, a yellow card is as a personal warning in both track and field events used to indicate that a second yellow card would result in a disqualification. IAAF rules have abolished false start warnings.
However, as of 2012, the false start rule is that an athlete's hands must leave the track or their feet must leave the starting blocks before the gunshot in order for a false start to be given. Therefore, if an athlete makes a twitch, while being in their final'set' position, the maximum penalty is a yellow card. Australian rules football: A yellow card is issued against a player for committing any reportable offence, except those listed as'serious' reportable offences. Any player issued a yellow card is unable to participate in the game for the length of a quarter of play, excluding breaks, although the player can be replaced. However, a yellow card may be issued against a player at the discretion of an umpire, despite the player not committing a reportable offence. Yellow cards and red cards are, not issued in the Australian Football League, the highest level of play in Australian rules football. Badminton: A yellow card is given to a singles player or doubles pair as a warning for breaching the Laws of Badminton.
A yellow card can only be given once to a player or pair in a match, subsequent breaches are sanctioned with a red or black card. Bandy: A yellow card indicates a warning given to an entire team for technical fouls such as errors in the execution of goal-throws or free strokes, or the obstruction of a player without ball. Subsequent technical fouls by the same team result in a five-minute penalty indicated by a white card. Canoe polo: A yellow card indicates a player has received a two-minute temporary suspension. A yellow card can be awarded for a deliberate or dangerous foul that prevents the scoring of a near certain goal, dangerous illegal play, deliberate or repeated, foul or abusive language, continuously disputing a referee's decisions or receiving a third green card for any reason. Equestrian sports: Yellow cards may be issued during FEI sanctioned events for abuse of a horse or incorrect behavior towards an official. Abuse of the horse may include riding an lame horse
Indoor American football
Indoor American football is a variation of American football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varying in details from league to league, the rules of indoor football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena, it is a distinct discipline and not be confused with traditional American football played in large domed stadiums, as is done by some teams at the college and professional levels. The first documented indoor football games were those played at the Chicago Coliseum in the late 1890s; the first such game matched Michigan against Chicago on Thanksgiving Day 1896. The match was "the first collegiate game of football played under a roof." Adding to the novelty, as daylight turned to darkness, the field inside the Coliseum was lit with electric lighting. With seven acres of floor space, the sprawling Coliseum is believed to have not needed any compromises to accommodate an American football field. According to a newspaper account, the field grew dark in the second half, play was halted for ten minutes to discuss whether play should continue.
Play was resumed, the lights were turned on after Michigan scored a touchdown. The press proclaimed the experiment in indoor football to be a success: One thing at least was settled by the game, that is, that indoor football is and figuratively speaking a howling success; the men had no trouble in catching punts, football was played on its merits, without the handicaps of a wet field or a strong wind. Toward the end of the second half it got dark, the spectators were treated to a novelty in the shape of football by electric light." Although both critically and commercially successful, the Coliseum was destroyed in a fire less than two years after its opening, its replacement could not accommodate an American football field. At Madison Square Garden in 1902 and 1903, there were games known as the "World Series of Pro Football." The games were otherwise adhered to outdoor rules. Poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years; the Chicago Bears of the National Football League hosted an experimental game against their crosstown rivals, the Cardinals, after the 1930 NFL season, at the indoor Chicago Stadium.
Two years poor weather conditions led to the Bears hosting the 1932 NFL Playoff Game against the Portsmouth Spartans at the stadium. A dirt and tanbark field measuring 80 yards long and 45 yards wide was constructed on the arena's floor; the Chicago Stadium games were notable for introducing several rule changes, including the introduction of hash marks to keep play away from spectators who were seated next to the field, while goal posts were moved to the goal line. To compensate for the smaller field, teams were "penalized" 20 yards upon crossing midfield. In 1930, the Atlantic City Convention Center constructed a full-size indoor football field, used it for one to three games a year during the 1930s. In the 1960s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center; the Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one. The Atlantic Coast Football League played its inaugural championship game at the convention center in 1962, but the game only drew 2,000 fans and the game would thereafter move to the home stadium of the team with the best regular season record.
The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, played at Municipal Stadium from 1959–1963, was moved into the Convention Center in 1964 for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6,000 fans and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, where it has remained. Unlike modern indoor football, the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were the same as in the standard outdoor game, with rules updated to deal with contingencies for what could happen indoors, such as a punt striking the ceiling; the end zones were shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten. While several attempts to create a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first version to meet with widespread success and acceptance is Arena football, devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League, he devised his game while watching another game derived from a sport played outdoors.
He worked on the game in the early 1980s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional season, was in operation in 1983–1985. When the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity, he staged a "test" game in Rockford, Illinois in 1986 and put together a four-team league for a "demonstration season" in the spring of 1987, with games televised on ESPN. Foster had to adopt a field that would fit within the smaller playing surfaces found in most arenas and thus created a field, identical in size to a standard professional ice hockey rink, 200 by 85 feet; this resulted in the field being 50 yards long with eight-yard end zones, the field being
A football pitch is the playing surface for the game of association football. Its dimensions and markings are defined by Law 1 of the Laws of the Game, "The Field of Play"; the surface can either be artificial. Artificial surfaces must be green in colour; the pitch is made of turf or artificial turf, although amateur and recreational teams play on dirt fields. All line markings on the pitch form part of the area. For example, a ball on or above the touchline is still on the field of play, a foul committed over the line bounding the penalty area results in a penalty. Therefore, a ball must cross the touchline to be out of play, a ball must wholly cross the goal line before a goal is scored; the field descriptions that apply to adult matches are described below. Note that due to the original formulation of the Laws in England and the early supremacy of the four British football associations within IFAB, the standard dimensions of a football pitch were expressed in imperial units; the Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents, but use of the imperial units remains common in some countries in the United Kingdom.
The pitch is rectangular in shape. The longer sides are called touchlines; the other opposing sides are called the goal lines. The two goal lines must be between 45 and 90 m wide, be the same length; the two touchlines be between 90 and 120 m long, be the same length. All lines on the ground must be wide, not to exceed 12 cm; the corners of the pitch are marked by corner flags. For international matches the field dimensions are more constrained. In March 2008 the IFAB attempted to standardise the size of the football pitch for international matches and set the official dimensions of a pitch to 105 by 68 metres. However, at a special meeting of the IFAB on 8 May 2008, it was ruled that this change would be put on hold pending a review and the proposed change has not been implemented. Although the term goal line is taken to mean only that part of the line between the goalposts, in fact it refers to the complete line at either end of the pitch, from one corner flag to the other. In contrast, the term byline is used to refer to that portion of the goal line outside the goalposts.
This term is used in football commentaries and match descriptions, such as this example from a BBC match report. Goals are placed at the centre of each goal-line; these consist of two upright posts placed equidistant from the corner flagposts, joined at the top by a horizontal crossbar. The inner edges of the posts must be 7.32 metres apart, the lower edge of the crossbar must be 2.44 metres above the ground. Nets are placed behind the goal, though are not required by the Laws. Goalposts and crossbars must be white, made of wood, metal or other approved material. Rules regarding the shape of goalposts and crossbars are somewhat more lenient, but they must conform to a shape that does not pose a threat to players. Since the beginning of the football there have always been goalposts, but the crossbar wasn't invented until 1875, before which a string between the goalposts was used. A goal is scored when the ball crosses the goal line between the goal-posts if a defending player last touched the ball before it crossed the goal line.
A goal may, however, be ruled illegal if the player who scored or a member of their team commits an offence under any of the laws between the time the ball was out of play and the goal being scored. It is deemed void if a player on the opposing team commits an offence before the ball has passed the line, as in the case of fouls being committed, a penalty awarded but the ball continued on a path that caused it to cross the goal line; the football goal size for a junior match goal is half the size of an adult sized match goal. Football goals were first described in England in the late early 17th centuries. In 1584 and 1602 John Norden and Richard Carew referred to "goals" in Cornish hurling. Carew described how goals were made: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; the first reference to scoring a goal is in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. In a poem in 1613, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe".
Solid crossbars were first introduced by the Sheffield Rules. Football nets were invented by Liverpool engineer John Brodie in 1891, they were a necessary help for discussions about whether or not a goal had been scored. Two rectangular boxes are marked out on the pitch in front of each goal; the goal area, consists of the rectangle formed by the goal-line, two lines starting on the goal-line 5.5 metres from the goalposts and extending 5.5 metres into the pitch from the goal-line, the line joining these. Goal kicks and any free kick by the defending team may be taken from anywhere in this area. Indirect free kicks awarded to the attacking team within the goal area are taken from the point on the line parallel
Paralympic association football
Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of association football for athletes with a physical disability. These sports are played using International Federation of Association Football rules, with modifications to the field of play, numbers of players, other rules as required to make the game suitable for the athletes; the two most prominent versions of Paralympic football are 5-a-side football for athletes with visual impairments, 7-a-side football for athletes with cerebral palsy. 5-a-side football known as futsal and blind football, is an adaptation of football for athletes with visual impairments including blindness. The sport, governed by the International Blind Sports Federation, is played with modified FIFA rules; the field of play is smaller, is surrounded by boards. Teams are reduced including the goalkeeper, per team. Teams may use one guide, positioned off the field of play, to assist in directing players; the ball is equipped with a noise-making device to allow players to locate it by sound.
Matches consist with a ten-minute break at half-time. Football 5-a-side players are assigned to one of three sport classes based on their level of visual impairment: B1 - Totally or totally blind. B2 - Partially sighted. B3 - Partially sighted. Two types of competition exist. For Class B1 games, only athletes with sport class B1 are permitted as players, with the exception of the goalkeepers and the guides, who may be class B2, B3, or sighted. For Class B2/B3 games, teams can field players in sport classes B2 and B3. 5-a-side football in Europe was developed in Spain. The first Spanish national championships took place in Spain in 1986. In South America, there are records of a Brazilian Tournament organized in 1980. European and American Championships took place in 1997, followed by the first World Championships in 1998; the sport was added to the Summer Paralympic Games in 2004. Brazil was champion of the world tournaments in 1998, 2000, 2010 and 2014 and Argentina won in 2004 and 2006. Results: http://www.ibsasport.org/sports/football/results/ not yet not yet Men's B1 Men's B2/B3 Women's B1 not yetWomen's B2/B3 not yet Until 2017 only in Men's B1 Until 2014 only in Men's B1 7-a-side football is an adaptation of association football for athletes with cerebral palsy and other neurological disorders, including stroke and traumatic brain injury.
The sport is governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. The sport is played with modified FIFA rules. Among the modifications are a reduced field of play, a reduction in the number of players, elimination of the offside rule, permission for one-handed throw-ins. Matches consist with a fifteen-minute half-time break. Players competing in 7-a-side football are given a sport class based on their level of disability. Eligible classes are: C5: Athletes with difficulties when walking and running, but not in standing or when kicking the ball. C6: Athletes with control and co-ordination problems of their upper limbs when running. C7: Athletes with hemiplegia. C8: Minimally disabled athletes. Teams must field at least one class C6 player at all times. No more than one players of class C8 are permitted to play at the same time. International competition in 7-a-side football began at the 1978 CP-ISRA International Games in Edinburgh, Scotland; the sport was added to the Summer Paralympic Games at the 1984 Summer Paralympics in New York City, U.
S. and has been played at every Summer Games since. World Championships and International Cups a.e.t.: after extra time p: after penalty shoot-out International Blind Sports Federation World Blind Football Championships Paralympic games Paralympic sports Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association British Blind Sport International Blind Sport Federation - Football 5-a-side International Paralympic Committee - Football 5-a-side Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association - Football 7-a-side International Paralympic Committee - Football 7-a-side CPISRA Football 7-a-side World Championships 2007 Official site news.bbc.co.uk - How blind football is played Documentary about paralympic association football
Amputee football is a disabled sport played with seven players on each team. Outfield players have lower extremity amputations, goalkeepers have an upper extremity amputation. Outfield players use loftstrand crutches, play without their prosthesis. There are several amputee football associations around the world. A couple examples of this are the England Amputee Association and The Irish Amputee Football Association; each organization promotes the advancement of the sport. The England Amputee Football Association states their main goal on their website as: "The England Amputee Football Association's aim is to provide all amputees, people with congenital limb deficiencies and persons with restricted use of limbs, with the opportunity to play football locally and internationally." Former name: Amputee Football World Championships The official FIFA sanctioned rules are: An amputee is defined as someone who is'abbreviated' at or near the ankle or wrist. Outfield players may have two hands but only one leg, whereas goalkeepers may have two feet but only one hand.
The game is played with metal crutches and without prostheses, the only exception being that bi-lateral amputees may play with a prosthesis. Players may not use crutches to control or block the ball; such an action will be penalised in the same way as a handball infringement. However, incidental contact between crutch and ball is tolerated. Players may not use their residual limbs to voluntarily control or block the ball; such an action will be penalised in the same way as a handball infringement. However, incidental contact between residual limb and ball is tolerated. Shin pads must be worn. Use of a crutch against a player will lead to ejection from the game and a penalty kick for the opposing team; the pitch measures a maximum of 70 x 60 metres The dimensions of the goals are 2.2 metres maximum x 5 metres maximum x 1 metre A FIFA standard ball is used Games consist of two 25-minute halves, with a ten-minute rest period in between Both teams are allowed a two-minute time-out per game Offside rules do not apply in amputee football International rules stipulate that a team be made up of six outfield players and a goalkeeper.
However, certain tournaments require teams of four outfield players plus goalkeeper, as was the case in Sierra Leone. A goalkeeper is not permitted to leave her area. Should this occur deliberately, the goalkeeper will be ejected from the game and the opposing team awarded a penalty kick. An unlimited number of substitutions can be made, at any point during the game. Amputee Football World Cup Team Zaryen European Amputee Football Federation Official website History of Amputee Soccer
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football when the ball has exited the side of the field of play. The throw-in is taken from the point where the ball crossed the touch-line, either on the ground or in the air, though a referee will tolerate small discrepancies between the position where the ball crossed the touch-line and the position of the throw-in; the throw-in is taken by the opponents of the player who last touched the ball when it crossed the touch-line. Opposing players may stand at any distance from the thrower but no closer than 2 m, so long as they are still on the pitch. A player may take a throw-in at a distance further back from the touch-line. At the moment of delivering the ball, the thrower must face the field of play; the thrower must have part of each foot on the touchline or on the ground outside the touchline, use both hands to deliver the ball from behind and over the head. The ball becomes in play. A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in. An offensive goal cannot be scored directly from a throw in.
A player may not be penalised for an offside offence when receiving the ball directly from a throw-in. Skillful attackers can sometimes take advantage of this rule by getting behind the last defender to receive the throw-in and having a clear path to goal; the optimal release angle for attaining maximum distance is about 30 degrees above the horizontal, according to researchers at Brunel University. According to the study, players are able to throw the ball with greater release velocity for lower angles; the optimal angle would be 45 degrees if the release velocity did not depend on the angle of throw, if the ball were thrown from ground level instead of above the head, if there was not air drag. If an opposing player fails to respect the required distance before the ball is in play or otherwise unfairly distracts or impedes the thrower, he or she may receive a caution for unsporting behaviour. If the thrower fails to deliver the ball per the required procedure, or delivers it from a point other than where the ball left the field of play, the throw-in is awarded to the opposing team.
This is known as a "foul throw", though such throws are not considered fouls. It is an infringement for the thrower to touch the ball a second time until it has been touched by another player, it is legal to throw the ball into the goal with no contact. The restarts are a goal kick for the defending team and a corner kick for the attacking team, respectively. If any player touches the ball before it goes into the goal a goal is scored. A goalkeeper can not handle a ball her by a teammate; this cannot be circumvented by the keeper using the feet first before handling the ball. If this infringement occurs within the goalkeeper's penalty area, an indirect free kick is awarded. If the infringement occurs outside the goalkeeper's penalty area, a direct free kick is awarded. A detailed description of an early predecessor of the throw-in is recorded in the novel Tom Brown's School Days, published in 1857 but based on the author's experiences at Rugby School from 1834 to 1842: You see this gravel walk running down all along this side of the playing-ground, the line of elms opposite on the other?
Well, they're the bounds. As soon as the ball gets past them, it's in touch, out of play, and whoever first touches it, has to knock it straight out amongst the players-up, who make two lines with a space between them, every fellow going on his own side... He stands with the ball in his hand, while the two sides form in deep lines opposite one another: he must strike it straight out between them. Several features of this passages are notable: possession is awarded to the first player to touch the ball after it goes out of play the ball must be played "straight out" the player must "knock" or "strike" the ball back into play The 1851 rules of Rugby School describe a similar procedure, except that the ball is thrown in rather than struck or hit. Similar "throw-in" laws are found in the Cambridge rules of 1856, the Sheffield rules of 1858, the laws of Melbourne FC, indeed the original FA laws of 1863. Other codes had a kick-in rather than a throw-in; these included the "Foot-Ball Club" of Edinburgh, Harrow football, Barnes FC, Blackheath FC, the version of the Cambridge rules from November 1863.
Some of these laws permitted the ball to be kicked in any direction, while others required that it be perpendicular to the touch-line. The Eton field game's rules, as recorded in 1847, specified that a throw-in and a "bully" should be used alternately, while its 1857 rules used the bully exclusively; the throw-in law adopted by the Football Association in 1863 is similar to those of Rugby School and Sheffield described earlier: When the ball is in touch the