Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A gyro or gyros is a Greek dish made from meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie. Like shawarma and tacos al pastor, it is derived from the lamb-based doner kebab. In Greece it is now most pork, or chicken, while a mixture of beef and lamb is common in the U. S. and other countries. It is served wrapped or stuffed in a flatbread such as pita, with tomato, tzatziki sauce, sometimes french fries. Grilling a vertical spit of stacked meat slices and cutting it off as it cooks was developed in Bursa by Turks in the 19th century Ottoman Empire, called doner kebab. Following World War II, doner kebab made with lamb was present in Athens, introduced by immigrants from Anatolia and the Middle East. A distinct Greek variation developed made with pork and served with tzatziki sauce, which became known as gyros. By 1970, gyros wrapped sandwiches were a popular fast food in Athens, as well as in Chicago and New York City. At that time, although vertical rotisseries were starting to be mass-produced in the US by Gyros Inc. of Chicago, the stacks of meat were still hand-made.
According to Margaret Garlic, it was she who first came up with the idea to mass-produce gyros meat cones, after watching a demonstration by a Greek restaurant owner carving gyros on the What's My Line? television show. She convinced her husband John Garlic, a Jewish former Marine and at the time Cadillac salesman, of the idea. After obtaining a recipe from a Greek chef in Chicago, the couple rented a space in a sausage plant in Milwaukee, began operating the world's first assembly line producing gyros meat from beef and lamb trimmings; the Garlics sold their business to Gyros Inc. which along with Central Gyros Wholesale, Kronos Foods, Inc of Chicago, began large-scale production in the mid-1970s. The name comes from the Greek γύρος, is a calque of the Turkish word döner, from dönmek meaning "turn", it was called ντονέρ in Greece. The word ντονέρ was criticized in mid-1970s Greece for being Turkish; the word gyro or gyros was in use in English by at least 1970, along with γύρος in Greek came to replace doner kebab for the Greek version of the dish.
Some Greek restaurants in the US, such as the Syntagma Square in New York City—which can be seen in the 1976 film Taxi Driver—continued to use both doner kebab and gyros for the same dish, in the 1970s. In contrast to other areas of Greece, in Athens the skewered meat dish souvlaki is known as kalamaki. A pita-wrapped sandwich made with either gyros meat or kalamaki is known as a souvlaki; the Greek pronunciation is, but the pronunciation in English is or /ˈɡɪəroʊ/ or /ˈjɪəroʊ/. In Greek, "gyros" is a nominative singular noun, but the final's' is interpreted as an English plural in the U. S. leading to the formation of the singular "gyro". In Greece, gyros is made with pork, though other meats are used. Chicken is common, lamb or beef may be found more rarely. Typical American mass-produced gyros are made with finely-ground beef mixed with lamb. For hand-made gyros, meat is cut into round, flat slices, which are stacked on a spit and seasoned. Fat trimmings are interspersed. Spice mixes include salt and sweet paprika and black pepper, dried parsley, garlic powder, oregano.
Additional spices are sometimes added. The pieces of meat, in the shape of an inverted cone, are placed on a tall vertical rotisserie, which turns in front of a source of heat or broiler; as the cone cooks, lower parts are basted with the juices running off the upper parts. If the meat is not fatty enough, strips of fat are added so that the roasting meat always remains moist and crisp; the rate of roasting can be adjusted by varying the strength of the heat, the distance between the heat and the meat, the speed of the spit rotation, allowing the cook to adjust to varying rates of consumption. The outside of the meat is sliced vertically in crisp shavings when done. In Greece it is served in an oiled grilled piece of pita, rolled up with sliced tomatoes, chopped onions and tzatziki. List of kebabs List of spit-roasted foods The dictionary definition of gyros at Wiktionary
Bitburg is a city in Germany, in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate 25 km northwest of Trier and 50 km northeast of Luxembourg city. The American Spangdahlem Air Base is nearby; the city's name derives from Beda. Bitburg originated 2,000 years ago as a stopover for traffic from Lyon through Metz and Trier to Cologne; the first name mentioned was Vicus Beda. Emperor Constantine the Great expanded the settlement to a road castle around 330, the central part of which forms the town centre today. Bitburg is first documented only after the end of the Roman Empire around 715 as castrum bedense, it subsequently became part of Franconia. The first mention of Bitburg in historic annals occurred in connection with the signing in 1239 of the Trier-Luxembourg Treaty between Archbishop Theoderich II of Trier and Countess Ermesinde II of Luxemburg, under which the town came under the archbishopric's protection. Bitburg received a town charter in 1262 from Count Henry V of Luxembourg. In 1443, Bitburg came under the sway of the Duchy of Burgundy in 1506 was acquired by the Austrian Netherlands, which controlled most of modern Belgium.
In 1794 the city came under French administration, in 1798 became part of the newly created Département des Forêts. This led to a short lived economic upturn, Bitburg received among other things a court and a land registry. In 1815, under agreements at the Congress of Vienna following the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, Bitburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Prussia, where until 1822 it belonged administratively to the province of Lower Rhine, afterwards to the Rhine province. With the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance in 1871, Bitburg became part of the German Empire, after World War I the Weimar Republic of Germany. In the interwar years, like most of the Eifel region, was impoverished and comparatively backward. Economic growth began after the Nazi Seizure of Power and the Nazi regime's introduction of employment-boosting public works projects, including infrastructure for war the Westwall, it is said that the building now used as the post office at Bitburg Annex was the headquarters for Adolf Hitler when he was in the city.
In late December 1944, Bitburg was 85 percent destroyed by Allied bombing attacks, officially designated by the U. S. military as a "dead city." Subsequently, the town was occupied by Luxembourg soldiers, who were replaced by French forces in 1955. In 1952 a North Atlantic Treaty Organization base was opened at Bitburg by the U. S. Air Force. At the end of the 1980s, French troops were withdrawn and NATO took over the former French barracks. After the First Gulf War most of the USAF forces were moved to the larger Spangdahlem Air Base, about 12 km east of Bitburg. In 1994, NATO turned the Bitburg Air Base over to the city, which devoted it to public works projects; the Kyll Valley railway was abandoned in the early 21st century, part of it was converted into a bicycle path. In 1985, Bitburg came to international attention due to a ceremonial visit by U. S. President Ronald Reagan and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to the nearby Kolmeshöhe Military Cemetery – which among its 2,000 graves included those of 49 members of the Waffen-SS.
The most known Bitburg enterprise, landmark of the city, is the Bitburger brewery. Its Pilsener-style lager beer ranks No. 3 among Germany's best selling beers, with sales of 3.86 million hectolitres. In 1995, the former NATO base was designated the Bitburg Airfield Trade Area, providing commercial development district where 180 enterprises have established themselves. Bitburg-Erdorf station is part of the Eifel line. Trains that pass through include: The Eifel Mosel express - Cologne, Gerolstein, Trier; the Eifel line - Gerolstein, Trier. The Regional Museum of Bitburg-Prüm is housed in a former agricultural school It contains numerous artifacts of the history of Bitburg and the Eifel Region in general. In the cultural center Haus Beda are exhibited works of the Düsseldorf painter Fritz von Wille, the Eifel's most known artist. More than 100 paintings are on display, including Die blaue Blume, Burg Reifferscheid im Winter and Ein klarer Tag. Bitburg is partnered or twinned with: Arlon, Belgium since 1965 Bad Köstritz, Germany since 1992 Diekirch, Luxembourg since 1962 Rethel, France since 1965 Shelbyville, Kentucky since 1962 Charles-Mathias Simons, Luxembourg jurist and politician Jean-Marc Barr, French actor, director and screenwriter Martin Lejeune, jazz musician Sven Voigt, military aviator The Eighties Club: Bitburg
Joscha Remus is a German author. Remus comes from a bukovinish-Moselle Franconian family, he studied biology and philosophy in Trier and Berlin. After traveling abroad and working on a medical journal, he trained in Berlin and London where he worked as a children's physiotherapist developing methods of "motor intelligence". In the nineties Joscha Remus began publishing books, travel guides, prose, it was during a training program for sound engineering at Thorolf Dormer in Berlin that he decided to create a travel audio book series. Since 2006 he has traveled extensively and written and produced several books in an Audio Travel Feature format for the Headroom publishing company in Cologne. In 2010 his series of travel audio books won the German Book Award. In addition to his work as an author, Joscha Remus works as a travel journalist. In 2007 he founded the first Knowledge Cafe in Germany at the Stuttgart Mediothek. Joscha Remus lives "on travel" with resting-points in Berlin and Istanbul - and Australia and New Zealand.
Books Der Lichtertanz am Mauerpark. Lesereise Berlin. Vienna: Picus, 2013 Gebrauchsanweisung Neuseeland.. Munich, Piper 2012 Der Sternenwind am Bosporus.. Vienna: Picus, 2010 Der Kuss der langen weissen Wolke.. Vienna: Picus, 2009 Kulturschock Rumänien.. Bielefeld: Travel Know-how, 2006 Der sanfte Flug der schwarzen Damen.. Romanian Rhapsodies. Vienna: Picus, 2008 Infonautik – Wege durch den Wissensdschungel.. Offenbach: Gabal, 2005 Rumänien und Republik Moldau.. Bielefeld: Reise Know-How, 2010, 3rd updated edition Lëtzebuergesch. 2005, 3rd updated edition City Trip Luxemburg. Bielefeld: Travel Know-how, 2010 City Trip Trier. Bielefeld: Travel Know-how, 2012Children's books Berlin – Guide for Children. Vienna: Picus, 2009Audio Books Die Maori. Science Feature, Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2012 Morocco. Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2008 Shanghai. Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2008 Ireland. Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2009 San Francisco. Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2009 Istanbul.
Cologne: Headroom Sound Production, 2010Short stories The transformation of Sap. In: Iwwer borders, over frontiers Sans Frontières. Luxemburg: Editions Guy Binsfeld, 2007Newspaper articles In the Junk Shop of the Imagination. ZEIT WISSEN, Nr. 2, 2005 Braces are Intelligent. ZEIT WISSEN, Nr. 2, 2005 Stanislaw Lem. Visionary without illusions. DIE ZEIT, Nr. 31 2005 2008: Prize of the Romanian Cultural Institute, Bucharest 2009: German Audio Book Award 2010: German Audio Book Award The information found on this page is the English version of the original German language version found here. Literature by and about Joscha Remus in the catalog of the German National Library Homepage Knowledge Café Romanian Photo Album
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea