Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs: their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs. In the case of oral languages, phonetics has three basic areas of study: Articulatory phonetics: the study of the organs of speech and their use in producing speech sounds by the speaker. Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener. Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener; the first known phonetic studies were carried out as early as the 6th century BCE by Sanskrit grammarians. The Hindu scholar Pāṇini is among the most well known of these early investigators, whose four part grammar, written around 350 BCE, is influential in modern linguistics and still represents "the most complete generative grammar of any language yet written".
His grammar formed the basis of modern linguistics and described a number of important phonetic principles. Pāṇini provided an account of the phonetics of voicing, describing resonance as being produced either by tone, when vocal folds are closed, or noise, when vocal folds are open; the phonetic principles in the grammar are considered "primitives" in that they are the basis for his theoretical analysis rather than the objects of theoretical analysis themselves, the principles can be inferred from his system of phonology. Advancements in phonetics after Pāṇini and his contemporaries were limited until the modern era, save some limited investigations by Greek and Roman grammarians. In the millenia between Indic grammarians and modern phonetics the focus of phonetics shifted from the difference between spoken and written language, the driving force behind Pāṇini's account, began to focus on the physical properties of speech alone. Sustained interest in phonetics began again around 1800 CE with the term "phonetics" being first used in the present sense in 1841.
With new developments in medicine and the development of audio and visual recording devices, phonetic insights were able to use and review new and more detailed data. This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell. Known as visible speech, it gained prominency as a tool in the oral education of deaf children. Speech sounds are produced by the modification of an airstream exhaled from the lungs; the respiratory organs used to create and modify airflow are divided into three regions: the vocal tract, the larynx, the subglottal system. The airstream can be either ingressive. In pulmonic sounds, the airstream is produced by the lungs in the subglottal system and passes through the larynx and vocal tract. Glottalic sounds use. Clicks or lingual ingressive sounds create an airstream using the tongue. Articulations take place in particular parts of the mouth, they are described by the part of the mouth that constricts airflow and by what part of the mouth that constriction occurs.
In most languages constrictions are made with tongue. Constrictions made by the lips are called labials; the tongue can make constrictions with many different parts, broadly classified into coronal and dorsal places of articulation. Coronal articulations are made with either the tip or blade of the tongue, while dorsal articulations are made with the back of the tongue; these divisions are not sufficient for describing all speech sounds. For example, in English the sounds and are both voiceless coronal fricatives, but they are produced in different places of the mouth. Additionally, that difference in place can result in a difference of meaning like in "sack" and "shack". To account for this, articulations are further divided based upon the area of the mouth in which the constriction occurs. Articulations involving the lips can be made in three different ways: with both lips, with one lip and the teeth, with the tongue and the upper lip. Depending on the definition used, some or all of these kinds of articulations may be categorized into the class of labial articulations.
Ladefoged and Maddieson propose that linguolabial articulations be considered coronals rather than labials, but make clear this grouping, like all groupings of articulations, is equivocable and not cleanly divided. Linguolabials are included in this section as labials given their use of the lips as a place of articulation. Bilabial consonants are made with both lips. In producing these sounds the lower lip moves farthest to meet the upper lip, which moves down though in some cases the force from air moving through the aperature may cause the lips to separate faster than they can come together. Unlike most other articulations, both articulators are made from soft tissue, so bilabial stops are more to be produced with incomplete closures than articulations involving hard surfaces like the teeth or palate. Bilabial stops are unusual in that an articulator in the upper section of the vocal tract moves downwards, as the upper lip shows some active downward movement. Labiodental consonants are made by the lower lip rising to the upper teeth.
Labiodental consonants are most fricatives while labiodental nasals are typologically common. There is debate as to
American and British English spelling differences
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once used in the United States. A "British standard" began to emerge following the 1755 publication of Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, an "American standard" started following the work of Noah Webster and in particular his An American Dictionary of the English Language, first published in 1828. Webster's efforts at spelling reform were somewhat effective in his native country, resulting in certain well-known patterns of spelling differences between the American and British varieties of English. However, English-language spelling reform has been adopted otherwise, so modern English orthography varies somewhat between countries and is far from phonemic in any country. In the early 18th century, English spelling was inconsistent.
These differences became noticeable after the publishing of influential dictionaries. Today's British English spellings follow Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, while many American English spellings follow Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language. Webster was a proponent of English spelling reform for reasons both nationalistic. In A Companion to the American Revolution, John Algeo notes: "it is assumed that characteristically American spellings were invented by Noah Webster, he was influential in popularizing certain spellings in America, but he did not originate them. Rather he chose existing options such as center and check for the simplicity, analogy or etymology". William Shakespeare's first folios, for example, used spellings like center and color as much as centre and colour. Webster did attempt to introduce some reformed spellings, as did the Simplified Spelling Board in the early 20th century, but most were not adopted. In Britain, the influence of those who preferred the Norman spellings of words proved to be decisive.
Spelling adjustments in the United Kingdom had little effect on today's American spellings and vice versa. For the most part, the spelling systems of most Commonwealth countries and Ireland resemble the British system. In Canada, the spelling system can be said to follow both British and American forms, Canadians are somewhat more tolerant of foreign spellings when compared with other English-speaking nationalities. Australian spelling has strayed from British spelling, with some American spellings incorporated as standard. New Zealand spelling is identical to British spelling, except in the word fiord. There is an increasing use of macrons in words that originated in Māori and an unambiguous preference for -ise endings. Most words ending in an unstressed -our in British English end in -or in American English. Wherever the vowel is unreduced in pronunciation, e.g. contour, velour and troubadour the spelling is consistent everywhere. Most words of this kind came from Latin, they were first adopted into English from early Old French, the ending was spelled -or or -ur.
After the Norman conquest of England, the ending became -our to match the Old French spelling. The -our ending was not only used in new English borrowings, but was applied to the earlier borrowings that had used -or. However, -or was still sometimes found, the first three folios of Shakespeare's plays used both spellings before they were standardised to -our in the Fourth Folio of 1685. After the Renaissance, new borrowings from Latin were taken up with their original -or ending and many words once ending in -our went back to -or. Many words of the -our/or group do not have a Latin counterpart; some 16th- and early 17th-century British scholars indeed insisted that -or be used for words from Latin and -our for French loans. Webster's 1828 dictionary had only -or and is given much of the credit for the adoption of this form in the United States. By contrast, Johnson's 1755 dictionary used -our for all words still so spelled in Britain, but for words where the u has since been dropped: ambassadour, governour, inferiour, superiour.
Johnson, unlike Webster, was not an advocate of spelling reform, but chose the spelling best derived, as he saw it, from among the variations in his sources. He preferred French over Latin spellings because, as he put it, "the French supplied us". English speakers who moved to America took these preferences with them, H. L. Mencken notes that "honor appears in the 1776 Declaration of Independence, but it seems to have got there rather by accident than by design. In Jefferson's original draft it is spelled "honour". In Britain, examples of color, behavior and neighbor appear in Old Bailey court records from the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas there are thousands of examples of their -our counterparts. One notable exception is honor. Honor and honour were frequent in Br
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard; the QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873, it became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, remains in widespread use. The QWERTY layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Kenosha, Wisconsin. In October 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his early writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soulé; the first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as shown below: The construction of the "Type Writer" had two flaws that made the product susceptible to jams. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or type bars, which would clash and jam if neighbouring arms were pressed at the same time or in rapid succession.
Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Jams were serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed; the solution was to place used letter-pairs so that their type bars were not neighbouring, avoiding jams. Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement; the study of bigram frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the array of letters, but the contribution was called into question. Others suggest instead. In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left. In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowel letters, A, E, I, O, U, Y, to the upper row as follows: In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons.
The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was presented: After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that this change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER QUOTE" from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated. Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL; the modern layout is: The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key. The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's 1878 patent is different from the modern layout, most notably in the absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each of the remaining numerals shifted one position to the left of their modern counterparts.
The letter M is located at the end of the third row to the right of the letter L rather than on the fourth row to the right of the N, the letters X and C are reversed, most punctuation marks are in different positions or are missing entirely. 0 and 1 were omitted to reduce the manufacturing and maintenance costs. Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I for the digit one, the uppercase O for the zero. In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on modern keyboards, could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace, a period. A semicolon was produced by printing a comma over a colon; as the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters, a more professional approach was to block the carriage by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position.
To make this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar. The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the 1970s. There were no particular technological requirements for the QWERTY layout, since at the time there were ways to make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised. Not only were there rival machines with "down-stroke" and "frontstroke" positions that gave a visible printing point, the problem of typebar clashes could be circumvented completely: examples include Thomas Edison's 1872 electric print-wheel device which became the basis for Teletype machines; the early Blickensderfer's "Ideal" keyboard was non-QWERTY, instead having the sequence "DHIATENSOR" in the home row
Web search engine
A web search engine or Internet search engine is a software system, designed to carry out web search, which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a web search query. The search results are presented in a line of results referred to as search engine results pages; the information may be a mix of web pages, videos, articles, research papers and other types of files. Some search engines mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler. Internet content, not capable of being searched by a web search engine is described as the deep web. Internet search engines themselves predate the debut of the Web in December 1990; the Who is user search dates back to 1982 and the Knowbot Information Service multi-network user search was first implemented in 1989. The first well documented search engine that searched content files, namely FTP files was Archie, which debuted on 10 September 1990.
Prior to September 1993, the World Wide Web was indexed by hand. There was a list of webservers hosted on the CERN webserver. One snapshot of the list in 1992 remains, but as more and more web servers went online the central list could no longer keep up. On the NCSA site, new servers were announced under the title "What's New!"The first tool used for searching content on the Internet was Archie. The name stands for "archive" without the "v", it was created by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP sites, creating a searchable database of file names. The rise of Gopher led to two new search programs and Jughead. Like Archie, they searched the file titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica provided a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead was a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers.
While the name of the search engine "Archie Search Engine" was not a reference to the Archie comic book series, "Veronica" and "Jughead" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor. In the summer of 1993, no search engine existed for the web, though numerous specialized catalogues were maintained by hand. Oscar Nierstrasz at the University of Geneva wrote a series of Perl scripts that periodically mirrored these pages and rewrote them into a standard format; this formed the basis for W3Catalog, the web's first primitive search engine, released on September 2, 1993. In June 1993, Matthew Gray at MIT, produced what was the first web robot, the Perl-based World Wide Web Wanderer, used it to generate an index called'Wandex'; the purpose of the Wanderer was to measure the size of the World Wide Web, which it did until late 1995. The web's second search engine Aliweb appeared in November 1993. Aliweb did not use a web robot, but instead depended on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format.
JumpStation used a web robot to find web pages and to build its index, used a web form as the interface to its query program. It was thus the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine as described below; because of the limited resources available on the platform it ran on, its indexing and hence searching were limited to the titles and headings found in the web pages the crawler encountered. One of the first "all text" crawler-based search engines was WebCrawler, which came out in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it allowed users to search for any word in any webpage, which has become the standard for all major search engines since, it was the search engine, known by the public. In 1994, Lycos was launched and became a major commercial endeavor. Soon after, many search engines vied for popularity; these included Magellan, Infoseek, Northern Light, AltaVista. Yahoo! was among the most popular ways for people to find web pages of interest, but its search function operated on its web directory, rather than its full-text copies of web pages.
Information seekers could browse the directory instead of doing a keyword-based search. In 1996, Netscape was looking to give a single search engine an exclusive deal as the featured search engine on Netscape's web browser. There was so much interest that instead Netscape struck deals with five of the major search engines: for $5 million a year, each search engine would be in rotation on the Netscape search engine page; the five engines were Yahoo!, Lycos and Excite. Google adopted the idea of selling search terms in 1998, from a small search engine company named goto.com. This move had a significant effect on the SE business, which went from struggling to one of the most profitable businesses in the Internet. Search engines were known as some of the brightest stars in the Internet investing frenzy that occurred in the late 1990s. Several
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme that consists of more than one stem. Compounding, composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes; that is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words or signs are joined to make one longer word or sign. The meaning of the compound may be similar to or different from the meaning of its components in isolation; the component stems of a compound may be of the same part of speech—as in the case of the English word footpath, composed of the two nouns foot and path—or they may belong to different parts of speech, as in the case of the English word blackbird, composed of the adjective black and the noun bird. With few exceptions, English compound words are stressed on their first component stem; the process occurs in other Germanic languages for different reasons. Words can be concatenated both to mean the same as the sum of two words or where an adjective and noun are compounded; the addition of affix morphemes to words should not be confused with nominal composition, as this is morphological derivation.
Some languages form compounds from what in other languages would be a multi-word expression. This can result in unusually long words, a phenomenon known in German as Bandwurmwörter or tapeworm words. Sign languages have compounds, they are created by combining two or more sign stems. Compound formation rules vary across language types. In a synthetic language, the relationship between the elements of a compound may be marked with a case or other morpheme. For example, the German compound Kapitänspatent consists of the lexemes Kapitän and Patent joined by an -s-. Conversely, in the Hebrew language compound, the word בֵּית סֵפֶר bet sefer, it is the head, modified: the compound means "house-of book", with בַּיִת bayit having entered the construct state to become בֵּית bet; this latter pattern is common throughout the Semitic languages, though in some it is combined with an explicit genitive case, so that both parts of the compound are marked. Agglutinative languages tend to create long words with derivational morphemes.
Compounds may not require the use of derivational morphemes also. The longest compounds in the world may be found in the Germanic languages. In German extendable compound words can be found in the language of chemical compounds, where, in the cases of biochemistry and polymers, they can be unlimited in length because the German rule suggests combining all noun adjuncts with the noun as the last stem. German examples include Farbfernsehgerät, Funkfernbedienung, the quoted jocular word Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmütze, which can of course be made longer and more absurd, e.g. Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmützenreinigungsausschreibungsverordnungsdiskussionsanfang etc. According to several editions of the Guinness Book of World Records, the longest published German word has 79 letters and is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft, but there is no evidence that this association actually existed. In Finnish, although there is theoretically no limit to the length of compound words, words consisting of more than three components are rare.
Those with less than three components can look mysterious to non-Finnish speakers, such as hätäuloskäynti. Internet folklore sometimes suggests that lentokonesuihkuturbiinimoottoriapumekaanikkoaliupseerioppilas is the longest word in Finnish, but evidence of it being used is scant and anecdotal at best. Compounds can be rather long when translating technical documents from English to some other language, since the lengths of the words are theoretically unlimited in chemical terminology. For example, when translating an English technical document to Swedish, the term "Motion estimation search range settings" can be directly translated to rörelseuppskattningssökintervallsinställningar, though in reality, the word would most be divided in two: sökintervallsinställningar för rörelseuppskattning – "search range settings for motion estimation". A common semantic classification of compounds yields four types: endocentric exocentric copulative appositionalAn endocentric compound consists of a head, i.e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, modifiers, which restrict this meaning.
For example, the English compound doghouse, where house is the head and dog is the modifier, is understood as a house intended for a dog. Endocentric compounds tend to be of the same part of speech as their head, as in the case of doghouse. An exocentric compound is a hyponym of some unexpressed semantic category (such as a person, plant, or anima
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages arranged alphabetically, which may include information on definitions, etymologies, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference. A broad distinction is made between specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological, mapping word to definition, while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological, first identifying concepts and establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types.
There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms, rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary is understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary. There is a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries. Stylistic indications in many modern dictionaries are considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive. Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times, the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th-century enterprise, called lexicography, initiated by Ladislav Zgusta; the birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of "astonishing" lack of method and critical-self reflection. The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla and dated 2300 BCE.
The early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary. Philitas of Cos wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other literary words, words from local dialects, technical terms. Apollonius the Sophist wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon; the first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha c. 4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words. According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters; the oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c. 835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was a glossary of written Chinese. In Frahang-i Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet. A 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words.
In India around 1320, Amir Khusro compiled the Khaliq-e-bari which dealt with Hindustani and Persian words. Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order, by alphabetical order of the radicals, or according to the alphabetical order of the first letter; the modern system was used in specialist dictionaries, such as those of terms from the Qur'an and hadith, while most general use dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-`Arab and al-Qamus al-Muhit listed words in the alphabetical order of the radicals. The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary. In medieval Europe, glossaries with equivalents for Latin words in vernacular or simpler Latin were in use; the Catholicon by Johannes Balbus, a large grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, was adopted. It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books to be printed.
In 1502 Ambrogio Calepino's Dictionarium was published a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary. In 1532 Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae latinae and in 1572 his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae graecae, which served up to the 19th century as the basis of Greek lexicography; the first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias' Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain. In 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, for Italian, was published, it served as the model for similar works in English. In 1690 in Rotterdam was published, the Dictionnaire Universel by