John David Eaton
For other people named John Eaton, see John Eaton. John David Eaton was a member of the prominent Eaton family, he was the second son of Sir John Craig Lady Eaton of Toronto, Ontario. John David's grandfather was Timothy Eaton, founder of the now-defunct T. Eaton Company department stores. John David's father, Sir John, took on the role of president of the company when the founder died in 1907. John David grew up in Toronto on a large estate overlooking the city; the home was called Ardwold. His mother, Lady Eaton, hosted many major functions at Ardwold. Sir John died of pneumonia in 1922 at the age of 45. Since none of his children were old enough to take over the company at his death, Sir John's cousin, Robert Young Eaton, took over the presidency, a position which Lady Eaton would groom her own son for over the next 10 years. Since Sir John had two sons who could have taken over the family business, Timothy Craig and John David, a codicil had been put in his will that a'contest' would determine which of the two boys would get the company.
Timothy was sent to the Winnipeg store and John went to Montreal. They ran their individual stores for one year, at which time a determination was made as to who had done the better job; the clear winner was John David. Timothy was given a sum of money C$2 million, as compensation for not getting the presidency and control of the company, he was given a life-long store credit of 10% on purchases. Timothy moved to England and became a bon vivant with the horses and hounds in Newmarket, prior to World War II, he loaned it out to others who never paid him back. He kept a small black book with the loans in it for the rest of his life, he was called into the Eaton's export headquarters in London and was read the'riot act'. He was going broke, his inheritance was running out, he was put on a short leash and sent back to Canada, where he married his first wife, an Eaton's saleswoman. He was given a strict yearly pay-out, his inheritance returned to its former amount through company-administered investments.
The saleswoman divorced he married his second wife, Georgina. They moved to Ontario, on Yonge St. N. across from St. Andrews College. Georgie died of cancer, Timothy moved once again to England and married for the third time, he had no children. He died in 1986 and is buried in the Eaton family's mausoleum in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, with his parents and siblings. John David was 33, he predeceased his brother Timothy in 1973. Control of the company went to John David's sons, who ran it until it closed in 1999. Eaton's article at Historica:The Canadian Encyclopedia
Ivor Rhys Lewis was a Canadian artist and business director. Lewis emigrated to Canada as a small boy, he trained as an artist at the Ontario School of Art, was hired in the art department of the Eaton's department store chain in Toronto. In 1919, he was commissioned by his fellow Eaton's employees to create the noted life-size statue of Timothy Eaton, presented to the Eaton family in honour of the store's 50th anniversary. Lewis was an accomplished painter, he was known for creating the medallions on the Dr. William D. Young Memorial in Toronto's Kew Gardens. Along with C. W. Jefferys and other artists, Lewis co-founded the Graphic Arts Club, which by the 1940s became the primary artists' group in Canada, he was a noted actor and singer, participated in Toronto's theatre scene. Ivor Lewis was a prominent member of the Eaton's management team, serving as both Supervisor of Publicity and Public Relations and Staff Superintendent, he held the latter position until 1950. He was made a director of the T.
Eaton Co. Limited in 1942. Ivor Lewis died in 1958
John Craig Eaton
Sir John Craig Eaton was a Canadian businessman and a member of the prominent Eaton family. He was born in Toronto, the youngest son of department store magnate Timothy Eaton and his wife, Margaret Wilson Beattie, he married Flora McCrea in 1901, they had six children: Timothy Craig, John David, Edgar Allison, Gilbert McCrea, Florence Mary, Evlyn. Upon the death of his father in 1907, he inherited five million dollars and the T. Eaton Company, he became its president at this time, the company flourished under his control. He influenced the company and expanded the stores nationally, he built Ardwold, an enormous residence of 50 rooms in Toronto, beginning in 1909 and finishing in 1911. He acquired a resort home from his mother in Oakville, called the Raymar Estate. In 1915, Eaton was made a Knight Bachelor in recognition of his participation in the war effort, he thus became Sir John Craig Eaton, his wife was known as Lady Eaton. He was a noted philanthropist, his most lavish public contribution was the gift, made together with his mother, of land and funds for a large Methodist church on St Clair Avenue in Toronto.
Named Timothy Eaton Memorial Church after his father, it was constructed in 1912–14. He made many donations to Omemee, the home town of his wife Flora; these donations included Coronation Hall, the manse and organ for Trinity United Church. He died of pneumonia following influenza in 1922 at the age of 45, his cousin Robert Young Eaton became president of the company until Sir John's son, John David Eaton, reached an appropriate age to take over. Sir John's grandson, John Craig Eaton II, served as chairman of Eaton's in its years. Eatonia, Saskatchewan Santink, Joy L.. "Eaton, John Craig". In Cook, Ramsay. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV. University of Toronto Press. John Craig Eaton and Flora McCrea Eaton fonds, Archives of Ontario
The Bay Centre the Victoria Eaton Centre, is a shopping mall in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. It is bounded by Douglas, Government and View streets, in the city's historic centre, it has 39,115 square metres of retail space. Opening in 1989, the mall was the first large shopping mall in Victoria's city centre, it occupies two city blocks of the Old Town area, including the site of the original downtown Eaton's store at 1150 Douglas Street. Eaton's was demolished in 1987 -- 88; the development of the shopping centre was the subject of controversy, as construction involved demolishing several historic buildings and closing one block of Broad Street. The centre was a partnership between Eaton's and Cadillac Fairview; when Eaton's went bankrupt in 1999, the Eaton's store in this mall was occupied first by Sears Canada, by The Bay, for which the mall was renamed. In 2010, Cadillac Fairview sold the complex to LaSalle Investment Management for an undisclosed price in the range of $90 million to $110 million, among the largest real estate transactions in the city's history.
Hudson's Bay Passport Canada Sport Chek A list of current and former Eaton Centre malls in Canada List of shopping malls in Canada The Bay Centre Architectural artifacts An historical overview of the location
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
Timothy Eaton was an Irish businessman who founded the Eaton's department store, one of the most important retail businesses in Canada's history. He was born in County Antrim, Ireland, his parents were John Eaton and Margaret Craig. As a 20-year-old Irish apprentice shopkeeper, Timothy Eaton sailed from Ireland to settle with other family members in southern Ontario, Canada. On 28 May 1862, Eaton married Margaret Wilson Beattie, they had three daughters. Among the sons were John Craig Eaton and Edward Young Eaton. One of the daughters, Josephine Smyth Eaton, survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania off the Irish coast in 1915, his granddaughter, Iris Burnside, was lost in that sinking. In 1854, he worked for a short time in a haberdashery store in Ontario, his sister married William Reid. In 1865, with the help of his brothers and James, Timothy Eaton set up a bakery business in the town of Kirkton, which went under after only a few months. Undaunted, he opened a dry goods store in Ontario. In 1869, Eaton purchased an existing dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in Toronto.
In promoting his new business, Eaton embraced two retail practices that were ground-breaking at the time: first, all goods had one price with no credit given, second, all purchases came with a money-back guarantee. Starting in 1884, Eaton introduced Canada to the wonders of the mail-order catalogue, reaching thousands of small towns and rural communities with an array of products unattainable. In these tiny communities, the arrival of Eaton's catalogue was a major event. More than clothing, furniture, or the latest in kitchen gadgetry, the catalogue offered such practical items as milking machines, in addition to just about every other contraption or new invention desirable. And, when rendered obsolete by the new season's catalogue, it served another important use in the outdoor privy of most every rural home. Eaton spawned a colossal retail empire that his offspring would expand coast to coast, reaching its high point during World War II, when the T. Eaton Co. Limited employed more than 70,000 people.
Although Eaton did not invent the department store, nor was he the first retailer in the world to implement a money-back guarantee, the chain he founded popularized both concepts and revolutionized retailing in Canada. Eaton died of pneumonia on 31 January 1907, is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, he was succeeded by John Craig Eaton. In 1919, two life-sized statues of Timothy Eaton were donated by the Eaton's employees to the Toronto and Winnipeg stores in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the company. For years, it was tradition for customers in both Toronto and Winnipeg to rub the toe of the statue for good luck; the Toronto statue is now housed by the Royal Ontario Museum, the Winnipeg statue sits in the city's new arena, Bell MTS Place, in exactly the same spot where it stood in the now demolished Eaton's store. Museum-goers in Toronto and hockey fans in Winnipeg continue to rub Timothy Eaton's toe for luck, his grandson was flying ace Henry John Burden. In 1985, his great-great granddaughter, Nancy Eaton, was murdered by a childhood friend, found not guilty by reason of insanity.
Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, in Toronto, was erected in 1914. The town of Eatonia, Saskatchewan was named after Timothy Eaton; the ground of Ballymena RFC the sports grounds of the Mid-Antrim Sports Association, is called Eaton Park. A school in Scarborough, Timothy Eaton Business and Technical Institute, was named after him, it opened in 1971 for classes and closed its doors permanently in 2009. Robert Simpson John Wanamaker Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Media related to Timothy Eaton at Wikimedia Commons
The Carlu is an historic event space in Toronto, Canada. Opened in 1930 and known as the eponymous "Eaton's Seventh Floor", the venue was restored and reopened in 2003, renamed for its original architect; the Carlu is one of Toronto's best examples of Art Moderne architecture. The venue is owned by restaurant firm Bonacini. In 1930, the Eaton's department store chain, at the time Canada's dominant retailer, opened "Eaton's College Street", an imposing Art Deco store at the intersection of Yonge Street and College Street; the matriarch of the Eaton family, Lady Eaton, was a member of Eaton's board of directors, the Eaton's restaurants were one of her responsibilities. She retained the noted French architect Jacques Carlu to design the seventh floor of the edifice, to contain the 1300-seat Eaton Auditorium, the Round Room restaurant, lounges and a private dining room. All of the facilities were to be connected by a long foyer, designed in the style of the ocean liners of the day. Between 1931 and 1965, the theatre was home to the Eaton Operatic Society.
The newly opened Auditorium was used for radio broadcasts on CKGW during holidays and special events. During Christmastime, one could hear the Cassavant organ being played by Frederick C. Silvester or a May Day organ recital by Harold Frost, it played motion pictures accompanied by organ music, for example showing Snow White in April 1931 with organ music by Kathleen Stokes. With the opening of the Toronto Eaton Centre in 1977, Eaton's College Street was closed to make way for the new Eaton's flagship store at Yonge Street and Dundas Street; the store was sold to new owners, was rechristened College Park. Although the new owners had agreed to preserve the Seventh Floor, they determined that its preservation and restoration was not financially feasible, they applied for a demolition permit to convert the entire floor to office space. After a lengthy court battle with the City of Toronto, the Court of Appeal for Ontario ruled in 1986 that the 1975 designation of the building under the Ontario Heritage Act protected the Seventh Floor from demolition.
Despite several changes in building ownership, the efforts of local heritage advocates, the Seventh Floor was sealed off for 27 years and allowed to deteriorate. The Seventh Floor was restored, after years of neglect, was reopened in 2003 to much acclaim as "The Carlu" event venue; the restoration process began in 2001 with no tenant. But that year, new tenants Jeffry Roick and Mark Robert came into the picture with an increased budget. Scott Weir of ERA Architects and Hadi Khouzam of WZMH Architects led the restoration of the space; the raked floors were removed from the auditorium to return the space's original movable seating. Other modifications had to be made to the auditorium so that modern acoustical equipment could be used; the original Lalique fountain, which had long been believed lost, was restored to its place at the centre of the Round Room. The large kitchen in the Carlu was replaced with two smaller ones in different areas of the seventh floor; this made room for a new entertainment space to be added, the Sky Room.
The venue's new name was chosen to honour the architect that had designed the space. Upgrades were needed in the HVAC system; these updates were done without removing the original vents from the space. In 2008, The Clipper Rooms were renovated by HGTV designer Sarah Richardson. Today, the space acts as a special events venue. Concerts, galas, fashion shows and the presentation of the annual Polaris Music Prize are among the events that take place at the Carlu. Itself an Art Moderne masterpiece, the Eaton's Seventh Floor was at the heart of Toronto's cultural life for many years; the Auditorium played host to the major performers of its day, including Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington and Frank Sinatra. The first performance of the National Ballet of Canada was on the stage of the Eaton Auditorium. Canada's own Glenn Gould, fond of the Auditorium's excellent acoustics, used the hall for a number of his recordings; the Round Room was, as the name suggests, a circular room, with circular mouldings in the domed ceiling and recessed alcoves in the corners.
At the centre of the room stood a Lalique fountain, lit from below. Carlu was responsible for all aspects of the dining room's design, from the lighting fixtures to the Royal Worcester china, the stemware, the waitresses' black uniforms. Carlu's wife, designed the murals on the walls, depicting various scenes of pastoral life. For years, the Round Room was one of the most elegant places to dine in Toronto. Inside of the Carlu, monel, a steel-nickel alloy, was used for many accents; the monel can be found in the light fixtures, vents and the fountain. It helps to play up the sleek lines in the Art Moderne style. Marble paneling was used at both ends of the foyer; the colour palette for the Carlu was spread throughout most of the floor. The entire building at 444 Yonge St. is designated under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act since 1975. The City holds a Heritage Easement Agreement, registered on January 10, 2012 as Instrument #: AT2915699, on the property; the venue itself is listed as a National Historic Site of Canada since 1983.
Eaton's Ninth Floor Restaurant in Montreal Anderson and Mallinson, Lunch With Lady Eaton: Inside the Dining Rooms of a Nation, Toronto: ECW Press, 2004. Official website City of Toronto Archives - The Eaton News