Charles Gore was the Bishop of Oxford. He was one of the most influential Anglican theologians of the 19th century, helping reconcile the church to some aspects of biblical criticism and scientific discovery, while remaining Catholic in his interpretation of the faith and sacraments. Known for his social action, Gore became an Anglican bishop and founded the monastic Community of the Resurrection as well as co-founded the Christian Social Union, he was the chaplain to Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. Charles Gore was born on 22 January 1853 into an Anglo-Irish aristocratic family as the third son of Hon. Charles Alexander Gore, son of Arthur Gore, 2nd Earl of Arran, Lady Augusta Lavinia Priscilla, a daughter of John William Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough, his brother Spencer was the first winner of the Wimbledon Championships. Gore was raised in a low-church Anglican family and was confirmed by the church at the age of eight years, he was attracted to the high-church sacramental tradition and ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism at a young age writing "I have since my childhood been what I may call a Catholic by mental constitution".
Around the age of nine years, he read Grace Kennedy's anti-Catholic novel Father Clement. The book served as his introduction to the high-church tradition and, instead of having his Protestantism reinforced as the author had intended, he found himself entranced by the Catholic tradition, he would write of it: I had been brought up in ordinary old-fashioned English Church ways. I had only attended Low Church services. I had never heard of the Oxford Movement. I knew nothing except as a strange superstition called Popery, but the book described confession and absolution, the Real Presence, the devotion of the Three Hours, the use of incense, etc. and I felt instinctively, at once, that this sort of sacramental religion was the religion for me. In his evidence given before the Ecclesiastical Discipline Commission in 1905 he said: I was what people call a ritualist from the time I was a boy, I have been more interested I suppose in this subject through all the time of my growing up into manhood than in any other...
I love, as I hardly love anything in the world physically, except the beauties of nature, that type and kind of ceremonial worship, called ritualistic by many people and Catholic by its maintainers. It appears to me to be the one kind of ceremonial worship which expresses my feelings, in which I feel at home. In his adolescence, he began attending churches "that offered a richer sacramental ceremonial."Gore's parents sent him to Harrow School, London, in 1866, where he excelled academically. He went to Balliol College, Oxford, in 1871, where he supported the trade-union movement, he graduated from Oxford in 1875 with a first-class degree in literae humaniores. In 1875, Gore was elected a fellow of Trinity College, he lectured there from 1876 to 1880. Gore was ordained to the Anglican diaconate in December 1876 and to the priesthood in December 1878. From 1880 to 1883, he served as vice-principal of Cuddesdon Theological College, he received Honorary Doctor of Divinity from various universities, including University of Athens, University of Birmingham, University of Oxford, Durham University, University of Edinburgh.
When, in 1884, Pusey House was founded at Oxford, in part as a memorial to Edward Bouverie Pusey, as a home for Pusey's library, Gore was appointed as principal, a position he held until 1893. As Principal of Pusey House, he exercised wide influence over undergraduates and the younger clergy and it was under this influence that the Oxford Movement underwent a change which to surviving Tractarians seemed to involve a break with its basic principles. Puseyism had been in the highest degree conservative, basing itself on authority and tradition and repudiating compromise with the modern critical and liberalising spirit. Gore, starting from the same basis of faith and authority, found from experience in dealing with the doubts and difficulties of the younger generation that this uncompromising attitude was untenable and set himself the task of reconciling the principle of authority in religion with that of scientific authority, by attempting to define the boundaries of their respective spheres of influence.
To him the divine authority of the Catholic Church was an axiom. In 1889, he published two works, the larger of which, The Church and the Ministry, is a learned vindication of the principle of apostolic succession in the episcopate against the Presbyterians and other Reformed church bodies, while the second, Roman Catholic Claims, is a defence, in more popular form, of Anglicanism and Anglican ordinations and sacraments against the criticisms of Roman Catholic authorities. So far Gore's published views had been in consonance with those of the older Tractarians, but in 1890 a stir was created by the publication, under his editorship, of Lux Mundi, a series of essays by different writers attempting to bring the Christian creed into a harmonious relation to the modern growth of knowledge, historic, to modern problems of politics and ethics. Gore himself contributed an essay on "The Holy Spirit and Inspiration" and, from the tenth edition, one of Gore's sermons, "On the Christian Doctrine of Sin", was included as an appendix.
The book, which ran through twelve editions in little over a year, met with a mixed reception. Traditional clerics, both Evangelicals and Tractarians, were alarmed by views on the incarnate nature of Christ which seemed to them to impugn his divinity and, by concessions to the higher criticism in the matter of the inspiration of scripture, appeared to them to convert the "impregnable rock" into a foundat
The London Group
The London Group is a society based in London, created to offer additional exhibiting opportunities to artists besides the Royal Academy of Arts. Formed in 1913, it is one of the oldest artist-led organisations in the world, it was formed from the merger of the Camden Town Group, an all-male group, the Fitzroy Street Group. It holds open submission exhibitions for members and guest artists; the London Group is composed of working artists. All forms of art are represented; the group functions democratically without style. It has a written constitution, annually elected officers, working committees and a selection committee. There are between 80 and 100 members and an annual fee is charged to cover gallery hire and organisational costs; the group has no permanent exhibition venue and rents gallery space in London, most at the Menier Gallery, Bankside Gallery and Cello Factory. New members are elected most years, from nominations made by current members; the London Group was founded in 1913, when the Camden Town Group came together with the English Vorticists and other independent artists to challenge the domination of the Royal Academy of Arts, which had become unadventurous and conservative.
The London Group emerged from a merger of the Fitzroy Street Group and the male-member-only Camden Town Group organization. Founding members included the patron-artist Ethel Sands, artist Anna Hope Hudson, Walter Sickert, Jacob Epstein, Wyndham Lewis, Robert Bevan and his wife Stanislawa de Karlowska, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska. Other early female members included Mary Godwin. Throughout its history The London Group has held open submission exhibitions to encourage and support other artists struggling to get their work shown in public; the open submissions are shown along with the work of guest artists. The exhibition Uproar! Celebrated the first 50 years of the London Group in 1963 and it highlighted the role played by women and emigre artists in its membership. In 2013-14 the Ben Uri Gallery celebrated The London Group's 100-year anniversary with an exhibition Uproar: The First 50 Years of The London Group 1913-1963 curated by Rachel Dickson and Sarah MacDougall. One of the oldest standing artist-led organisations in the world, The London Group continues to exist today with over 80 members.
In 2011 the open exhibition presented over 140 artists at the Cello Factory. The group celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2013 with several shows, both historical and contemporary. List of artists associated with The London Group List of presidents of The London Group Official website
Hertingfordbury is a small village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, close to the county town of Hertford. The population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census is 630, it was mentioned in the Domesday Book. Hertingfordbury lies one mile west of Hertford on the A414 road. Ribbon development along that road has yet to reach the village; the village straddles the River Mimram, on, built a water mill in the 18th century, lies just north of the River Lea. The northern boundary of the village is Panshanger Park, with its Great Oak, considered by some to be the oldest oak in England; the parish includes the hamlet of Letty Green to the west, with its grade II listed deconsecrated St John's Church. The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Hertfordingberie, meaning "Stronghold of the people of Hertford". "Ralph himself holds Hertfordingberie. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is land for 10 ploughs. In demesne are 3 hides and 1 virgate, there are 2 ploughs, there can be a third. There 5 villans with 1 Frenchman and 6 bordars have 5 ploughs, there can be 2 more.
There are 11 cottars and 4 slaves, 2 mills rendering 6s, meadow for 3 ploughs, pasture for the livestock of the vill and woodland for 200 pigs. From woodland pasture, 7s. In all it is worth £8. Alwine, a thegn of Earl Harold, could sell. St. Mary's Church is situated on rising ground to the east of the village, overlooking the water meadows that lead down to the River Mimram. A church seems to have stood on this spot as early as the 13th century. Construction is of local flints with stone dressing, the roof is tiled. Extensive alterations and restorations were carried out in 1845 and 1890. Inside the church is some interesting alabaster work, including the pulpit, oak carvings by a native of Oberammergau; the churchyard contains the unmarked grave of Jane Wenham, erroneously believed to be the last person to be sentenced to death for witchcraft in England. She was condemned by a Hertford court in 1712 but was given a reprieve from the death sentence and granted a Royal pardon by Queen Anne. From Walkern her cause was adopted by William Cowper, 1st Earl Cowper, she lived out her days in a cottage on his land at Panshanger Park.
Buried in the churchyard are members of the Cowper family, under the yew tree by the west door, Benjamin Truman, owner of the Truman Brewery in the 18th Century, at one time the biggest brewery in the world. The Camden Town Group artist, Spencer Gore, whose mother lived in Hertingfordbury, was buried in the churchyard, after dying in Richmond. An American heiress, Pauline Payne Whitney, who had married Lord Queenborough, is buried there as is their daughter, Dorothy Paget, a racehorse owner, whose horses won the Cheltenham Gold Cup seven times and the Champion Hurdle four, her funeral procession included a string of race horses. Both Hertingfordbury Park, former residence of the Cowper family, St Joseph's in the Park, a private primary school, stand to the east of St. Mary's. Houses in the village include a Georgian brick house; the White Horse is a 15th-century Georgian-fronted building that in the past was a staging post for the Reading to Cambridge coach. To the north-east of the church is the Old Rectory home of the Addis family, descendants of William Addis, inventor of the first mass-produced toothbrush.
There was an Addis brush factory in Hertford from 1920 to the 1990s. Mayflower Place was commissioned by Countess Cowper and built in 1910, it was for the workers and their families from the Panshanger Estate. It is now owned by the East Herts Lodge of Freemasons. A by-pass was constructed in 1974. Since the village has changed in character and now provides homes for those who commute daily to London rather than for farm workers. Hertingfordbury was served by Hertingfordbury railway station on the Hertford to Hatfield line; this was built for the Hertford & Welwyn Junction Railway and appeared in passenger timetables by 1858. Passenger services ceased in 1951 and the line fell victim to the Beeching Axe when goods traffic ceased in 1966; the station was the setting for scenes in the 1936 film When Knights Were Bold, a BBC children's TV programme, Catweazle in 1970, It has now been converted into a residence. The disused railway line is now the Cole Green Way, popular with walkers and cyclists. Hertingfordbury Cricket Club plays at the recreation ground as does Hertingfordbury Tennis Club, formed at a public meeting in 1961.
There is an annual fete on the third Saturday in June to raise funds for the upkeep of the recreation ground. British History Online: pages on Hertingfordbury Cole Green Way Media related to Hertingfordbury at Wikimedia Commons
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e
Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the name "Tate" is used as the operating name for the corporate body, established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery". The gallery was founded as the National Gallery of British Art; when its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day.
All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain; the original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, London at the site of the former Millbank Prison. The idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley, it took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847. A decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Forty years Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate and a major collector of Victorian art, offered to fund the building of the gallery to house British Art on the condition that the State pay for the site and revenue costs. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery, it was a collection of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters.
It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954. In 1915, Sir Hugh Lane bequeathed his collection of European modern art to Dublin, but controversially this went to the Tate, which expanded its collection to include foreign art and continued to acquire contemporary art. In 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building, his father had earlier paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest, which in 1987 was transferred to a wing paid for by Sir Charles Clore. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund. By the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was separated from the National Gallery. During the 1950s and 1960s, the visual arts department of the Arts Council of Great Britain funded and organised temporary exhibitions at the Tate Gallery including, in 1966, a retrospective of Marcel Duchamp.
The Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large modern extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest and provided a 200-seat auditorium. In 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool; this shows various works of modern art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the first time this has been held outside London; this was an overture to Liverpool's being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives, it exhibits work by modern British artists those of the St Ives School. Additionally the Tate manages the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1980. Neither of these two new Tates had a significant effect on the functioning of the original London Tate Gallery, whose size was proving a constraint as the collection grew.
It was a logical step to separate the "British" and "Modern" aspects of the collection, they are now housed in separate buildings in London. The original gallery is now called Tate Britain and is the national gallery for British art from 1500 to the present day, as well as some modern British art. Tate Modern, in Bankside Power Station on the south side of the Thames, opened in 2000 and now exhibits the national collection of modern art from 1900 to the present day, including some modern British art. In its first year, the Tate Modern was the most popular museum in the world, with 5,250,000 visitors. In the late 2000s, the Tate announced a new development project to the south of the existing building. According to the museum this new development would "transform Tate Modern. An iconic new building will be added at the south of the existing gallery, it will create more spaces for displaying the collection and installation art and learning, all allowing visitors to engage more with art, as well as creating more social spaces for visitors to unwind and