Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants: the liverworts and mosses. They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments; the bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures, they reproduce via spores. Bryophytes are considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term; the term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" and φυτόν, phyton "plant". The defining features of bryophytes are: Their life cycles are dominated by the gametophyte stage Their sporophytes are unbranched They do not have a true vascular tissue containing lignin Bryophytes exist in a wide variety of habitats, they can be found growing in a range of temperatures and moisture.
Bryophytes can grow where vascularized plants cannot because they do not depend on roots for an uptake of nutrients from soil. Bryophytes can survive on bare soil. Like all land plants, bryophytes have life cycles with alternation of generations. In each cycle, a haploid gametophyte, each of whose cells contains a fixed number of unpaired chromosomes, alternates with a diploid sporophyte, whose cell contain two sets of paired chromosomes. Gametophytes produce haploid sperm and eggs which fuse to form diploid zygotes that grow into sporophytes. Sporophytes produce haploid spores by meiosis. Bryophytes are gametophyte dominant, meaning that the more prominent, longer-lived plant is the haploid gametophyte; the diploid sporophytes appear only and remain attached to and nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte. In bryophytes, the sporophytes produce a single sporangium. Liverworts and hornworts spend most of their lives as gametophytes. Gametangia and antheridia, are produced on the gametophytes, sometimes at the tips of shoots, in the axils of leaves or hidden under thalli.
Some bryophytes, such as the liverwort Marchantia, create elaborate structures to bear the gametangia that are called gametangiophores. Sperm are flagellated and must swim from the antheridia that produce them to archegonia which may be on a different plant. Arthropods can assist in transfer of sperm. Fertilized eggs become zygotes. Mature sporophytes remain attached to the gametophyte, they consist of a stalk called a single sporangium or capsule. Inside the sporangium, haploid spores are produced by meiosis; these are dispersed, most by wind, if they land in a suitable environment can develop into a new gametophyte. Thus bryophytes disperse by a combination of swimming sperm and spores, in a manner similar to lycophytes and other cryptogams; the arrangement of antheridia and archegonia on an individual bryophyte plant is constant within a species, although in some species it may depend on environmental conditions. The main division is between species in which the antheridia and archegonia occur on the same plant and those in which they occur on different plants.
The term monoicous may be used where antheridia and archegonia occur on the same gametophyte and the term dioicous where they occur on different gametophytes. In seed plants, "monoecious" is used where flowers with anthers and flowers with ovules occur on the same sporophyte and "dioecious" where they occur on different sporophytes; these terms may be used instead of "monoicous" and "dioicous" to describe bryophyte gametophytes. "Monoecious" and "monoicous" are both derived from the Greek for "one house", "dioecious" and "dioicous" from the Greek for two houses. The use of the "oicy" terminology is said to have the advantage of emphasizing the difference between the gametophyte sexuality of bryophytes and the sporophyte sexuality of seed plants. Monoicous plants are hermaphroditic, meaning that the same plant has both sexes; the exact arrangement of the antheridia and archegonia in monoicous plants varies. They may be borne on different shoots, on the same shoot but not together in a common structure, or together in a common "inflorescence".
Dioicous plants are unisexual. All four patterns occur in species of the moss genus Bryum. Traditionally, all living land plants without vascular tissues were classified in a single taxonomic group a division. More phylogenetic research has questioned whether the bryophytes form a monophyletic group and thus whether they should form a single taxon. Although a 2005 study supported the traditional view that the bryophytes form a monophyletic group, by 2010 a broad consensus had emerged among systematists that bryophytes as a whole are not a natural group, although each of the three extant groups is monophyletic; the three bryophyte clades are the Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta. The vascular plants or tracheophytes form a fourth, unranked clade of land plants called the "Polysporangiophyta". In this analysis, hornworts are sister
Sphaerocarpos is a genus of plants known as bottle liverworts. There are nine species in this genus. Sphaerocarpos is one of two genera in the Sphaerocarpaceae; the following species are recognized: Sphaerocarpos cristatus Sphaerocarpos donnelli Sphaerocarpos drewei Sphaerocarpos hians Sphaerocarpos michelii Sphaerocarpos muccilloi Sphaerocarpos stipitatus Sphaerocarpos texanus Pictures of Sphaerocarpos texanus Sphaerocarpales
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier was a Belgian who conducted a parallel career of botanist and Member of Parliament. Barthélemy Dumortier was a son of the merchant and city councillor Barthélemy-François Dumortier and of Mariue-Jeanne Willaumez, he married Philippine Ruteau and they had a son, Barthélemy-Noël Dumortier. Barthélemy-Charles became politically active in the early eighteen twenties. In 1824 he founded a paper critical of the government, he adhered in 1830 to the Belgian revolution. In 1831 he became a member of the first elected parliament of the new kingdom, as the member for Tournai, he remained elected until 1847. He switched seats, was now elected for the city of Roulers and held this seat until his death. In 1872 he was awarded the honorary title of Minister of State, he was awarded nobility with the title of earl. However, for unknown reasons, he did not raise the necessary patent letters and was therefore not ennobled. In the early 1820s, Dumortier published in Latin his first contribution to botany.
In 1827 he published the Florula Belgica. In 1829 Dumortier was regarded as one of the greatest naturalists of the Low-Countries and became a member of the Académie de Bruxelles, he not only studied botany but zoology. In 1835 Dumortier first proposed the genus Lepidozia, his reputation as a botanist was so brilliant that the Home Office asked him to be its representative in the Brussels’ Botanic Garden a joint stock company, supported by the State. In 1862, the Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique was created and Dumortier became its president; when the company that ran the Brussels’ botanic garden collapsed, Dumortier developed the idea of a state-owned botanic garden in the capital. He succeeded in convincing the Parliament in 1869 of buying the impressive herbarium and dried collections of the late Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. A few months the state bought the garden of the'Société Royale d’Horticulture de Belgique'. Dumortier hoped to create a botanic garden, his name was given to two plant species: to the Hemerocallis dumortieri and to the Stenocereus dumortieri.
Some consider him to be the true discoverer of cell division, although he is credited as such. 1870: Grand Cordon in Order of Leopold. Commentationes botanicae. Observations botaniques. Observations sur les graminées de la flore de Belgique. Dumortier, Barthélemy-Charles. Analyse des familles des plantes:avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent. Tournay: Casterman. Retrieved 16 January 2016. Lettres sur le manifeste du Roi et les griefs de par Belgicus. Sylloge Jungermannidearum Europae indigenarum, earum genera et species systematice complectens. Recherches sur la structure comparée et le développement des animaux et des végétaux. Essai carpographique présentant une nouvelle classification des fruits. La Belgique et les vingt-quatre articles. Observations complémentaires sur le partage des dettes des Pays-Bas. Dumortier, B. C. J. 1827. Florula belgica. Toumay. Mortier, Barthélemy-Charles Du. Opuscules de botanique 1862-1873. Brussels: G. Mayolez. Oscar COOMANS DE BRACHENE, Etat présent de la noblesse belge, Annuaire 1988, Brussels, 1988.
Jean-Luc DE PAEPE & Christiane RAINDORF-GERARD, Le Parlement belge, 1831-1894, Brussels, 1996. IPNI Profile Dumortier on website of National Botanic Garden Books by Dumortier at the Biodiversity library
Marchantiopsida is one of three classes within the liverwort phylum Marchantiophyta. Based on the work by Villarreal et al. 2015 Blasiidae He-Nygrén et al. 2006 Blasiales Stotler & Crandall-Stotler 2000 †Treubiitaceae Schuster 1980 Blasiaceae von Klinggräff 1858 Marchantiidae Engler 1893 sensu He-Nygrén et al. 2006 Neohodgsoniales Long 2006 Neohodgsoniaceae Long 2006 Sphaerocarpales Cavers 1910 Monocarpaceae Carr ex Schelpe 1969 Riellaceae Engler 1892 Sphaerocarpaceae Heeg 1891 Lunulariales Long 2006 Lunulariaceae von Klinggräff 1858 Marchantiales Limpricht 1877 Marchantiaceae Lindley 1836 Aytoniaceae Cavers 1911 Cleveaceae Cavers 1911 Monosoleniaceae Inoue 1966 Conocephalaceae Müller ex Grolle 1972 Targioniaceae Dumortier 1829 Wiesnerellaceae Inoue 1976 Dumortieraceae Long 2006 Monocleaceae Frank 1877 Oxymitraceae Müller ex Grolle 1972 Ricciaceae Reichenbach 1828 Corsiniaceae Engler 1892 Cyathodiaceae Stotler & Crandall-Stotler 2000
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information, it is estimated. Some of the more familiar species grow as a flattened leafless thallus, but most species are leafy with a form much like a flattened moss. Leafy species can be distinguished from the similar mosses on the basis of a number of features, including their single-celled rhizoids. Leafy liverworts differ from most mosses in that their leaves never have a costa and may bear marginal cilia. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and liverworts, but the occurrence of leaves arranged in three ranks, the presence of deep lobes or segmented leaves, or a lack of differentiated stem and leaves all point to the plant being a liverwort. Liverworts are small from 2–20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm long, are therefore overlooked.
However, certain species may cover large patches of ground, trees or any other reasonably firm substrate on which they occur. They are distributed globally in every available habitat, most in humid locations although there are desert and Arctic species as well; some species can be a weed in gardens. Most liverworts are small, measuring from 2–20 millimetres wide with individual plants less than 10 centimetres long, so they are overlooked; the most familiar liverworts consist of a prostrate, ribbon-like or branching structure called a thallus. However, most liverworts produce flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves in two or more ranks, the middle rank is conspicuously different from the outer ranks. Liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and all liverworts. Unlike any other embryophytes, most liverworts contain unique membrane-bound oil bodies containing isoprenoids in at least some of their cells, lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of all other plants being unenclosed.
The overall physical similarity of some mosses and leafy liverworts means that confirmation of the identification of some groups can be performed with certainty only with the aid of microscopy or an experienced bryologist. Liverworts have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, with the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte. Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only a single set of genetic information, so the plant's cells are haploid for the majority of its life cycle; this contrasts with the pattern exhibited by nearly all animals and by most other plants. In the more familiar seed plants, the haploid generation is represented only by the tiny pollen and the ovule, while the diploid generation is the familiar tree or other plant. Another unusual feature of the liverwort life cycle is that sporophytes are short-lived, withering away not long after releasing spores. In other bryophytes, the sporophyte is persistent and disperses spores over an extended period; the life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, either a mass of thread-like filaments or else a flattened thallus.
The protonema is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow the mature gametophore plant that produces the sex organs. The male organs produce the sperm cells. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called the perigonium; as in other land plants, the female organs are known as archegonia and are protected by the thin surrounding perichaetum. Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, the "neck", down which the sperm swim to reach the egg cell. Liverwort species may be either monoicous. In dioicous liverworts and male sex organs are borne on different and separate gametophyte plants. In monoicous liverworts, the two kinds of reproductive structures are borne on different branches of the same plant. In either case, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are produced to the archegonium where the eggs are held; the sperm of liverworts is biflagellate, i.e. they have two tail-like flagellae that enable them to swim short distances, provided that at least a thin film of water is present.
Their journey may be assisted by the splashing of raindrops. In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered that some liverworts are able to fire sperm-containing water up to 15 cm in the air, enabling them to fertilize female plants growing more than a metre from the nearest male; when sperm reach the archegonia, fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions: a foot, which both anchors the sporophyte in place and receives nutrients from its "mother" plant, a spherical or ellipsoidal capsule, inside which the spores will be produced for dispersing to new locations, a seta which lies between the other two
Geothallus is a monotypic genus of liverwort in the family Sphaerocarpaceae family. It includes, its common name is Campbell's liverwort. It is endemic to California, where it is known only from Riverside Counties; this liverwort grows in vernal pools. At least one population occurs on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, it has been noted on the Santa Rosa Plateau