Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker
Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker is the original title of the novelization of the 1977 film Star Wars. Ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster, but credited to George Lucas, it was first published on November 12, 1976, by Ballantine Books. In years, it was republished under the title Star Wars: A New Hope to reflect the retroactive addition of a subtitle to the film in 1981. Although the book contains some differences from the film, it includes references to Palpatine and his rise to power in the prologue, setting up the backstory for future films; the book was based upon Lucas's screenplay for the first Star Wars film. On how he got the job, Foster said: "My agent got a call from Lucas's lawyer of the time, Tom Pollock. Someone had read a book of mine, knew that I had done novelizations, thought I might be the writer to do the novelization of Lucas' new film. I knew his work through THX 1138 and American Graffiti. I accepted the offer to meet with George, did so at Industrial Light and Magic in a small warehouse in Van Nuys, California.
We hit it off well, I got the assignment, that's how it happened." Foster not only adapted the film's events, but fleshed out the backstory of time, physics, races, languages and technology. When asked whether it was difficult for him to see Lucas get all the credit for the novelization, Foster said: "Not at all, it was George's story idea. I was expanding upon it. Not having my name on the cover didn't bother me in the least, it would be akin to a contractor demanding to have his name on a Frank Lloyd Wright house." Lucas, for his part, has been open about the fact that Foster ghostwrote the novel, noting this fact in his introduction to editions of the book. The paperback book was first published in the US as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker in December 1976 by Ballantine Books, six months before the theatrical release of the film; the cover art was by Star Wars conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie, commissioned by Ballantine Books executive Judy Lynn Del Rey while he was working on visualization work for Lucas's forthcoming film.
The cover depicted Luke Skywalker, Chewbacca, C-3PO, R2-D2 standing in front of an enlarged head of Darth Vader. On the back of the book was written, "Soon to be a spectacular motion picture from Twentieth Century Fox". In the United Kingdom, the novelization was published by Sphere Books, featured cover art by John Berkey. Sphere paid $225,000 for the British publishing rights. By February 1977, still three months before the film was released, the novelization sold out its initial print run of 125,000 copies. In the next three months, Ballantine had sold 3.5 million copies. Some editions contain sixteen pages of full-color photos from the motion picture. Editions of the novelization were published under altered titles to reflect the retitling of the film, such as Star Wars: A New Hope, Star Wars IV: A New Hope; the words that open each Star Wars film, "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." are absent from the novelization, substituted by the similar "Another galaxy, another time."In place of the opening crawl describing the events just preceding the film, the novelization includes a prologue explaining the political backstory "From the First Saga: Journal of the Whills".
It contains the first reference to the Emperor's name, though his description is somewhat at odds with his depiction as a Sith Master in The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, the prequel trilogy. Lucas explained that the first film was written in the era of Richard Nixon, when the story was intended to explore "how a democracy turns itself over to a dictator—not how a dictator takes over a democracy." The book's introduction reads: Aided and abetted by restless, power-hungry individuals within the government, the massive organs of commerce, the ambitious Senator Palpatine caused himself to be elected President of the Republic. He promised to reunite the disaffected among the people and to restore the remembered glory of the Republic. Once secure in office he declared shutting himself away from the populace. Soon he was controlled by the assistants and boot-lickers he had appointed to high office, the cries of the people for justice did not reach his ears. Several other portions of the novel deviate from the film, including scenes that were filmed but not inserted into the final cut of the movie.
Most notable of these are his friends at Tosche Station on Tatooine. Included is the scene with Jabba the Hutt, re-inserted in the Special Edition of the film; this differs both from the script's version of Jabba, the giant slug creature that appeared in Return of the Jedi. There are various small details throughout, such as Luke's squadron in the Death Star assault being Blue Squadron, thus Luke's call sign is "Blue Five" instead of "Red Five"; the official term for "droid" in the novelization is "mechanical", it is implied that "droid" is a slang term, spelled with an apostrophe preceding it as a contraction of the word "android". Additionally, the word "rebel" is never capitalized, unlike its appearance when describing the Rebel Alliance in the film's opening crawl; the novel and various merchandising tie-ins also
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, participants in timely news stories, political leaders hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are used to write songs and instrumental pieces. Screenplay authors can use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. There is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant", but the ghostwriter is not credited. Ghostwriting occurs in other creative fields. Composers have long hired ghostwriters to help them to write musical songs. Ghosting occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes a melody in the style of the credited musician.
In hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece, credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain and the writer in question would not be considered a ghostwriter. A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an'expert' in their field. Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters. A controversial and scientifically unethical practice is medical ghostwriting, where biotech or pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and recruit other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these articles before they are published in medical or scientific journals.
Some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers and dissertations. This is considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing. Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several hundred page autobiography or "how-to" book. If a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced. In other cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year under the name of well-known marketable authors, or to release a topical book that ties in with a recent or upcoming newsworthy event. Ghostwriters will spend from several months to a full year researching and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client, they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof.
Some ghostwriters charge for articles "$4 per word and more depending on the complexity" of the article. Literary agent Madeleine Morel states that the average ghostwriter's advance for work for major book publishers is "between $15,000 and $75,000"; these benchmark prices are mirrored in the film industry by the Writer's Guild, where a Minimum Basic Agreement gives a starting price for the screenplay writer of $37,073. However, the recent shift into the digital age has brought some changes, by opening newer markets that bring their own opportunities for authors and writers—especially on the more affordable side of the ghostwriting business. One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon's Kindle Singles imprint: texts of 30,000 words and under; such a length would have been much harder to sell before digital reader-technologies became available, but is now quite acceptable. Writers on the level of Ian McEwan have celebrated this recent change for artistic reasons.
As a consequence, the shorter format makes a project more affordable for the client/author. Manhattan Literary, a ghostwriting company, states that "book projects on the shorter side, tailored to new markets like the Kindle Singles imprint and others start at a cost of $15,000", and this shorter book appears to be here to stay. It was once financially impractical for publishers to produce such novella-length texts. So, with its appearance the starting price for the professional book writer has come down by about half, but only if this shorter format makes sense for the client. On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees can be much higher. In 2001, the New York Times stated that the fee that the ghostwriter for Hillary Clinton's memoirs would receive was about $500,000 of her book's $8 million advance, which "is near the top of flat fees paid to collaborators". There is the consideration of differen
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi
The Sands of Mars
The Sands of Mars is a science fiction novel by English writer Arthur C. Clarke. While he was popular as a short story writer and as a magazine contributor, The Sands of Mars was a prelude to Clarke's becoming one of the world's foremost writers of science fiction novels; the story was published in 1951. It is set principally on the planet Mars, settled by humans and is used as a research establishment; the story setting is that Mars has been surveyed but not explored on the ground. The Sands of Mars was Clarke's first published novel. Martin Gibson, a famous science fiction author, is travelling to Mars, as a guest of the crew of the spaceship Ares. After arriving at Space Station One, in the orbit of Earth, from which all interplanetary journeys start, he begins the three-month trip to Mars; the youngest crew member, Jimmy Spencer, still in training to be an astronaut, is assigned the task of answering his questions about the technology of space flight, they become friends. Gibson tells him about his early life, revealing that he had to leave Cambridge University because of a nervous breakdown and never completed his studies.
After psychiatric treatment, he had become an author. He reveals that he had an affair at university but that he and his girlfriend broke up and that she married another man, had a child and died. On Mars and the crew go their separate ways. Gibson meets the Chief Executive of Mars, Warren Hadfield, Mayor Whittaker, who run the colony from the base at Port Lowell, he discusses the future of the colony with Hadfield, keen to make Mars as self-sufficient as possible, given the vast distance that materials have to come from Earth. On a trip by passenger jet to an outlying research station and the crew are forced down by a dust storm, they explore the nearby area and discover a small group of kangaroo-like creatures, the unsuspected natives of Mars. They appear to have limited intelligence by human standards and are vegetarians, living on native plants, it is revealed that the plants are being cultivated by researchers to enrich the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere. This project, related others, are being kept secret from Earth.
Gibson discovers. In the meantime, Spencer has formed an attachment to Hadfield's daughter. Hadfield reveals that scientists have been working on "Project Dawn", which involves the ignition of the moon Phobos and its use as a second “sun” for Mars, it will burn for at least one thousand years and the extra heat, together with mass production of the oxygen-generating plants, will – it is hoped – make the Martian atmosphere breathable for humans. Gibson finds himself so persuaded of the importance of Mars as a self-sufficient world that he applies to stay on the planet, is invited to take charge of public relations – in effect, to “sell” Mars to potential colonists. J. Francis McComas, writing in The New York Times, declared Sands of Mars to be "a careful, thoughtful projection of the problems of government.... Written with a quiet realism." Galaxy reviewer Groff Conklin described the novel as "genuinely good reading." Boucher and McComas found it "first-level science fiction for the intelligent and literate reader.".
P. Schuyler Miller reported that although "the plot mechanism creaks a little... is one of the most believable trips to Mars." The book has given an inspiration for the title of guitarist Jimi Hendrix's last and unfinished album, First Rays of the New Rising Sun. The album contains an unfinished song "New Rising Sun" in which "Jupiter Sun" is mentioned, it was published as part of The Space Trilogy, an omnibus of three of Clarke's earlier works which includes Islands in the Sky and Earthlight. The transformation of Phobos into a second sun has similarities to what is done to Jupiter in Clarke's novel 2010: Odyssey Two. In that case, alien technology triggers a fusion reaction in the planet, hydrogen. In the case of Phobos - tiny and rock - Clarke proposes an imaginary "meson resonance reaction", discovered. A city on Mars named Port Lowell is mentioned by Clarke in his 1955 short story "Refugee" and The Lost Worlds of 2001. Clarke's vision of Mars was based on what was imagined in the 1950s; the Martian canals were long discredited.
Seasonal changes visible from Earth were thought to be caused by vegetation of the sort the novel describes. No dates are given; the space age is stated to have begun in the 1960s and 1970s, implying that the novel takes place in the 1990s. The level of the development is consistent with what Clarke imagined for 2001 in 2001: A Space Odyssey. An expedition to Saturn is mentioned in The Sands of Mars: the book version of 2001 involves the first voyage there. Clarke's early space novels foresee much the same sort of future peaceful and with a benevolent world state. There are however no repeat of fictional people or places; the current edition of The Sands of Mars appears in the same volume as Earthlight, but they are not part of the same future. If they were, the Martian novel would be part of the past of the Lunar one, since humans in Earthlight have gone much further and the planets are now independent; the idea of using a moon as a substitute sun was used by Pohl and Kornbluth in the 1959 novel Wolfbane.
Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 102. ISBN 0-911682-20-1; the Sands of Mars title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies. It was established in 1989 following a merger between International Thomson Organisation Ltd and Thomson Newspapers. In 2008, it purchased Reuters Group to form Thomson Reuters; the Thomson Corporation was active in financial services, healthcare sectors, law and technology research and tax and accounting sectors. The company operated through five segments: Thomson Financial, Thomson Healthcare, Thomson Legal, Thomson Scientific and Thomson Tax & Accounting; until 2007, Thomson was a major worldwide provider of higher education textbooks, academic information solutions and reference materials. On 26 October 2006, Thomson announced the proposed sale of its Thomson Learning assets. In May 2007, Thomson Learning was acquired by Apax Partners and subsequently renamed Cengage Learning in July; the Thomson Learning brand was used to the end of August 2007. Subsequently, on 15 October 2007, Educational Testing Service finalized acquisition of Thomson's Prometric.
Thomson sold its global network of testing centres for a reported $435 million. Prometric now operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of ETS. On 15 May 2007, the Thomson Corporation reached an agreement with Reuters to combine the two companies, a deal valued at $17.2 billion. On 17 April 2008 the new company was created under the name of Thomson Reuters; the chief executive officer of Thomson Reuters is Jim Smith, the chairman is David Thomson of the Thomson Corporation. Although it was a Canadian company and remained Canadian owned, Thomson was run from its operational headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut, in the United States. Thomson had grown from a single Canadian newspaper, the Timmins Daily Press, acquired in 1934 by Roy Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet, into a global media concern; the Baron acquired his first non-Canadian newspaper the Independent of St. Petersburg, Florida in 1952 and the next year it expanded to the United Kingdom, it once owned several prominent newspapers in the UK, including The Times and The Scotsman, it owned Scottish Television.
In the 1960s, Thomson's publishing realm expanded further to include Thomson Publication, a consumer magazine and book publishing house, The Times. In 1965, Thomson Newspapers, Ltd. was formed as a publicly traded company in Canada. Roy Thomson's prolific endeavors in publishing had earned him a hereditary title, Lord Thomson of Fleet. Yet, Thomson's interests moved beyond publishing with the creation of Thomson Travel and acquisition of Britannia Airways in 1965 and 1971, a foray into a consortium exploring the North Sea for oil and gas. Thomson used its oil profits to buy small newspapers in the United States, starting with the acquisition of Brush-Moore Newspapers in 1967 for $72 million, at the time the largest sale of newspapers. By the end of the 1970s, Thomson Newspapers' circulation in the United States had surpassed the 1 million mark; the merger of Thomson Newspapers and the International Thomson Organization in 1989 created the Thomson Corporation. Over the years, the company has withdrawn from its holdings in the oil and gas business, the travel industry and department stores.
When Kenneth Thomson took over from his father Roy in 1976, the company was worth about $500 million. At Kenneth's death in June 2006, the company was valued at about $29.3 billion. In 1978, the acquisition of Wadsworth Publishing provided Thomson with its first entry into specialised information, college textbooks and professional books. Starting in the mid-1990s, Thomson invested further in specialised information services and began selling off its newspapers; that was about the time Richard J. Harrington, an accountant, became chief executive officer of the company. One of the first moves came when Thomson spent $3.4 billion to acquire the West Publishing Company, a legal information provider in Eagan, MN. In recent years, Thomson provided much of the specialised information content the world's financial, legal and medical organizations rely on every day to make business-critical decisions and drive innovation. While it remained a publishing company and aggressive investment in electronic delivery had become a key company goal."Except for its educational division, which still publishes a substantial number of conventional textbooks, Thomson had the good fortune to move into these businesses as customers were demanding electronic delivery of their information," according to a 3 July 2006 article in the New York Times.
"In some markets, Thomson was able to move past other players who were more cautious about digital conversion." Some of Thomson's brands are better known than the company name itself. Its brands include Thomson ONE, FindLaw, BarBri, Pangea3, Physician's Desk Reference, RIA, Tax and Accounting Creative Solutions, Quickfinder, DISEASEDEX, DrugREAX, Thomson First Call, EndNote, Derwent World Patent Index, SAEGIS, Aureka, OptiPat, Just Files, Corporate Intelligence, InfoTrac, Arco Test Prep, Peterson's Directories, NewsEdge, TradeWeb, Web of Science and the Arden Shakespeare. Thomson owned Jane's Information Group; these information sources are produced by the many companies of Thomson, including West Publishing, Thomson Financial, ISI, Thomson Gale, Dialog Corporation, Carswell, CCBN, Course Technology, Gardiner-Caldwell, IHI, Lawbook Co, Thomson CompuMark and Sweet & Maxwell. In 2003, the Thomson Corporation bought the Chilton automotive assets. In late 2004, the company sold its Thomson Media
Laurence van Cott Niven is an American science fiction writer. His best-known work is Ringworld, which received Hugo, Locus and Nebula awards; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named him the 2015 recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award. His work is hard science fiction, using big science concepts and theoretical physics, it often includes elements of detective fiction and adventure stories. His fantasy includes the series The Magic Goes Away, rational fantasy dealing with magic as a non-renewable resource. Niven was born in Los Angeles, he is a great-grandson of Edward L. Doheny, an oil tycoon who drilled the first successful well in the Los Angeles City Oil Field in 1892 and was subsequently implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal, he attended the California Institute of Technology and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas in 1962. He completed a year of graduate work in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles.
On September 6, 1969, he married Marilyn Joyce "Fuzzy Pink" Wisowaty, a science fiction and Regency literature fan. He is an agnostic. Niven is the author of numerous science fiction short stories and novels, beginning with his 1964 story "The Coldest Place". In this story, the coldest place concerned is the dark side of Mercury, which at the time the story was written was thought to be tidally locked with the Sun. Algis Budrys said in 1968 that Niven becoming a top writer despite the New Wave was evidence that "trends are for second-raters". In addition to the Nebula award in 1970 and the Hugo and Locus awards in 1971 for Ringworld, Niven won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "Neutron Star" in 1967, he won the same award in 1972, for "Inconstant Moon", in 1975 for "The Hole Man". In 1976, he won the Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "The Borderland of Sol". Niven has written scripts for three science fiction television series: the original Land of the Lost series. Niven has written for the DC Comics character Green Lantern including in his stories hard science fiction concepts such as universal entropy and the redshift effect.
He has included limited psi gifts in some characters in his stories. Several of his stories predicted the black market in transplant organs. Many of Niven's stories—sometimes called the Tales of Known Space—take place in his Known Space universe, in which humanity shares the several habitable star systems nearest to the Sun with over a dozen alien species, including the aggressive feline Kzinti and the intelligent but cowardly Pierson's Puppeteers, which are central characters; the Ringworld series is part of the Tales of Known Space, Niven has shared the setting with other writers since a 1988 anthology, The Man-Kzin Wars. There have been several volumes of short novellas. Niven has written a logical fantasy series The Magic Goes Away, which utilizes an exhaustible resource called mana to power a rule-based "technological" magic; the Draco Tavern series of short stories take place in a more light-hearted science fiction universe, are told from the point of view of the proprietor of an omni-species bar.
The whimsical Svetz series consists of a collection of short stories, The Flight of the Horse, a novel, Rainbow Mars, which involve a nominal time machine sent back to retrieve long-extinct animals, but which travels, in fact, into alternative realities and brings back mythical creatures such as a Roc and a Unicorn. Much of his writing since the 1970s has been in collaboration with Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes, but Brenda Cooper and Edward M. Lerner. One of Niven's best known humorous works is "Man of Steel, Woman of Kleenex", in which he uses real-world physics to underline the difficulties of Superman and a human woman mating. Niven appeared in the 1980 science documentary film Target... Earth? Niven's most famous contribution to the SF genre comes from his novel Ringworld, in which he envisions a Ringworld: a band of material a million miles wide, of the same diameter as Earth's orbit, rotating around a star; the idea's genesis came from Niven's attempts to imagine a more efficient version of a Dyson sphere, which could produce the effect of surface gravity through rotation.
Given that spinning a Dyson Sphere would result in the atmosphere pooling around the equator, the Ringworld removes all the extraneous parts of the structure, leaving a spinning band landscaped on the sun-facing side, with the atmosphere and inhabitants kept in place through centrifugal force and 1,000 mi high perimeter walls. After publication of Ringworld, Dan Alderson and Ctein, two fannish friends of Niven, analyzed the structure and told Niven that the Ringworld was dynamically unstable such that if the center of rotation drifts away from the central sun, gravitational forces will not're-center' it, thus allowing the ring to contact the sun and be destroyed. Niven used this as a core plot element in the sequel novel, The Ringworld Engineers
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena, he contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy.
In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, his conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, born in 1750, died at early ages, his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time languages. Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, he had a lively devotion to theater as well and was fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home. He took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion, he writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, of the'Aeneid' and Ovid's'Metamorphoses'....
If an busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, he adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would marry the merchant G. F. Schuler. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768, he detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre.
In 1770, he anonymously released his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. At this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen; the restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became ill in Frankfurt. Durin