The ruins of Spiš Castle in eastern Slovakia form one of the largest castle sites in Central Europe. The castle is situated above the town of Spišské Podhradie and the village of Žehra, in the region known as Spiš, it was included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1993. This is one of the biggest European castles by area. Spiš Castle was built in the 12th century on the site of an earlier castle, it was the political, administrative and cultural centre of Szepes County of the Kingdom of Hungary. Before 1464, it was owned by the kings of Hungary, afterwards by the Zápolya family, the Thurzó family, the Csáky family, by the state of Czechoslovakia Slovakia. A Romanesque stone castle with fortifications, a two-story Romanesque palace and a three-nave Romanesque-Gothic basilica were constructed by the second half of the 13th century. A second extramural settlement was built in the 14th century; the castle was rebuilt in the 15th century. A late Gothic chapel was added around 1470; the Zápolya clan performed late Gothic transformations, which made the upper castle into a comfortable family residence, typical of late Renaissance residences of the 16th and 17th centuries.
The last owners of the Spiš Castle, the Csáky family, abandoned the castle in the early 18th century because they considered it too uncomfortable to live in. They moved to the newly built nearby village castles/palaces in Hodkovce near Žehra and Spišský Hrhov. In 1780, the castle was destroyed in a fire; the cause of the blaze is unknown. One is that the Csáky family purposely burned it down to reduce taxes as at the time additional taxes applied to roofed buildings. Another is. A third is that some soldiers in the castle were making moonshine and in the process accidentally started the fire. Whatever the case, after the fire, the castle was no longer occupied and began to fall into disrepair; the castle was reconstructed in the second half of the 20th century, extensive archaeological research was carried out on the site. The reconstructed sections house displays of the Spiš Museum, artifacts such as torture devices used in the castle. Tourist information about Spiš Castle and nearby Dreveník History of Spiš Castle History and photos of Spiš Castle
Vrbové is a town in the Trnava Region of Slovakia. It has a population of 6,309 as of 2005; the town lies around 8 km northwest from Piešťany. The town features an Gothic church from 1397, an Evangelical Lutheran church from 1928-1929, a baroque curia from the 17th century, an oriental-style synagogue from 1883, a modern St. Gorazd Church; the Čerenec Dam, situated to the northwest of the town, is a recreation area. The present-day town is a old settlement. In Slavic languages the town's name means willow; the first written reference to the town stems from 1332. At that time it was part of the Čachtice Castle domain. Vrbové received its town charter in 1437, was devastated by Turkish troops in 1599; the town was famous for its grain markets, promoted by Jews, who made up a large part of the town's population. In the late 20th century, the town was home to clothing and wood-processing industries. Vrbové is infamous for its past as a Jewish ghetto. During World War II, the entire town of Vrbové was a ghetto for the Jewish population of the Piešťany province of Slovakia.
The ghetto was liquidated by the Slovak Nazis known as the Hlinka Guard and the German SS. Most of Vrbove's Jewish population was gassed in Auschwitz's gas chambers. According to the 2001 census, the town had 6,249 inhabitants. 98.75% of inhabitants were Slovaks and 0.59% Czechs. The religious make-up was 75.48% Roman Catholics, 10.80% people with no religious affiliation and 10.67% Lutherans. Vrbové is twinned with: Allstedt, Germany Spišské Podhradie, Slovakia Vítkov, Czech Republic RabbisRabbi David Zvi Hoffmann was born there in 1843. Vrbové is the birthplace of the famed Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem; the Chief Rabbi of Vrbové, Rabbi Samuel Reich, son of the renowned Rabbi Koppel Reich, survived the Holocaust and emigrated to Jerusalem, where he died. Before the Second World War he founded a Commerce school, nationalized. Vrbové's most famous Rabbi was Rabbi Yitschack Weiss, the author of many important works: Siach Yitschack, Elef Ksav, Avnei Beis Hayotser, Hagada Shel Pesach Siach Yitschack, Bina leitim and many more.
He was killed in the Holocaust in 1942. His works were published by Shem Olam in Bnei Brak. Vrbové is the birthplace of: Móric Beňovský, the discoverer Bishop Pavol Jantausch Elo Šándor, the Slovak writer Vrbovce, Slovakia Official website Virtual Tour of Vrbové
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Show Low, Arizona
Show Low is a city in Navajo County, United States. It lies at an elevation of 6,345 feet; the city was established in 1870 and incorporated in 1953. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 10,660. According to a legend, the city's unusual name resulted from a marathon poker game between Corydon E. Cooley and Marion Clark; the two men were equal partners in a 100,000-acre ranch. After the game seemed to have no winner in sight, Clark said, "If you can show low, you win." In response, Cooley turned up the deuce of clubs and replied, "Show low it is."As a tribute to the legend, Show Low's main street is named "Deuce of Clubs" in remembrance. In 2002, a large forest fire, the Rodeo-Chediski fire, forced an evacuation; the fire was extinguished less than a half mile from the city's border, Show Low was spared. The city is near extensive forests, is a popular recreational area. Show Low is located at 34°14′37″N 110°2′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.9 square miles, of which, 27.9 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
It is located 270 miles from both Why, Arizona And Nothing, Arizona. Winters in Show Low bring highs between 45 °F and 55 °F, with lows below freezing between November and March, averaging in the 20s December through February, in the low 30s for November and March. In the summer, highs in Show Low average 85 °F, with an occasional day above 90 °F not uncommon for the city; as the sun sets in the summertime, temperatures plummet sometimes upwards of 30 degrees. This nightly temperature swing results in summertime lows ranging between 50 °F and 60 °F. Show Low has reached below-freezing temperatures every month at least once in its history except July and August, where temperatures have only reached 38 °F and 37 °F respectively. Show Low has twice reached 100 °F, its record high temperature: once on May 31, 1969, again on July 14, 2003. Show Low's record low temperature of -25 °F was set on January 8, 1971. Show Low averages about 18.3 inches of rain per year. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,695 people, 2,885 households, 2,117 families residing in the city.
The population density was 859 people per square mile. There were 7186 housing units at an average density of 155.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.3% White, 0.4% Black or African American, 3.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 9.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,885 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,356, the median income for a family was $36,397. Males had a median income of $28,882 versus $24,590 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,536. About 11.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Show Low Regional Airport provides passenger airline service through Boutique Air to Phoenix and to Denver through Farmington, New Mexico; the airport is commonly used for air cargo, air-taxi, as a fixed-base operator for general aviation. The city maintains a minor public transportation operation in conjunction with neighboring Pinetop-Lakeside. Two shuttles service multiple retail, high-traffic, government offices and the airport and nearby Hon-Dah casino. Show Low Shuttle provides 24/7, non-stop, door to door shuttle service from Show Low to any city in Arizona. All of the city is a part of the Show Low Unified School District.
A portion of the city is within the boundaries of the Blue Ridge Unified School District. Schools that serve the SLUSD portion of the city include Linden Elementary, Nikolaus Homestead Elementary, Whipple Ranch Elementary, White Mountain Institute, Show Low Junior High School, Show Low High School. Show Low is home to one of Northland Pioneer College's four regional campuses, the White Mountain Campus. According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Dan Deublein, American actor from the television series Beverly Hills, 90210. George Takei, American actor from the television series Star Trek. Mike Furyk, American golfer Jim Furyk's father Paul Ulibarri, professional disc golfer David Collins-Rivera, voice actor, podcaster Schools, Show Low Unified School District Retrieved July 24, 2009 Arizona Handbo
Spišská Kapitula is an exceptionally well-preserved ecclesiastical town on the outskirts of Spišské Podhradie and overlooking Spiš Castle. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage site "Levoča, Spiš Castle and the associated cultural monuments"; the town consists of St. Martin's Cathedral, a former monastery, a single street, all of mediaeval construction and enclosed by a wall; the lower gate gives an extensive view of Spiš Castle, located on an opposite hill. Spišská Kapitula became the main seat of the church administration in the region in the 12th century. In 1776 it became the seat of the Diocese of Spiš; the present bishop, the 14th, is Mgr. Štefan Sečka. The town consists of St. Martin's Cathedral; the lower gate gives an extensive view of Spiš Castle, located on an opposite hill. Spišská Kapitula became the main seat of the church administration in the region in the 12th century. In 1776 it became the seat of the Diocese of Spiš; the present bishop, the 14th, is Mgr. Štefan Sečka. The cathedral was built between 15th centuries in the Romanesque and Gothic styles.
It is one of the largest and most interesting Romanesque monuments in Slovakia. It is the resting place of many lords of Spiš Castle. A restored wall-painting from 1317 depicts the coronation of Charles Robert of Anjou as the King of Hungary. Spišská Kapitula was visited by Pope John Paul II in 1995. St. Martin's Cathedral, the Romanesque Catholic cathedral in Spišská Kapitula is a local part of the town Spišské Podhradie in the district of Levoča, it is the parochial church. It is a Romanesque-Gothic cathedral, built in the first third of the 13th century pseudo-basilica with a central nave, two aisles and one transept. In 2003, the remains of Bishop Ján Vojtašák were deposited in the cathedral, it is one of the largest and most interesting Romanesque monuments in Slovakia. It is the resting place of many lords of Spiš Castle. A restored wall-painting from 1317 depicts the coronation of Charles Robert of Anjou as the King of Hungary. Spišská Kapitula became the main seat of the church administration in the region in the 12th century.
In 1776 it became the seat of the Diocese of Spiš, after Hungarian queen Maria Theresa split the Diocese of Eger. The Cathedral is one of the most valuable examples of Late-Gothic and Gothic architecture in Slovakia. Horváth, Tibor. Szlovákia. Budapest: Cartographia. ISBN 963-353-180-2. Gabor Méry, Marcell Jankovics - St. Martin's Cathedral Spišská Kapitula, Šamorín ISBN 978-80-8160-018-0 Vladimír Olejník, Ľubica Olejníková - Katedrála sv. Martina v Spišskej Kapitule, Spišské Podhradie: Rímskokatolícka cirkev Biskupstvo Spišské Podhradie ISBN 978-80-971341-5-0 https://www.spisskyhrad.com/lokalita/spisska-kapitula/ http://apsida.sk/c/3195/spisska-kapitula https://www.unesconadosah.sk/en/location/spisska-kapitula-spis-chapter Detailed description of Spišská Kapitula
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi