The Colorado Buffaloes are the athletic teams that represent the University of Colorado Boulder. The university sponsors 17 varsity sports teams. Both the men's and women's teams are called the Buffaloes or the Golden Buffaloes. "Lady Buffs" referred to the women's teams beginning in the 1970s, but was dropped in 1993. The nickname was selected by the campus newspaper in a contest with a $5 prize in 1934 won by Andrew Dickson of Boulder; the university participates as a member of the Pac-12 Conference at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision level. Rick George was announced as the sixth athletic director in program history on July 17, 2013, following the resignation of Mike Bohn, after an interim appointment by former Women's Basketball Head Coach and current senior associate athletic director and senior women's administrator Ceal Barry. Colorado has won 28 national championships in its history, with 20 in skiing, including 2015, it was ranked #14 of "America's Best Sports College" in a 2002 analysis performed by Sports Illustrated.
The University has no men's baseball, soccer, lacrosse, or volleyball programs. Competitive football began on the Boulder campus in 1890. Early games, which bore more resemblance to rugby than modern football, were played against the School of Mines and Utah; the football stadium named "Colorado Stadium," was opened in 1924 and was named Folsom Field in November 1944 to honor Coach Fred Folsom, one of the most respected college football coaches of his day. In 1934, the university's intercollegiate teams were nicknamed the "Buffaloes." Previous nicknames used by the press included the "Silver Helmets" and "Frontiersmen." The final game of 1934, against the University of Denver, saw the first running of a bison in a Colorado football game. A bison calf ran along the sidelines; the year 1947 marked key point in race relations on campus. The Buffaloes joined the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association known as the Big Six to be known as the Big Seven, the Big Eight; however and Oklahoma had rules which would have allowed them to challenge teams with "colored" players.
A student outcry, led by campus paper Silver and Gold, led to a movement against these Jim Crow restrictions which expanded to all the campuses of the Big 7 and lead to their repeal. On June 10, 2010, the Buffaloes announced that they would join the Pacific-10 Conference, soon renamed the Pac-12 Conference, in all sports beginning on July 1, 2011; the University of Colorado was a member of the Colorado Football Association in 1893, became a charter member of the Colorado Faculty Athletic Conference in 1909, which changed its name a year to Rocky Mountain Faculty Athletic Conference. Colorado left the RMFAC to become a charter member of the Mountain States Conference in 1938. CU joined the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1947 commonly known as the Big Six, changing the common name to the Big Seven. In 1958, the conference added OSU to become the Big Eight Conference, it remained the Big 8 until 1996, when it combined with four member schools of the defunct Southwest Conference to create the Big 12 Conference.
On July 1, 2011, the school joined the Pac-12 Conference along with Utah. A total of 12 of CU's 17 varsity sports compete in the Pac-12, except the ski teams, indoor track & field teams and the lacrosse team; the ski teams participate in the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association, of which it has been a member since 1947, along with fellow Pac-12 newcomer Utah. The indoor track & field teams participate in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation as the Pac-12 doesn't sponsor indoor track. Women's lacrosse was added in the spring of 2014. Colorado is the only Pac-12 school and one of only four Power 5 schools that do not sponsor baseball, the other three being Iowa State and Wisconsin; the Colorado football program is 16th on the all-time NCAA Division 1 win list and 22nd in all-time winning percentage. Since Folsom Field was built in 1924, the Buffaloes have been 280-132-10 at home; the Nebraska game in 2006 was the school's 1100th football game. Beginning competitive play in 1890, Colorado has enjoyed much success through its history.
The team has won numerous bowl games, 8 Colorado Football Association Championships, 1 Colorado Faculty Athletic Conference, 7 RFMAC Championships, 4 Mountain States Conference Championships, 5 Big Eight conference championships, 1 Big 12 conference championship, 4 Big 12 North Championships, an Associated Press National Championship in 1990. Bill McCartney is the most famous head coach, leading Colorado to its only National Championship Title in 1990; the current head coach is Mike MacIntyre. They play at the CU Events Center on campus and are 401-166 at home, through the 2015-16 season, including 88-15 in six years under coach Tad Boyle. ¹ Invitations Women's Basketball started at Colorado in 1975. The team has had seven coaches and the current coach is JR Payne; the CU ski team competes as a member of the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association, as CU is one of two members of t
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2017 was 606,589, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres away, whilst Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres east across the Sea of Japan; the city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky; the name first applied to the bay but, following an expedition by Alexey Shefner in 1860, was applied to the new settlement. In Chinese, the place where the city is situated nowadays has been known since the Qing Dynasty as Haishenwai, from the Manchu Haišenwai or "small seaside village"; as the Manchu Qing Dynasty banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria, it was only visited by shēnzéi who illegally entered the area seeking ginseng or sea cucumbers.
From this comes the Chinese name for the city, Hǎishēnwǎi. In modern-day China, Vladivostok is known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克, although the historical Chinese name 海參崴 is still used in common parlance and outside mainland China to refer to the city. According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name; the modern-day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku. The city was written in Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio ウラジオ. In Korean, the name is transliterated as Beulladiboseutokeu in South Korea, Ullajibosŭttokhŭ in North Korea and China; the aboriginals of the territory on which modern Vladivostok is located are the Udege minority, a sub-minority called the Taz which emerged through members of the indigenous Udege mixing with the nearby Chinese and Hezhe. The region had been part of many states, such as the Mohe, Balhae Kingdom, Liao Dynasty, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty and various other Chinese dynasties, before Russia acquired the entire Maritime Province and the island of Sakhalin by the Treaty of Beijing.
Qing China, which had just lost the Opium War with Britain, was unable to defend the region. The Manchu emperors of China, the Qing Dynasty, banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Vladivostok area —it was only visited by illegal gatherers of ginseng and sea cucumbers. On June 20, 1860, the military supply ship Manchur, under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Alexey K. Shefner, called at the Golden Horn Bay to found an outpost called Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct the first buildings of the future city; the Manza War in 1868 was the first attempt by Russia to expel Chinese from territory. Hostilities broke out around Vladivostok when the Russians tried to shut off gold mining operations and expel Chinese workers there; the Chinese resisted a Russian attempt to take Ashold Island and in response, two Russian military stations and three Russian towns were attacked by the Chinese whom the Russians failed to oust.
An elaborate system of fortifications was erected between the late 1890s. A telegraph line from Vladivostok to Shanghai and Nagasaki was opened in 1871; that same year a commercial port was relocated to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Town status was granted on April 22, 1880. A coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted in March 1883; the first high school was opened in 1899. The city's economy was given a boost in 1916, with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connected Vladivostok to Moscow and Europe. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks took control of Vladivostok and all the Trans-Siberian Railway. During the Russian Civil War they were overthrown by the White-allied Czechoslovak Legion, who declared the city to be an Allied protectorate. Vladivostok became the staging point for the Allies' Siberian intervention, a multi-national force including Japan, the United States, China; the intervention ended in the wake of the collapse of the White Army and regime in 1919.
In April 1920, the city came under the formal governance of the Far Eastern Republic, a Soviet-backed buffer state between the Soviets and Japan. Vladivostok became the capital of the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamurye Government, created after a White Army coup in the city in May 1921; the withdrawal of Japanese forces in October 1922 spelled the end of the enclave, with Ieronim Uborevich's Red Army taking the city on October 25, 1922. As the main naval base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, Vladivostok was closed to foreigners during the Soviet years; the city hosted the summit at which Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford conducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers. In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC s
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field; as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has come into common use. Aerospace engineering the astronautics branch is colloquially referred to as "rocket science". Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components, they are the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering; because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.
The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics, Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Many years after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft. Between World Wars I and II, great leaps were made in Aeronautical Engineering; the advent of mainstream civil aviation accelerated this process.
Notable airplanes of this era include the Curtiss JN 4, the Farman F.60 Goliath, Fokker trimotor. Notable military airplanes of this period include the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the Supermarine Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 from Japan, Great Britain, Germany respectively. A significant development in Aerospace engineering came with the first Jet engine-powered airplane, the Messerschmitt Me 262 which entered service in 1944 towards the end of the second World War; the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958. The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft and spacecraft under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957, U. S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. In 1969, Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to the moon took place.
It saw three astronauts enter orbit around the Moon, with two, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, visiting the lunar surface. The third astronaut, Michael Collins, stayed in orbit to rendezvous with Armstrong and Aldrin after their visit to the lunar surface; some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Radar cross-section – the study of vehicle signature apparent to Radar remote sensing. Fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. Aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels. Astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic. Statics and Dynamics – the study of movement, moments in mechanical systems. Mathematics – in particular, differential equations, linear algebra. Electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering.
Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets. A more recent addition to this module is ion propulsion. Control engineering – the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable; this applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, propulsion systems, subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles. Aircraft structures – design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight and low-cost while maintaining structural integrity. Materials science – related to structures, aerospace engineering studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance. Solid mechanics – Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle.
Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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North American B-25 Mitchell
The North American B-25 Mitchell is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. The design was named in honor of Major General William "Billy" Mitchell, a pioneer of U. S. military aviation. Used by many Allied air forces, the B-25 served in every theater of World War II and after the war ended many remained in service, operating across four decades. Produced in numerous variants, nearly 10,000 Mitchells rolled from NAA factories; these included a few limited models, such as the United States Marine Corps' PBJ-1 patrol bomber and the United States Army Air Forces' F-10 reconnaissance aircraft and AT-24 trainers. The Air Corps issued a circular in March 1938 describing the performance they required from the next bombers — a payload of 1,200 lb with a range of 1,200 mi at more than 200 mph; those performance specifications led NAA to submit their NA-40 design. The NA-40 had benefited from the North American XB-21 of 1936, the company's successful design for an earlier medium bomber, accepted and ordered, but cancelled.
However, the company's experience from the XB-21 contributed to the design and development of the NA-40. The single NA-40 built flew first at the end of January 1939, it went through several modifications to correct problems. These improvements included fitting 1,600 hp Wright R-2600 "Twin Cyclone" radial engines, in March 1939, which solved the lack of power. In March 1939, North American delivered the redesigned and improved NA-40 to the United States Army Air Corps for evaluation, it failed to win orders. The aircraft was intended to be an attack bomber for export to the United Kingdom and France, both of which had a pressing requirement for such aircraft in the early stages of World War II. However, the French had opted for a revised Douglas 7B; the NA-40B was destroyed in a crash on 11 April 1939 while undergoing testing. Although the crash was not considered due to a fault with the aircraft design, the Army ordered the DB-7 as the A-20; the Air Corps issued a specification for a medium bomber in March 1939, capable of carrying a payload of 2,400 lb over 1,200 mi at 300 mph NAA used the NA-40B design to develop the NA-62, which competed for the medium bomber contract.
There was no YB-25 for prototype service tests. In September 1939, the Air Corps ordered the NA-62 into production as the B-25, along with the other new Air Corps medium bomber, the Martin B-26 Marauder "off the drawing board". Early into B-25 production, NAA incorporated a significant redesign to the wing dihedral; the first nine aircraft had a constant-dihedral, meaning the wing had a consistent, upward angle from the fuselage to the wingtip. This design caused stability problems. "Flattening" the outer wing panels by giving them a slight anhedral angle just outboard of the engine nacelles nullified the problem, gave the B-25 its gull wing configuration. Less noticeable changes during this period included an increase in the size of the tail fins and a decrease in their inward tilt at their tops. NAA continued design and development in 1940 and 1941. Both the B-25A and B-25B series entered USAAF service; the B-25B was operational in 1942. Combat requirements led to further developments. Before the year was over, NAA was producing the B-25D series at different plants.
In 1942, the manufacturer began design work on the cannon-armed B-25G series. The NA-100 of 1943 and 1944 was an interim armament development at the Kansas City complex known as the B-25D2. Similar armament upgrades by U. S-based commercial modification centers involved about half of the B-25G series. Further development led to the B-25H, B-25J, B-25J2; the gunship design concept dates to late 1942 and NAA sent a field technical representative to the SWPA. The factory-produced B-25G entered production during the NA-96 order followed by the redesigned B-25H gunship; the B-25J reverted to the bomber role, but it, could be outfitted as a strafer. NAA manufactured the greatest number of aircraft in World War II, the first time a company had produced trainers and fighters simultaneously, it produced B-25s at both its Inglewood main plant and an additional 6,608 aircraft at its Kansas City, Kansas plant at Fairfax Airport. After the war, the USAF placed a contract for the TB-25L trainer in 1952; this was a modification program by Hayes of Alabama.
Its primary role was reciprocating engine pilot training. A development of the B-25 was the North American XB-28, designed as a high-altitude bomber. Two prototypes were built with the second prototype, the XB-28A, evaluated as a photo-reconnaissance platform, but the aircraft did not enter production; the majority of B-25s in American service were used in the war against Japan in Asia and the Pacific. The Mitchell fought from the Northern Pacific to the Far East; these areas included the campaigns in the Aleutian Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, New Britain, China and the island hopping campaign in the Central Pacific. The aircraft's potential as a ground-attack aircraft emerged during the Pacific war; the jungle environment reduced the usefulness of medium-level bombing, made low-level attack the best tactic. Using similar mast height level tactics and skip bombing, the B-25 proved itself to be a capable anti-shipping weapon and sank many enemy sea vessels of various types. An ever-increasing number of forward firing guns made the B-25 a formidable strafing aircraft for island warfa
Boulder is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, United States. It is the state's 11th most populous municipality; the city is 25 miles northwest of Denver. The population of the City of Boulder was 97,385 people at the 2010 U. S. Census, while the population of the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area was 294,567. Boulder is known for its association with American frontier history and for being the home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university; the city receives high rankings in art, well-being, quality of life, education. Boulder City was a part of the Nebraska Territory until February 28, 1861, when the Territory of Colorado was created by the US Congress, it developed as a supply base for miners going into the mountains. Residents of Boulder City provided these miners with equipment, agricultural products and drinking establishments. On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building on the CU campus.
The university opened on September 5, 1877. Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933; as of the 2010 census, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.84. Boulder's population is younger than the national average due to the presence of university students; the median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U. S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males. In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas.
For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500; the median price of a home exceeded $1 million in July 2016. The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons; the Flatirons are a recognized symbol of Boulder. The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek; the creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived from snow melt and minor springs west of the city; the creek is a tributary of the South Platte River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles. 24.7 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water.
The 40th parallel runs through Boulder and can be recognized as Baseline Road today. Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. Denver International Airport is located 45 miles southeast of Boulder. Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a semi-arid climate. Winter conditions range from mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F. There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F. Because of orographic lift, the mountains to the west dry out the air passing over the Front Range shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches per season, but snow depth is shallow.