An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, is a form of pollution. The term is given to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills penetrate into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water, the types of shorelines and beaches involved. Spills may take weeks, months or years to clean up.
Oil spills can have disastrous consequences for society. As a result, oil spill accidents have initiated intense media attention and political uproar, bringing many together in a political struggle concerning government response to oil spills and what actions can best prevent them from happening. Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged vulnerable ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, the Sundarbans and many other places; the quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons, but volume is a limited measure of damage or impact. Smaller spills have proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill because of the remoteness of the site or the difficulty of an emergency environmental response. Since 2004, between 300 and 700 barrels of oil per day have been leaking from the site of an oil-production platform 12 miles off the Louisiana coast which sank in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan.
The oil spill, which officials estimate could continue throughout the 21st century, will overtake the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizion disaster as the largest but there are no efforts to cap the many leaking well heads. Oil spills at sea are much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil; these can kill seabirds, mammals and other organisms they coat. Oil spills on land are more containable if a makeshift earth dam can be bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes, land animals can avoid the oil more easily. An oil spill represents an immediate fire hazard; the Kuwaiti oil fires produced air pollution. The Deepwater Horizon explosion killed eleven oil rig workers; the fire resulting from the Lac-Mégantic derailment killed 47 and destroyed half of the town's centre. Spilled oil can contaminate drinking water supplies. For example, in 2013 two different oil spills contaminated water supplies for 300,000 in Miri, Malaysia.
In 2000, springs were contaminated by an oil spill in Kentucky. Contamination can have an economic impact on tourism and marine resource extraction industries. For example, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted beach tourism and fishing along the Gulf Coast, the responsible parties were required to compensate economic victims. In general, spilled oil can affect animals and plants in two ways: dirесt from the oil and from the response or cleanup process. There is no clear relationship between the amount of oil in the aquatic environment and the impact on biodiversity. A smaller spill at the wrong time/wrong season and in a sensitive environment may prove much more harmful than a larger spill at another time of the year in another or the same environment. Oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing their insulating ability, making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Animals who rely on scent to find their babies or mothers cannot due to the strong scent of the oil.
This causes a baby to be rejected and abandoned, leaving the babies to starve and die. Oil can impair a bird's ability preventing it from foraging or escaping from predators; as they preen, birds may ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the digestive tract, altering liver function, causing kidney damage. Together with their diminished foraging capacity, this can result in dehydration and metabolic imbalance; some birds exposed to petroleum experience changes in their hormonal balance, including changes in their luteinizing protein. The majority of birds affected by oil spills die from complications without human intervention; some studies have suggested that less than one percent of oil-soaked birds survive after cleaning, although the survival rate can exceed ninety percent, as in the case of the Treasure oil spill. Furred marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways. Oil coats the fur of sea otters and seals, reducing its insulating effect, leading to fluctuations in body temperature and hypothermia.
Oil can blind an animal, leaving it defenseless. The ingestion of oil impairs the digestive process. Animals can be poisoned, may die from oil entering the lungs or liver. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria. Su
A spill vase is a small cylindrical vase or wall-hanging vase for containing splints and tapers for transferring fire, for example to light a candle or pipe from a lit fire. From the documentary record, they date back to the 15th century. Spills are made of rolled paper tapers or thin wood sticks. There are some examples made in glass, although these are limited to the 1840s-50s. A spill vase was kept on the mantelpiece and was filled with spills used to transfer fire from the fireplace to candles, lamps, a pipe or a cigar. Commercial matches, which first surfaced in England during the 1820s, were a expensive commodity until the late 19th century, spill was therefore a more cost effective solution; some examples of spill vases have a rectangular holder for a matchbox, which allowed the user to light a single splint, or sliver of wood with the match and use the spill to transfer the fire to several candles. From 1860-65 there was a huge transitional period in the evolution of lighting and accessories.
With the spread of electricity, spill vases became redundant, as people relied less on fire for lighting. However they became expensive collectibles on the antiques market. Agatha Christie refers to spill vases in her story "The Mysterious Affair at Styles" thus: "Poirot had walked over to the mantel-piece... his hands, which from long force of habit were mechanically straightening the spill vases on the mantel-piece, were shaking violently."
A European superstition holds that spilling salt is an evil omen. The belief in the ill luck that comes from spilt salt is quite old, going back to ancient Rome; the 1556 Hieroglyphica of Piero Valeriano Bolzani reports that "alt was a symbol of friendship, because of its lasting quality. For it makes substances more compact and preserves them for a long time: hence it was presented to guests before other food, to signify the abiding strength of friendship. Wherefore many consider it ominous to spill salt on the table, and, on the other hand, propitious to spill wine if unmixed with water."This may not be the actual explanation since salt was a valuable commodity in ancient times and, as such, was seen as a symbol of trust and friendship. A German proverb held that "whoever spills salt arouses enmity". According to Charles Nodier, among "savages", the "action of spilling salt... indicates among them the refusal of protection and hospitality from such strangers as they may have reason to suspect are thieves and murderers."This led to the common misconception that due to salt being such a valuable item Roman soldiers were paid in it.
There is no historical evidence for this belief. The idea is so held and has been for so long that the etymology of the word salary comes from the Latin salarium was salt money, i.e. the sum paid to soldiers for salt. One widespread explanation of the belief that it is unlucky to spill salt is that Judas Iscariot spilled the salt at the Last Supper and indeed Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper depicts Judas Iscariot having knocked over a salt-cellar; this is taken as a questionable explanation because spilling salt was considered a bad omen and indeed the imagery predates da Vinci's usage. Some have scoffed at the omen. Herbert Spencer wrote that "A consciousness in which there lives the idea that spilling salt will be followed by some evil allied as it is to the consciousness of the savage, filled with beliefs in omens and charms, gives a home to other beliefs like those of the savage." Still a variety of methods are used to avert the evil omen of spilled salt. The most common contemporary belief requires you to toss a pinch of the spilt salt over your left shoulder, into the face of the Devil who lurks there.
Though disregarded as an ineffectual superstition, Professor Jane Risen of Chicago University has published research that shows such "jinx avoidance behavior" can have a positive effect on people's actions after a perceived bad luck event. One of the reasons that this superstition has been so enduring and widespread is that salt has long held an important place in religions of many cultures. In Brahmanic sacrifices and during festivals held by Semites as well the Greeks at the time of the new moon, salt was thrown into fire to make crackling noises. Ancient Egyptians and Romans invoked gods with salt offerings; some people think this to be the origin of Holy Water in Christianity. In Aztec mythology, Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt water. Salt is an auspicious substance in Hinduism and is used in ceremonies like house-warmings and weddings. In Jainism, an offering of raw rice with a pinch of salt signifies devotion and salt is sprinkled on a person's cremated remains before burial.
Salt is believed to ward off evil spirits in Mahayana Buddhist tradition, after a funeral, salt is thrown over the left shoulder to prevent evil spirits from entering the house. In Shinto, salt ritually purifies locations and people and piles of salt are placed in dishes by the entrance of businesses to ward off evil and attract patrons. In the Old Testament thirty-five verses mention salt, some examples are:Lot's wife was turned into a pillar of salt when she looked back at the Sodom and Gomorrah as they were destroyed; when the judge Abimelech destroyed Shechem he is said to have "sown salt on it,". The Book of Job mentions salt as a condiment. "Can that, unsavoury be eaten without salt? or is there any taste in the white of an egg?". In the New Testament, six verses mention salt, examples include:In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus referred to followers as the "salt of the earth"; the apostle Paul encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt". In Catholicism:Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.
Salt is the third item of the Celtic Consecration, or Gallican Rite, employed in church consecration. It may be added to the water ``. In Judaism, it is recommended to have either a salty bread or to add salt to the bread if this bread is unsalted when doing Kiddush for Shabbat, it is customary to spread some salt over the bread or to dip the bread in a little salt when passing the bread around the table after the Kiddush. To preserve the covenant between their people and God, Jewish people dip Sabbath bread in salt. In Wicca, it's symbolic of the element Earth, it is cleanses an area of harmful, negative energy. A dish of salt and one of water are on most altars, salt is used in many rituals
In compiler optimization, register allocation is the process of assigning a large number of target program variables onto a small number of CPU registers. Register allocation can happen over a basic block, over a whole function/procedure, or across function boundaries traversed via call-graph; when done per function/procedure the calling convention may require insertion of save/restore around each call-site. In many programming languages, the programmer may use any number of variables; the computer can read and write registers in the CPU, so the computer program runs faster when more variables can be in the CPU's registers. Sometimes code accessing registers is more compact, so the code is smaller, can be fetched faster if it uses registers rather than memory. However, the number of registers is limited. Therefore, when the compiler is translating code to machine-language, it must decide how to allocate variables to the limited number of registers in the CPU. Not all variables are in use at the same time, so, over the lifetime of a program, a given register may be used to hold different variables.
However, two variables in use at the same time cannot be assigned to the same register without corrupting one of the variables. If there are not enough registers to hold all the variables, some variables may be moved to and from RAM; this process is called "spilling" the registers. Over the lifetime of a program, a variable can be both spilled and stored in registers: this variable is considered as "split". Accessing RAM is slower than accessing registers and so a compiled program runs slower. Therefore, an optimizing compiler aims to assign as many variables to registers as possible. A high "Register pressure" is a technical term that means that more reloads are needed. In addition, some computer designs. So, programs can be further optimized by assigning the same register to a source and destination of a move instruction whenever possible; this is important if the compiler is using an intermediate representation such as static single-assignment form. In particular, when SSA is not optimized it can artificially generate additional move instructions.
Register allocation consists therefore in choosing where to store the variables at runtime, i.e. inside or outside registers. If the variable is to be stored in registers the allocator needs to determine in which register this variable will be stored. Another challenge is to determine the duration for which a variable should stay at the same location. A register allocator, disregarding the chosen allocation strategy, can rely on a set of core actions to address these challenges; these actions can be gathered in three different categories: Move insertion This action consists in increasing the number of move instructions between registers, i.e. make a variable live in different registers during its lifetime, instead of one. This occurs in the split live range approach. Spilling This action consists of storing a variable into memory instead of registers. Assignment This action consists of assigning a register to a variable. Coalescing This action consists of limiting the number of moves between registers, thus limiting the total number of instructions.
For instance, by identifying a variable live across different methods, storing it into one register during its whole lifetime. A lot of register allocation approaches try to optimize one or the other category of actions. Register allocation raises several problems that can be tackled by different register allocation approaches. Three of the most common problems are identified as follows: Aliasing In some architectures, assigning a value to one register can affect the value of another: this is called aliasing. For example the x86 architecture has four general purpose 32-bit registers that can be used as 16-bit or 8-bits registers. In this case, assigning a 32-bits value to the eax register will affect the value of the al register. Pre-coloring This problem is an act to force some variables to be assigned to particular registers. For example, in PowerPC architecture parameters are passed in R3-R10 and the return value is passed in R3. NP-Problem Chaitin et al. showed. Indeed, they reduced the problem as a graph-coloring problem, where each node represents a variable and color represents the number of machine registers.
That graph can be arbitrary. Register allocation can happen over a basic block of code: it is said to be "local", was first mentioned by Horwitz et al; as basic blocks do not contain branches, the allocation process is thought to be fast, because the management of control flow graph merge points in register allocation reveals itself a time-consuming operation. However, this approach is thought not to produce as optimized code as the "global" approach, which operates over the whole compilation unit. Graph-coloring allocation is the predominant approach to solve register allocation, it was first proposed by al.. In this approach, nodes in the graph represent live ranges that are candidates for register allocation. Edges connect live ranges that interfere, i.e. live ranges that are live at at least one program point. Register allocation reduces to the graph coloring problem in which colors are assigned to the nodes such that two nodes connected by an edge do not receive the same color
St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It is the terminus for Eurostar continental services from London via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel to Belgium and the Netherlands, it provides East Midlands Trains and Thameslink services to Corby and Nottingham on the Midland Main Line and Southeastern high-speed trains to Kent via Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International, local Thameslink cross-London services. It stands between the British Library, the Regent's Canal and King's Cross railway station, with which it shares a London Underground station, King's Cross St. Pancras; the station was constructed by the Midland Railway, which had an extensive network across the Midlands and the North of England, but no dedicated line into London. After rail traffic problems following the 1862 International Exhibition, the MR decided to build a connection from Bedford to London with their own terminus.
The station was constructed with a single-span iron roof. Following the station's opening on 1 October 1868, the MR constructed the Midland Grand Hotel on the station's façade, praised for its architecture and is now a Grade I listed building along with the rest of the station. By the 1960s, St Pancras was surplus to requirements and services were diverted to King's Cross and Euston but there was fierce opposition to its proposed closure and demolition of the station and hotel; the station was reinvented in the late 20th century as the terminal for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in an urban regeneration plan across East London. The complex underwent a £800 million refurbishment, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in November 2007. A security-sealed terminal area was constructed for Eurostar services to continental Europe via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel, with platforms for domestic trains to the north and south-east of England; the restored station has 15 platforms, a shopping centre, a coach facility.
St Pancras is owned by London and Continental Railways and managed by Network Rail, a subsidiary of Network Rail. St Pancras is at the southern end of the London Borough of Camden on a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide; the south is bounded by Euston Road, its frontage is the St Pancras Renaissance Hotel, while the west is bounded by Midland Road which separates it from the British Library and the east by Pancras Road which separates it from King's Cross station. The British Library is on the former goods yard site. Behind the hotel, the train shed is elevated 5 m above street level and the area below forms the station undercroft; the northern half of the station is bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is King's Cross Central known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads and the Regent's Canal. Several London bus routes serve St Pancras, including 10, 59, 73, 205 and 390.
The station's name comes from the St. Pancras neighbourhood, which originates from the fourth-century Christian boy martyr Pancras of Rome; the station was commissioned by the Midland Railway, who had a network of routes in the Midlands, in south and west Yorkshire and Lancashire but no route of its own to London. Before 1857 the MR used the lines of the L&NWR for trains into the capital. In 1862, traffic for the second International Exhibition suffered extensive delays over the stretch of line into London over the GNR's track; this was the stimulus for the MR to build its own line to London from Bedford, which would be just under 50 miles long. Samuel Carter was solicitor for the parliamentary bill, sanctioned in 1863; the station was designed by William Henry Barlow and constructed on a site, a slum called Agar Town. Though coal and goods were the main motivation to build the station, the Midland realised the prestige of having a central London terminus, decided it must have a front on Euston Road.
The company purchased the eastern section of land on the road's north side owned by Earl Somers. The approaching line to the station crossed the Regent's Canal at height allowing the line reasonable gradients. Initial plans were for a two or three span roof with the void between station and ground level filled with spoil from tunnelling to join the Midland Main Line to the St. Pancras branch. Instead, due to the value of the land in such a location the lower area was used for freight, in particular beer from Burton; as a result, the undercroft was built with columns and girders, maximising space, set out to the same plans as those used for beer warehouses, with a basic unit of length that of a beer barrel. The contract for the construction of the station substructure and connecting lines was given to Messrs. Waring, with Barlow's assistant Campion as supervisor; the lower floor for beer warehousing contained interior columns 15 ft wide, 48 ft deep carrying girders supporting the main station and track.
The connection to the Widened Lines ran below the station's bottom level, in an east-to-west direction. To avoid the foundations of the roof interfering with the space beneath, to simplify the design, and
Spill.com was a movie and video game review and news website. It was the continuation of the 9 year old Austin, Texas based public-access television cable TV show called The Reel Deal. There were four main film critic contributors to the website, collectively known as the Spill Crew, including Korey Coleman, Chris Cox, Martin Thomas, C. Robert Cargill, Tony Guerrero. Under aliases, with the exception of Coleman, they reviewed movies as animated versions of themselves or in uncut audio reviews, maintaining their personas in weekly podcasts; the website was owned under R&S Investments. Stylistically, the site strived to maintain a "down-to-earth vibe." As of July 2013, Spill.com had over 50,000 registered members. On December 6, 2013, it was announced; as of December 20, 2013, The URL for the website now redirects to the Hollywood.com website. Their final review was for the 2013 Disney film Saving Mr. Banks. Founder Korey Coleman posted on his Facebook page that he cannot share details regarding the shutdown but that he has made peace with "past events" and "everything is fine".
He received funds via a successful Kickstarter to start a new website that will be a spiritual successor to Spill.com titled Double Toasted alongside Martin Thomas. Chris Cox, better known as Cyrus, started his own website OneOfUs.net. The Reel Deal was the precursor to Spill.com. The show began in Austin as a live, call-in format cable access television program, from the same local channel where Alex Jones of Infowars and Matt Dillahunty of The Atheist Experience emerged, developing a strong fan base locally; the show featured a cast of rotating members discussing and reviewing movies, along with other topics. Spliced in between these discussions were skits that parodied popular movies and current topics; the show ended after Korey decided that,"As much fun as it was, I didn't want to spend another 10 years doing an access show." Coleman tried experimenting with short animated versions of movie reviews, which were uploaded onto YouTube. It was discovered by Dave McCarthy, an executive at MIVA Inc. a marketing corporation.
McCarthy and MIVA offered to finance Korey, aiding him in starting the website in 2007. MIVA owned the website, handling the marketing and logistics of the site, leaving Korey and the other members of Spill.com in charge of creating content. While the creative team has grown and expanded over the years, Coleman was involved in the animation process; the site was bought by Hollywood.com, owned by R&S Investments, in 2009. In 2009 and 2012, Spill received the People's Choice Podcast Award for Best Film/Movie Podcast. There were four main film critics on Spill.com. With the exception of Korey Coleman, they used aliases on the site due to legal issues. Critics included founder of the site and main host. Guerrero appeared in animation as a floating spherical robot, rather than a caricature of himself. Reviews included two or more of the critics, though some included Korey on his own. Co-Host rarely appeared in ensemble reviews, but in 2009 and 2010 began to take a more active role on the site as former reviewer "Carlyle" left the site to pursue his writing career.
Korey Coleman - The creator of the site and main host. His character is known for his gregariousness, narcissism changing his opinions to better suit his co-host's, quick temper, edgy jokes, he strives to maintain humor in reviews and podcasts, ends reviews with jokes about other ways a film could play out. He hosted/co-hosted all Spill.com podcasts'A Couple of Cold Ones','Let's Do This!','The Daily Spill','SPOILED!' and the'Spill Live Call-In Show'. After the site's shutdown, accompanied by his good friend Martin Thomas, formed a new site entitled Doubletoasted.com which centered on podcasting and film related material, only this time with more of a focus on live streaming and audience interaction. Cyrus - Seemingly the most nerdy and overly cynical of the group and very eager to express his insecurities on air, his character is fond of pop culture and internet ephemera, such as LOL Cats and memes. Although the most professional and reliable member of the Spill crew, he is an opinionated critic with an unbridled love for Joss Whedon, a tendency to drink, is a parody of an atheist critical of organized religion.
Since the termination of the podcast'The League of Extremely Ordinary Gentlemen,' co-hosts the podcast'The Daily Spill.' After Spill's shutdown, Cyrus abandoned his character's name in favor of his real one and helped establish the geek-centered pop culture site: OneofUs.net. Leon - The eldest and most level-headed critic of the group, his involvement became limited since the restructuring of Spill.com. His character shares Cyrus' love of pop culture; as the "wisest" of the bunch, his reviews and/or contributions tend to be the most balanced and objective of the Spill crew. A short stint of spoiling movies resulted in him earning the supervillain moniker "The Spoiler." His character serves as Korey's whipping boy. His age was the subject of their recurring jokes, he hosted/co-hosted the podcast'A Couple of Cold Ones' and contributed to several re
Spill is the occurrence in sound recording and live sound mixing whereby sound is picked up by a microphone from a source other than that, intended. Spill is seen as a problem, various steps are taken to avoid it or reduce it. In some styles of music, such as orchestral music and blues, it is more to be accepted or seen as desirable. Spill occurs. Spill is undesirable in popular music recording, as the combined signals during the mix process can cause phase cancellation and may cause difficulty in processing individual tracks, it causes difficulty in overdubbing, where the spill from the sound being replaced may still be audible on other channels. For sound reinforcement in live shows, mic bleed can make it hard for the sound engineer to control the levels of the different instruments and vocals onstage. For example, if an electric guitarist's loud amplifier is bleeding into the drum and vocal mics, it may be hard for the sound engineer to reduce the volume of the guitar in the onstage mix. Spill can introduce sounds which are not desired as part of the recording or live sound mix, such as the sound of a squeaking piano pedal, the clacking of keys on a bassoon, or the rustling of papers on a public speaker's podium.
Spill is sometimes accepted or desirable in classical music recordings, as it can create a natural sound between instruments. A guide to orchestral recordings notes that an ″...advantage in using a ribbon mic on the brass is that...there will be a slight pickup of the strings on those mics which gives you a nice depth of field on the strings due to mic bleed ″. For some Classical recordings, the spacious sound of mic bleed is simulated; the ″SPACE programming module... uses delay and phasing to emulate positioning and microphone bleed within a multi-miked sound stage that has come to define that film score sound we are all used to hearing″. This is true for drum recording and productions that need a "live" feel. Whereas pop songs are recorded one track at a time, for jazz and blues and other improvisation-based music, it is desirable to have the band perform together, because this creates a better "feel" and more "swing", because the musicians "feed" off each other's ideas in real time. For example, in a jazz tune, the "comping" musicians will alter their improvised accompaniment in response to the solo lines played by the saxophone player.
In Jamaican reggae and dub, mic bleed is purposely used in recordings. Spill is experienced with vocal recording, when the accompaniment is monitored through speakers or open-backed headphones, it may be a problem in studios without talkback facilities. Recording engineers and live sound engineers aim to avoid spill by: Placing microphones closer to the sound source Using acoustic barriers. Reducing sound reflection in the recording room Having the different instruments and amplifiers set up in different isolation booths or rooms Recording every instrument and vocal one at a time using a multi-track recording system. Using directional microphones Maximising the distance between sound sources Using DI units rather than microphones Using piezoelectric pickups For vocalists, using closed shell headphones Cutting frequencies with an equalizer that are not present in the intended microphones's instrument or vocals Align tracks whenever possible, taking into account that there is audio sources more pollutants than others.
For that, it is better to use a plug-in tool for "finding similarities and time differences". Spill is avoided by using a 3:1 distance rule of thumb, which states that for each unit of distance between a sound source and its microphone, other microphones should be placed at least three times as far. Other methods of minimising spill include the use of noise gates. Spill is evident on The Beatles' song "Yesterday", he had recorded acoustic guitar and vocals together on different tracks, though the spill of vocals onto the acoustic guitar track gave an effect similar to double tracking. Spill can be heard on the vocal track of Christina Aguilera's "Beautiful". Engineer Dave Pensado said that although the vocal track contained spill from Aguilera's headphones, the "bleed is honest", which suited the song as it was "about being beautiful and honest in every way"