Spiritual (music)

Spirituals is a genre of songs originating in the United States and created by African Americans. Spirituals were an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while describing the hardships of slavery. Although spirituals were unaccompanied monophonic songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements; this historic group of uniquely American songs is now recognized as a distinct genre of music. The term "spiritual" is derived from "spiritual song", from the King James Bible's translation of Ephesians 5:19, which says, "Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs and making melody in your heart to the Lord." Slave Songs of the United States, the first major collection of Negro spirituals, was published in 1867. The genre was called "Sorrow Songs", as in W. E. B. Du Bois' The Souls of Black Folk. Musicologist George Pullen Jackson extended the term "spiritual" to a wider range of folk hymnody, as in his 1938 book, White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands, but this does not appear to have been widespread usage previously.

The term, has been broadened to include subsequent arrangements into more standard European-American hymnodic styles, to include post-emancipation songs with stylistic similarities to the original African American spirituals. Although numerous rhythmical and sonic elements of spirituals can be traced to African sources, spirituals are a musical form, indigenous and specific to the religious experience in the United States of Africans and their descendants, they are a result of the interaction of music and religion from Africa with music and religion of European origin. Further, this interaction occurred only in the United States. Africans who converted to Christianity in other parts of the world in the Caribbean and Latin America, did not evolve this particular form; the enslaved people brought West African cultural traditions with them. Many of their activities, from work to worship, involved dance. However, their European masters banned many of their African-derived forms of worship involving drumming and dancing as they were considered to be idolatrous.

The enslaved people were forced to perform their music in seclusion. Field holler music known as Levee Camp Holler music, was an early form of African American music, described in the 19th century. Field hollers laid the foundations for the blues and rhythm and blues. Field hollers and hollers of the enslaved people and sharecroppers working in cotton fields, prison chain gangs, railway gangs or turpentine camps were the precursor to the call and response of African American spirituals and gospel music, to jug bands, minstrel shows, stride piano, to the blues and blues, jazz and African American music in general. Spirituals were expressions of religious faith; some may have served as socio-political protests veiled as assimilation to white American culture. They originated among enslaved Africans in the United States. Slavery was introduced to the British colonies in the early 17th century, enslaved people replaced indentured servants as an economic labor force during the 17th century. In the United States, these people would remain in bondage for the entire 18th century and much of the 19th century.

Most were not emancipated until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865. Enslaved people were forbidden to speak their native languages, were converted to Christianity. With narrow vocabularies, enslaved people would use the words they did know to translate biblical information and facts from their other sources into song. While some slave owners believed that Christian slaves would be more docile, others came to feel that stories of Moses leading the Israelites out of bondage were counterproductive. Forced conversion only worked to a point since church attendance might be required, but control could not extend to thoughts and feelings; some enslaved people became Christians voluntarily, either because it helped them endure hardships or because membership may have offered other benefits. Many of the enslaved people turned towards the Methodist churches. In some places enslaved Africans were permitted, or encouraged, to hold their own prayer meetings; because they were unable to express themselves in ways that were spiritually meaningful to them, religious services were, at times, the only place enslaved people could legitimately congregate and safely express feelings.

During these meetings, worshipers would sing, chant and sometimes enter ecstatic trances. Along with spirituals, shouts emerged in the Praise Houses. Shouts begin with the shuffling of feet and clapping of hands. Drums were used as they had been for communication; when the connection between drumming and resistance was made drums were forbidden. Enslaved people introduced a number of new instruments to America: the bones, body percussion, an instrument variously called the bania, banju, or banjar, a precursor to the banjo but without frets, they drew on their African heritage. They brought with them from Africa long-standing religious traditions that highlighted the importance of storytelling. Music was an essential element in communicating identity, shared social mores, traditional customs, ethnic history; the primary function of the spirituals was as communal songs sung in a religious gathering, performed in a call-response pattern reminiscent of West African traditional re

2010 Hungarian presidential election

An indirect presidential election was held in Hungary on 29 June 2010. The Prime Minister's nominee Pál Schmitt was elected by an absolute majority. Following the 2010 Hungarian parliamentary election, Fidesz came out with an overwhelming majority of seats. With a two-thirds majority requirement needed to elect the president, Fidesz was expected to win since it had the necessary numbers. Nominations were due by midday of 25 June 2010. Fidesz nominated speaker of parliament Pál Schmitt on 23 June 2010. Jobbik intended to nominate Krisztina Morvai, Politics Can Be Different wished to nominate incumbent President László Sólyom, but neither had enough MPs to do so. Once elected, the new president would take office on 5 August 2010. Most Hungarians said. Forty-eight percent of respondents said that the president's independence from the government is among the most important considerations for the office, though 46 percent said it is important that the president be able to work well with the prime minister.

However, polling suggested that should the election be a popular one, Schmitt would get 32 percent of the vote, outgoing President László Sólyom would get 24 percent, Socialist Party nominee András Balogh would get 14 percent and Jobbik's Krisztina Morvai would get 6 percent. Twenty-four percent said they would not vote for any of the candidates or declined to answer the question. Several Fidesz MP's expressed concern over the electoral outcome saying that though Schmitt was "a charmer and capable person," they didn't feel he was right for the job because any mistake he may make would reflect poorly on Prime Minister Viktor Orbán, who had selected him; the President of the European Parliament Jerzy Buzek welcomed the election of Schmitt

Linda McEachrane

Linda Dawn McEachrane is a former swimmer from Trinidad and Tobago, who specialized in sprint freestyle events. She is a 2004 USA Freshman Swimmer of the Year, is named 2002 National Sportswoman of the Year by the Trinidad & Tobago Olympic Committee. McEachrane is a former varsity swimmer for Tulane Green Wave, a business graduate at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. McEachrane qualified for the women's 100 m freestyle at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, by posting a FINA B-standard entry time of 58.00 from a TTOC sanctioned time trial in Port of Spain. She challenged seven other swimmers on the second heat, including three-time Olympian Agnese Ozoliņa of Latvia. McEachrane cruised to third place by 0.36 of a second behind Kazakhstan's Yelena Skalinskaya in 58.92. McEachrane failed to advance into the semifinals, as she placed forty-second overall in the preliminaries. Six years after graduating from the University, McEachrane was inducted to the Tulane Athletics Hall of Fame for her full commitment and dedication to the sport of swimming.

Player Bio – Tulane Green Wave