Spiritualism is a religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or the "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve; these two beliefs—that contact with spirits is possible, that spirits are more advanced than humans—lead spiritualists to a third belief: that spirits are capable of providing useful knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about the nature of God. Some spiritualists will speak of a concept which they refer to as "spirit guides"—specific spirits contacted, who are relied upon for spiritual guidance. Spiritism, a branch of spiritualism developed by Allan Kardec and today practiced in Continental Europe and Latin America in Brazil, emphasizes reincarnation. Spiritualism developed and reached its peak growth in membership from the 1840s to the 1920s in English-speaking countries. By 1897, spiritualism was said to have more than eight million followers in the United States and Europe drawn from the middle and upper classes.

Spiritualism flourished for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, attaining cohesion through periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, the missionary activities of accomplished mediums. Many prominent spiritualists were women, like most spiritualists, supported causes such as the abolition of slavery and women's suffrage. By the late 1880s the credibility of the informal movement had weakened due to accusations of fraud perpetrated by mediums, formal spiritualist organizations began to appear. Spiritualism is practiced through various denominational spiritualist churches in the United States and the United Kingdom. Spiritualism and its belief system became protected characteristics under Law in the U. K. in 2009 by Alan Power at the UKEAT, England. Spiritualists believe in the possibility of communication with the spirits of dead people, whom they regard as "discarnate humans", they believe that spirit mediums are gifted to carry on such communication, but that anyone may become a medium through study and practice.

They believe that spirits are capable of growth and perfection, progressing through higher spheres or planes, that the afterlife is not a static state, but one in which spirits evolve. The two beliefs—that contact with spirits is possible, that spirits may dwell on a higher plane—lead to a third belief, that spirits can provide knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about God and the afterlife. Many believers therefore speak of "spirit guides"—specific spirits contacted, relied upon for worldly and spiritual guidance. According to Spiritualists, anyone may receive spirit messages, but formal communication sessions are held by mediums, who claim thereby to receive information about the afterlife; as an informal movement, Spiritualism does not have a defined set of rules, but various Spiritualist organizations within the USA have adopted variations on some or all of a "Declaration of Principles" developed between 1899 and 1944 and revised as as 2004. In October 1899, a six article "Declaration of Principles" was adopted by the National Spiritualist Association at a convention in Chicago, Illinois.

An additional two principles were added by the NSA in October 1909, at a convention in Rochester, New York. In October 1944, a ninth principle was adopted by the National Spiritualist Association of Churches, at a convention in St. Louis, Missouri. In the UK, the main organisation representing Spiritualism is the Spiritualists' National Union, whose teachings are based on the Seven Principles. Spiritualism first appeared in the 1840s in the "Burned-over District" of upstate New York, where earlier religious movements such as Millerism and Mormonism had emerged during the Second Great Awakening, though Mormonism did not associate itself with Spiritualism; this region of New York State was an environment in which many thought direct communication with God or angels was possible, that God would not behave harshly—for example, that God would not condemn unbaptised infants to an eternity in Hell. In this environment, the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg and the teachings of Franz Mesmer provided an example for those seeking direct personal knowledge of the afterlife.

Swedenborg, who claimed to communicate with spirits while awake, described the structure of the spirit world. Two features of his view resonated with the early Spiritualists: first, that there is not a single Hell and a single Heaven, but rather a series of higher and lower heavens and hells. Although Swedenborg warned against seeking out spirit contact, his works seem to have inspired in others the desire to do so. Swedenborg was a regarded inventor and scientist, achieving several engineering innovations and studying physiology and anatomy. “in 1741, he began to have a series of intense mystical experiences and visions, claiming that he had been called by God to reform Christianity and introduce a new church."Mesmer did not contribute religious beliefs, but he brought a technique known as hypnotism, that it was claimed could induce trances and cause subjects to report contact with supernatural beings. There was a great deal of professional showmanship inherent to demonstrations of Mesmerism, the practitioners who lectured in mid-19th-century North America sought to entertain their audiences as well as to demonstrate methods for personal contact with the divine.


2008 Dallas Cowboys season

The 2008 Dallas Cowboys season was the franchise's 49th season in the National Football League. The season ended when the Cowboys were blown out by the Philadelphia Eagles 44–6 in week 17, their worst loss since the 1985 Chicago Bears came to Texas Stadium and beat the Cowboys 44–0, it was the last season. Despite entering the last month of the season four games above.500, they failed to make the playoffs for the first time since 2005, losing three of their last four games and finishing with a 9–7 record. Re-signed long snapper L. P. Ladouceur to a five-year contract extension. Re-signed pro-bowl left offensive tackle Flozell Adams. Signed veteran linebacker Zach Thomas to one-year, $3 million deal. Placed the franchise tag on pro-bowl free safety Ken Hamlin. Traded for Ex-Titan defensive back Adam "Pacman" Jones. Released Wide Receiver Terry Glenn Released fullback Oliver Hoyte who has signed with the Kansas City Chiefs. Cornerback Jacques Reeves joined the Houston Texans. Running back Julius Jones signed a four-year deal with the Seattle Seahawks.

Safety Keith Davis signed with the Miami Dolphins, but re-signed with the Cowboys after his subsequent release from Miami. Defensive tackle Jason Ferguson, linebacker Akin Ayodele and tight end Anthony Fasano traded to the Miami Dolphins. Cornerback Nate Jones The Cowboys arrived in Oxnard, California for training camp on July 24. HBO and NFL Films filmed the Cowboys for the fourth season of Hard Knocks which premiered on August 6; the Cowboys began camp with all but three players: Felix Jones, Mike Jenkins, Terry Glenn. Jones and Jenkins both signed contracts the next day, flew out to California to report. Soon afterward, Terry Glenn was released to waivers. Owner Jerry Jones explained that, "I think at the end of the day, it had more to do with where we are right now, the managing of how he got to the field, the aspect of concentrating on the what ifs and how it might've impacted how we give our young players a chance, how we evaluate that position." The main story lines in camp have revolved around the new addition of Adam "Pacman" Jones, the injury to Terence Newman.

Jones was proving daily in camp that he is still worthy of being named one of the top cornerbacks in the league, but was not reinstated to the NFL until August 28. Newman injured his groin on July 28, is expected to be out for three weeks; the Cowboys cut the roster from 80 to 75 after training camp waived more players following the final pre-season game to drop the roster count to league limit of 53, one of, 6th-round draft pick Eric Walden. Walden was picked up on waivers by the Kansas City Chiefs; the following players made it through waivers to land spots on the practice squad: Danny Amendola, Alonzo Coleman, Tearrius George, Rodney Hannah, Mike Jefferson, Marcus Dixon and Julius Crosslin. In a surprising turn of events, Dallas CB Evan Ogelsby was released to make room on the roster for Special Teams Ace, Keith Davis who returned to the Cowboys after being cut from the Dolphins. Notes The Cowboys traded their 2007 first-round selection to the Cleveland Browns for 2007 second-round and 2008 first-round selections.

The Cowboys traded their first and seventh-round selections for the Seattle Seahawks' first-round selection in order to move up in the first-round and select Mike Jenkins. The Cowboys traded their third-round selection to the Detroit Lions for 2008 and 2009 fourth-round selections; the Cowboys traded linebacker Akin Ayodele and tight end Anthony Fasano to the Miami Dolphins in exchange for a fourth-round selection. The Cowboys traded their fourth-round selection to the Oakland Raiders in exchange for fourth and seventh-round selections; the Cowboys traded their fourth-round selection to the Cleveland Browns in exchange for fourth and fifth-round selections. The Cowboys traded their 2008 fourth-round selection to the Browns in exchange for a 2009 third-round selection; the Cowboys traded their original fourth-round selection to the Tennessee Titans for cornerback Adam Jones. The Cowboys were to receive a conditional 2009 fourth-round selection if Jones is not reinstated, or a conditional 2009 fifth-round selection if Jones is reinstated but gets suspended again.

The Cowboys traded their fifth and seventh-round selections to the Jacksonville Jaguars in exchange for a fifth-round selection. The Cowboys traded defensive tackle Jason Ferguson and their 2008 sixth-round selection to the Dolphins in exchange for 2008 and 2009 sixth-round selections; the team was coming from a 13-3 season in 2007 and there were great expectations for a Super Bowl run. During the offseason, the Cowboys signed the controversial talents of Tank Johnson, they were the subject of the 2008 Hard Knocks TV Series. The team began the season with 3 straight wins but lost the week-4 game at home against the Washington Redskins 24-26. Tony Romo injured the pinkie finger in his right hand in a 24-30 loss to the Arizona Cardinals in the sixth game; the Cowboys under his replacement Brad Johnson, went 1–2 the next three games, losing to the St. Louis Rams, beating the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, losing to the New York Giants. Romo would return to play wearing a splint under the heavy bandage on his right hand in November after t

Outline of history

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to history: History – discovery, collection and presentation of information about past events. History can mean the period of time after writing was invented. History can be described as all of the following: Academic discipline – body of knowledge given to – or received by – a disciple. One of the humanities – academic discipline that study the human condition, using methods that are analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences. Field of science – recognized category of specialized expertise within science, embodies its own terminology and nomenclature; such a field will be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published. There are many sociology-related scientific journals. Social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society. Chronology – science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time, such as in historical timelines.

Past – totality of events which occurred before a given point in time. The past is defined by the present and the future; the concept of the past is derived from the linear fashion in which human observers experience time, is accessed through memory and recollection. The past is the domain of history. Time – measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them. Time is referred to as the fourth dimension, along with the three spatial dimensions. History describes what happened where, but when those events took place. Archaeology – study of past human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data Archontology – study of historical offices and important positions in state, political and other organizations and societies Art history – study of changes in and social context of art Chronology – locating events in time Cultural history – study of culture in the past Diplomatic history – study of the historical foreign policy and diplomacy of states History of science – study of the emergence and development of scientific inquiry Economic history – the study of economics in the past Environmental history – study of natural history and the human relationship with the natural world Futurology – study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world Historiography – both the study of the methodology of historians and development of history as a discipline, to a body of historical work on a particular subject.

The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources and theoretical approaches. Intellectual history History painting – painting of works of art having historical motifs or depicting great events Military history – study of warfare and wars in history Naval history – branch of military history devoted to warfare at sea or in bodies of water Paleography – study of ancient texts Philosophy of history – Political history – study of past political events, ideas and leaders Public history – presentation of history to public audiences and other areas outside academia Psychohistory – study of the psychological motivations of historical events Social history – study of societies and social trends in the past Universal history – study of trends and dynamics in world history Urban history – historical nature of cities and towns, the process of urbanization Women's history – study of the roles of women throughout history World history – study of global or transnational historical patterns Auxiliary sciences of history – scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research.

Auxiliary sciences of history include, but are not limited to: Archeology – study of ancient and historic sites and artifacts Chronology – study of the sequence of past events Cliometrics – systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history Codicology – study of books as physical objects Diplomatics – study and textual analysis of historical documents Epigraphy – study of ancient inscriptions Faleristics – study of military orders and medals Genealogy – study of family relationships Heraldry – study of armorial devices Numismatics – study of coins Onomastics – study of proper names Paleography – study of old handwriting Philately – study of postage stamps Philology – study of the language of historical sources Prosopography – investigation of a historical group of individuals through a collective study of their lives Radiocarbon dating – assignation of dates to artefacts from the distant past Sigillography – study of seals Statistics – study of the collection and interpretation of data Toponymy – study of place-names History by period History of Earth History of the world News Timeline of the Big Bang Formation and evolution of the Solar System Geologic time scale History of the world Universal history Ancient history Prehistory Classical antiquity Post-classical history Modern history Early modern period Late modern period Contemporary history Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology Renaissance Future history Stone Age Paleolithic Lower PaleolithicMiddle Paleolithic – (