Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, between subject and object, is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism, in the mind–body problem. Aristotle shared Plato's view of multiple souls and further elaborated a hierarchical arrangement, corresponding to the distinctive functions of plants and people: a nutritive soul of growth and metabolism that all three share. In this view, a soul is the hylomorphic form of a viable organism, wherein each level of the hierarchy formally supervenes upon the substance of the preceding level. Thus, for Aristotle, all three souls perish. For Plato however, the soul was not dependent on the physical body. Dualism is associated with the thought of René Descartes, which holds that the mind is a nonphysical—and therefore, non-spatial—substance.
Descartes identified the mind with consciousness and self-awareness and distinguished this from the brain as the seat of intelligence. Hence, he was the first to formulate the mind -- body problem in the form. Dualism is contrasted with various kinds of monism. Substance dualism is contrasted with all forms of materialism, but property dualism may be considered a form of emergent materialism or non-reductive physicalism in some sense. Ontological dualism makes dual commitments about the nature of existence as it relates to mind and matter, can be divided into three different types: Substance dualism asserts that mind and matter are fundamentally distinct kinds of foundations. Property dualism suggests that the ontological distinction lies in the differences between properties of mind and matter. Predicate dualism claims the irreducibility of mental predicates to physical predicates. Substance dualism is a type of dualism most famously defended by René Descartes, which states that there are two kinds of foundation: mental and body.
This philosophy states that the mental can exist outside of the body, the body cannot think. Substance dualism is important for having given rise to much thought regarding the famous mind–body problem. Substance dualism is a philosophical position compatible with most theologies which claim that immortal souls occupy an independent realm of existence distinct from that of the physical world. Property dualism asserts that an ontological distinction lies in the differences between properties of mind and matter, that consciousness is ontologically irreducible to neurobiology and physics, it asserts. Hence, it is a sub-branch of emergent materialism. What views properly fall under the property dualism rubric is itself a matter of dispute. There are different versions of property dualism. Non-reductive physicalism is a form of property dualism in which it is asserted that all mental states are causally reducible to physical states. One argument for this has been made in the form of anomalous monism expressed by Donald Davidson, where it is argued that mental events are identical to physical events, there can be strict law-governed causal relationships.
Another argument for this has been expressed by John Searle, the advocate of a distinctive form of physicalism he calls biological naturalism. His view is that although mental states are ontologically irreducible to physical states, they are causally reducible, he has acknowledged that "to many people" his views and those of property dualists look a lot alike. But he thinks. Epiphenomenalism is a form of property dualism, in which it is asserted that one or more mental states do not have any influence on physical states, it asserts that while material causes give rise to sensations, ideas, etc. such mental phenomena themselves cause nothing further: they are causal dead-ends. This can be contrasted to interactionism, on the other hand, in which mental causes can produce material effects, vice versa. Predicate dualism is a view espoused by nonreductive physicalists such as Donald Davidson and Jerry Fodor, who maintain that while there is only one ontological category of substances and properties of substances, the predicates that we use to describe mental events cannot be redescribed in terms of physical predicates of natural languages.
If we characterize predicate monism as the view subscribed to by eliminative materialists, who maintain that such intentional predicates as believe, think, etc. will be eliminated from both the language of science and from ordinary language because the entities to which they refer do not exist predicate dualism is most defined as the negation of this position. Predicate dualists believe that so-called "folk psychology", with all of its propositional attitude ascriptions, is an ineliminable part of the enterprise of describing and understanding human mental states and behavior. Davidson, for example, subscribes to Anomalous Monism, according to which there can be no strict psychophysical laws which connect mental and physical events under their descriptions as mental and physical events. However, all mental events have
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
Victor Cousin was a French philosopher. He was the founder of "eclecticism", a influential school of French philosophy that combined elements of German idealism and Scottish Common Sense Realism; as the administrator of public instruction for over a decade, Cousin had an important influence on French educational policy. The son of a watchmaker, he was born in the Quartier Saint-Antoine. At the age of ten he was sent to the local grammar school, the Lycée Charlemagne, where he studied until he was eighteen. Lycées being organically linked to the University of France and its Faculties since their Napoleonic institution Cousin was "crowned" in the ancient hall of the Sorbonne for a Latin oration he wrote which owned him a first prize at the concours général, a competition between the best pupils at lycées; the classical training of the lycée disposed him to literature, or éloquence as it was called. He was known among his fellow students for his knowledge of Greek. From the lycée he graduated to the most prestigious of higher education schools, École Normale Supérieure, where Pierre Laromiguière was lecturing on philosophy.
In the second preface to the Fragments philosophiques, in which he candidly states the varied philosophical influences of his life, Cousin speaks of the grateful emotion excited by the memory of the day when he heard Laromiguière for the first time. "That day decided my whole life." Laromiguière taught the philosophy of John Locke and Étienne Bonnot de Condillac modified on some points, with a clearness and grace which in appearance at least removed difficulties, with a charm of spiritual bonhomie which penetrated and subdued." That school has remained since the living heart of French philosophy. Cousin wanted to lecture on philosophy and obtained the position of master of conferences in the school; the second great philosophical impulse of his life was the teaching of Pierre Paul Royer-Collard. This teacher, he tells us, "by the severity of his logic, the gravity and weight of his words, turned me by degrees, not without resistance, from the beaten path of Condillac into the way which has since become so easy, but, painful and unfrequented, that of the Scottish philosophy."
The "Scottish Philosophy" being the "Common Sense" Philosophy of Thomas Reid and others—which taught that both the external world and the human mind had an objective existence. In 1815–1816 Cousin attained the position of suppliant to Royer-Collard in the history of modern philosophy chair of the faculty of letters. Another thinker who influenced him at this early period was Maine de Biran, whom Cousin regarded as the unequalled psychological observer of his time in France; these men influenced Cousin's philosophical thought. To Laromiguière he attributes the lesson of decomposing thought though the reduction of it to sensation was inadequate. Royer-Collard taught him that sensation is subject to certain internal laws and principles which it does not itself explain, which are superior to analysis and the natural patrimony of the mind. De Biran made a special study of the phenomena of the will, he taught him to distinguish in all cognitions, in the simplest facts of consciousness, the voluntary activity in which our personality is revealed.
It was through this "triple discipline" that Cousin's philosophical thought was first developed, that in 1815 he began the public teaching of philosophy in the Normal School and in the faculty of letters. He took up the study of German, worked at Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, sought to master the Philosophy of Nature of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, which at first attracted him; the influence of Schelling may be observed markedly in the earlier form of his philosophy. He sympathized with the principle of faith of Jacobi, but regarded it as arbitrary so long as it was not recognized as grounded in reason. In 1817 he went to Germany, met Hegel at Heidelberg. Hegel's Encyclopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften appeared the same year, Cousin had one of the earliest copies, he thought Hegel not amiable, but the two became friends. The following year Cousin went to Munich, where he met Schelling for the first time, spent a month with him and Jacobi, obtaining a deeper insight into the Philosophy of Nature.
France's political troubles interfered for a time with his career. In the events of 1814–1815 he took the royalist side, he adopted the views of the party known as doctrinaire, of which Royer-Collard was the philosophical leader. He seems to have gone further, to have approached the extreme Left. Came a reaction against liberalism, in 1821–1822 Cousin was deprived of his offices in the faculty of letters and in the Normal School; the Normal School was swept away, Cousin shared the fate of Guizot, ejected from the chair of history. This enforced abandonment of public teaching was a mixed blessing: he set out for Germany with a view to further philosophical study. While at Berlin in 1824–1825 he was thrown into prison, either on some ill-defined political charge at the instance of the French police, or as a result of an indiscreet conversation. Freed after six months, he remained under the suspicion of the French government for three years, it was during this period that he developed what is distinctive
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheist belief does not recognize a distinct personal anthropomorphic god and instead characterizes a broad range of doctrines differing in forms of relationships between reality and divinity. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, pantheistic elements have been identified in various religious traditions; the term "pantheism" was coined by mathematician Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheism was popularized in Western culture as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza his book Ethics. A pantheistic stance was taken in the 16th century by philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno. Pantheism derives from θεός theos; the first known combination of these roots appears in Latin, in Joseph Raphson's 1697 book De Spatio Reali seu Ente Infinito, where he refers to the "pantheismus" of Spinoza and others.
It was subsequently translated into English as "pantheism" in 1702. There are a variety of definitions of pantheism; some consider it a philosophical position concerning God. Pantheism is the view that everything is part of an immanent God. All forms of reality may be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it; some hold. To them, pantheism is the view that the God are identical. Early traces of pantheist thought can be found within the theology of the ancient Greek religion of Orphism, where pan is made cognate with the creator God Phanes, with Zeus, after the swallowing of Phanes. Pantheistic tendencies existed in a number of early Gnostic groups, with pantheistic thought appearing throughout the Middle Ages; these included a section of Johannes Scotus Eriugena's 9th-century work De divisione naturae and the beliefs of mystics such as Amalric of Bena and Eckhart. The Roman Catholic Church has long regarded pantheistic ideas as heresy. Giordano Bruno, an Italian monk who evangelized about an immanent and infinite God, was burned at the stake in 1600 by the Roman Inquisition.
He has since become known as a celebrated pantheist and martyr of science, an influence on many thinkers. In the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese descent raised in the Sephardi Jewish community in Amsterdam, he developed controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine, was excluded from Jewish society at age 23, when the local synagogue issued a herem against him. A number of his books were published posthumously, shortly thereafter included in the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books; the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work would not be realized for many years - as the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe. In the posthumous Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are turned against themselves and destroyed entirely.".
In particular, he opposed René Descartes' famous mind–body dualism, the theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy, he was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. This view influenced philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who said, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." Spinoza earned praise as one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy and one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. Although the term "pantheism" was not coined until after his death, he is regarded as the most celebrated advocate of the concept. Ethics was the major source. Heinrich Heine, in his Concerning the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, remarked that "I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, "If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza!"
But this applies not only to Goethe. In their The Holy Family Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels notes, "Spinozism dominated the eighteenth century both in its French variety, which made matter into substance, in deism, which conferred on matter a more spiritual name.... Spinoza's French school and the supporters of deism were but two sects disputing over the true meaning of his system...." In George Henry Lewes's words, "Pantheism is as old as philosophy. It was taught in the old Greek schools — by Plato, by St. Augustine, by the Jews. Indeed, one may say that Pantheism, under one of its various shapes, is the necessary consequence of all metaphysical inquiry, when pushed to its logical limits; the dreamy contemplative Indian, the quick versatile Greek, the practical Roman, the quibbling Scholastic, th
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions. In Idealism and consciousness are first-order realities to which matter is subject and secondary. In philosophical materialism the converse is true. Here mind and consciousness are by-products or epiphenomena of material processes without which they cannot exist. According to this doctrine the material determines consciousness, not vice versa. Materialist theories are divided into three groups. Naive materialism identifies the material world with specific elements. Metaphysical materialism examines separated parts of the world in a isolated environment. Dialectical materialism adapts the Hegelian dialectic for materialism, examining parts of the world in relation to each other within a dynamic environment. Materialism is related to physicalism, the view that all that exists is physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime, physical energies and forces, dark matter, so on.
Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous. Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism, pluralism and other forms of monism. Materialism belongs to the class of monist ontology; as such, it is different from ontological theories based on pluralism. For singular explanations of the phenomenal reality, materialism would be in contrast to idealism, neutral monism, spiritualism. Despite the large number of philosophical schools and subtle nuances between many, all philosophies are said to fall into one of two primary categories, which are defined in contrast to each other: idealism and materialism; the basic proposition of these two categories pertains to the nature of reality, the primary distinction between them is the way they answer two fundamental questions: "what does reality consist of?" and "how does it originate?" To idealists, spirit or mind or the objects of mind are primary, matter secondary.
To materialists, matter is primary, mind or spirit or ideas are secondary, the product of matter acting upon matter. The materialist view is best understood in its opposition to the doctrines of immaterial substance applied to the mind famously by René Descartes. However, by itself materialism says nothing about. In practice, it is assimilated to one variety of physicalism or another. Materialism is associated with reductionism, according to which the objects or phenomena individuated at one level of description, if they are genuine, must be explicable in terms of the objects or phenomena at some other level of description—typically, at a more reduced level. Non-reductive materialism explicitly rejects this notion, taking the material constitution of all particulars to be consistent with the existence of real objects, properties, or phenomena not explicable in the terms canonically used for the basic material constituents. Jerry Fodor influentially argues this view, according to which empirical laws and explanations in "special sciences" like psychology or geology are invisible from the perspective of basic physics.
A lot of vigorous literature has grown up around the relation between these views. Modern philosophical materialists extend the definition of other scientifically observable entities such as energy and the curvature of space; however philosophers such as Mary Midgley suggest that the concept of "matter" is elusive and poorly defined. Materialism contrasts with dualism, idealism and dual-aspect monism, its materiality can, in some ways, be linked to the concept of determinism, as espoused by Enlightenment thinkers. During the 19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels extended the concept of materialism to elaborate a materialist conception of history centered on the empirical world of human activity and the institutions created, reproduced, or destroyed by that activity, they developed dialectical materialism, through taking Hegelian dialectics, stripping them of their idealist aspects, fusing them with materialism. Materialism developed independently, in several geographically separated regions of Eurasia during what Karl Jaspers termed the Axial Age.
In ancient Indian philosophy, materialism developed around 600 BC with the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi and the proponents of the Cārvāka school of philosophy. Kanada became one of the early proponents of atomism; the Nyaya–Vaisesika school developed one of the earliest forms of atomism, though their proofs of God and their positing that consciousness was not material precludes labelling them as materialists. Buddhist atomism and the Jaina school continued the atomic tradition. Ancient Greek atomists like Leucippus and Epicurus prefigure materialists; the Latin poem De Rerum Natura by Lucretius reflects the mechanistic philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus. According to this view, all that exists is matter and void, all phenomena result from different motions and conglomerations of base material particles called "atoms". De R
Louis Lavelle was a French philosopher. His magnum opus, La Dialectique de l'éternel présent, is a systematic metaphysical work. Lavelle's other principal works include De l'Être, De l'Acte, Du Temps et de l'Eternité, De l'Âme Humaine. Louis Lavelle was born in France in 1883 and died there in 1951, he was Professor at the College de France. In 1947 he was recognized for his many philosophical and religious writings, named to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. Original FrenchLavelle's other writings include La dialectique du monde sensible: La perception visuelle de la profondeur, La conscience de soi, La présence totale, L'Erreur de Narcisse, Le Mal et la Souffrance, La Parole et l'Écriture, Les puissances du Moi. Selected translations of works by LavelleTranslations of selected chapters of La présence totale, De l’Acte, Du temps et de l’éternité and De l’âme humaine, together with a long introduction to the work of Lavelle, can be found in The Act of Presence by Robert Jones, it is presented in full on the website of the Association Louis Lavelle under « Traductions ».
Analyses and critiques in EnglishJames Collins published the article "Louis Lavelle on Human Participation" in The Philosophical Review vol 56, no. 2: 156-83. Walter J. Ong works with a sound/sight contrast throughout Ramus and the Deacay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason, which he credits to Lavelle: "For a discerning and profound treatment of the visual-aural opposition on which the present discussion turns, the reader is referred to the works of Louis Lavelle La parole et l'ecriture, Jean Nogue, Esquisse d'un système des qualités sensibles". Colin Smith devotes a chapter to discussing Lavelle's work in Contemporary French Philosophy: A Study in Norms and Values. Marvin Farber includes an essay by Lavelle in the collection Philosophic Thought in France and the United States: Essays Representing Major Trends in Contemporary French and American Philosophy. Analyses and critiques in FrenchBechara Sargi, La Participation à l'être dans la philosophie de Louis Lavelle, Éditions Beauchesne, Paris, 1957.
René Le Senne Gabriel Marcel
René Descartes was a French philosopher and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces, he is considered one of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age. Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is apparent, he is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, he set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, an early modern treatise on emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before".
His best known philosophical statement is "I think, therefore I am", found in Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy. Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation. Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, was opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke and Hume. Leibniz and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, Descartes and Leibniz contributed to science as well. René Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine, France, on 31 March 1596, his mother, Jeanne Brochard, died soon after giving birth to him, so he was not expected to survive.
Descartes' father, was a member of the Parlement of Brittany at Rennes. René lived with his great-uncle. Although the Descartes family was Roman Catholic, the Poitou region was controlled by the Protestant Huguenots. In 1607, late because of his fragile health, he entered the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand at La Flèche, where he was introduced to mathematics and physics, including Galileo's work. After graduation in 1614, he studied for two years at the University of Poitiers, earning a Baccalauréat and Licence in canon and civil law in 1616, in accordance with his father's wishes that he should become a lawyer. From there he moved to Paris. In Discourse on the Method, Descartes recalls, I abandoned the study of letters. Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences, testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, at all times reflecting upon whatever came my way so as to derive some profit from it.
Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, in 1618, Descartes joined, as a mercenary, the Protestant Dutch States Army in Breda under the command of Maurice of Nassau, undertook a formal study of military engineering, as established by Simon Stevin. Descartes, received much encouragement in Breda to advance his knowledge of mathematics. In this way, he became acquainted with Isaac Beeckman, the principal of a Dordrecht school, for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music. Together they worked on free fall, conic section, fluid statics. Both believed that it was necessary to create a method that linked mathematics and physics. While in the service of the Catholic Duke Maximilian of Bavaria since 1619, Descartes was present at the Battle of the White Mountain outside Prague, in November 1620. According to Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619, while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" to escape the cold. While within, he had three dreams and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy.
However, it is that what Descartes considered to be his second dream was an episode of exploding head syndrome. Upon exiting, he had formulated analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to philosophy, he concluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would prove to be, for him, the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life's work. Descartes saw clearly that all truths were linked with one another so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would open the way to all science. Descartes discovered this basic truth quite soon: his famous "I think, therefore I am". In 1620 Descartes left the army, he visited Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto visited various countries before returning to France, during the next few years spent time in Paris. It was there that he compo