A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon and oxygen atoms with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 and thus with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides; some exceptions exist. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; the term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars; the word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning "sugar". While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and the disaccharides sucrose and lactose. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve as structural components; the 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.
The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, development, they are found in a wide variety of processed foods. Starch is a polysaccharide, it is abundant in cereals and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet as table sugar, lactose and fructose, both of which occur in honey, many fruits, some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system by easing defecation. Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin, which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine, are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.
In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar", "saccharide", "ose", "glucide", "hydrate of carbon" or "polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone". Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are used with other meanings. In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" means any food, rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar. In lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" is used for everything other than water, fat and ethanol; this includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not considered carbohydrates. It includes dietary fiber, a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy though it is included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. In the strict sense, "sugar" is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The name "carbohydrate" was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n. Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde to be the simplest carbohydrate, while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde. Today, the term is understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons and includes many biological carbohydrates which deviate from this formula. For example, while the above representative formulas would seem to capture the known carbohydrates and abundant carbohydrates deviate from this. For example, carbohydrates display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl, carboxylic acid and deoxy modifications. Natural saccharides are built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula n where n is three or more. A typical monosaccharide has the structure H–x–y–H, that is, an aldehyde or ketone with many hydroxyl groups added one on each carbon atom, not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and glyceraldehydes.
However, some biological substances called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to be monosaccharides. The open-chain form of a monosaccharide coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon and hydroxyl group react forming a hemiacetal with a new C–O–C bridge. Monosaccharides can be linked togeth
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups; the anion, called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxyl group. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group. Water, carboxylic acids, many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily; this behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, leading to higher boiling and melting points than found for compounds that lack this functional group. Organic compounds, which are poorly soluble in water, become water-soluble when they contain two or more hydroxy groups, as illustrated by sugars and amino acid; the hydroxy group is pervasive in biochemistry. Many inorganic compounds contain hydroxy groups, including sulfuric acid, the chemical compound produced on the largest scale industrially.
Hydroxy groups participate in the dehydration reactions that link simple biological molecules into long chains. The joining of a fatty acid to glycerol to form a triacylglycerol removes the −OH from the carboxy end of the fatty acid; the joining of two aldehyde sugars to form a disaccharide removes the −OH from the carboxy group at the aldehyde end of one sugar. The creation of a peptide bond to link two amino acids to make a protein removes the −OH from the carboxy group of one amino acid. Hydroxyl radicals are reactive and undergo chemical reactions that make them short-lived; when biological systems are exposed to hydroxyl radicals, they can cause damage to cells, including those in humans, where they can react with DNA, proteins. In 2009, India's Chandrayaan-1 satellite, NASA's Cassini spacecraft and the Deep Impact probe have each detected the presence of water by evidence of hydroxyl fragments on the Moon; as reported by Richard Kerr, "A spectrometer detected an infrared absorption at a wavelength of 3.0 micrometers that only water or hydroxyl—a hydrogen and an oxygen bound together—could have created."
NASA reported in 2009 that the LCROSS probe revealed an ultraviolet emission spectrum consistent with hydroxyl presence. The Venus Express orbiter sent back Venus science data from April 2006 until December 2014. Results from Venus Express include the detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere. Hydronium Ion Oxide Reece, Jane. "Unit 1, Chapter 4 &5." In Campbell Biology. Berge, Susan. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-55823-7
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
Johnson & Johnson
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886. Its common stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the company is ranked No. 37 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Johnson & Johnson is headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the consumer division being located in Skillman, New Jersey; the corporation includes some 250 subsidiary companies with operations in 60 countries and products sold in over 175 countries. Johnson & Johnson had worldwide sales of $70.1 billion during calendar year 2015. Johnson & Johnson's brands include numerous household names of first aid supplies. Among its well-known consumer products are the Band-Aid Brand line of bandages, Tylenol medications, Johnson's baby products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean & Clear facial wash and Acuvue contact lenses. Johnson & Johnson operates over 250 companies in what is termed "the Johnson & Johnson family of companies".
The company operates in three broad divisions. Inspired by a speech by antiseptic advocate Joseph Lister, Robert Wood Johnson joined his brothers James Wood Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson to create a line of ready-to-use surgical dressings in 1885; the company produced its first products in 1886 and incorporated in 1887. Those products featured a logo resembling the signature of James Wood Johnson similar to the logo used today, it is one of the longest-used company logos in the world. Robert Wood Johnson served as the first president of the company, he worked to improve sanitation practices in the nineteenth century, lent his name to the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Upon his death in 1910, he was succeeded in the presidency by his brother James Wood Johnson until 1932, by his son, Robert Wood Johnson II. Robert Wood Johnson's granddaughter, Mary Lea Johnson Richards, was the first baby to appear on a Johnson & Johnson baby powder label, his great-grandson, Jamie Johnson, made a documentary called Born Rich about the experience of growing up as the heir to one of the world's greatest fortunes.
McNeil Consumer Healthcare was founded on March 1879, by 23-year-old Robert McNeil. In 1904, one of McNeil's sons, Robert Lincoln McNeil, became part of the company, together they created McNeil Laboratories in 1933; the company focused on direct marketing of prescription drugs to hospitals and doctors. Development of acetaminophen began under the leadership of Robert L. McNeil, Jr. who served as the firm's chairman. In 1959, Johnson & Johnson acquired McNeil Laboratories and a year the company was able to sell Tylenol for the first time without a prescription. In 1977, two subsidiary companies were created: McNeil Medicals Products and McNeil Consumer Products Company; the focus of McNeil medicals. In 1993 McNeil medicals products merged with the Ortho Pharmaceutical to form Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical. In 2001 McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed its name to McNeil Consumer & Specialty medicals products. However, it was changed to "McNeil Consumer Healthcare"; the company markets over-the-counter and prescription medicals products including complete lines of Tylenol and Motrin IB products for adults and children.
In 2008 a Wellness & Prevention Platform was established with the double acquisition of Orlando-based LGE Performance Systems, Inc. and Ann Arbor-based HealthMedia, Inc. In 1933, Swiss chemist Bernhard Joos set up a small research laboratory in Schaffhausen, Switzerland; this set the basis for the founding of Chemische Industrie-Labor AG on 12 May 1936. In 1959, Cilag joined the Johnson family of companies. In the early nineties, the marketing organizations of Cilag and Janssen Pharmaceutica were joined to form Janssen-Cilag; the non-marketing activities of both companies still operate under their original name. Cilag continues to have operations under the Cilag name in Switzerland, ranging from research and development through manufacturing and international services. In May 2011 Cilag acquired the over-the-counter operations of J B Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited for around $260 million. In June 2012, the division announced the acquisition of CorImmun GmbH, its lead compound, COR-1, a small cyclic peptide in development for the treatment of heart failure.
In August 2014, Cilag acquired Covagen a biopharmaceutical company which specializes in the development of multi-specific protein-based therapeutics. As part of the acquisition Cilag will gain access to Covagen's lead drug candidate, COVA 322, a bi-specific anti-tumor necrosis factor -alpha/anti-interleukin -17A FynomAb, is in a Phase Ib study for psoriasis. Janssen Pharmaceuticals can be traced back to 1933. In 1933, Constant Janssen, the father of Paul Janssen, acquired the right to distribute the pharmaceutical products of Richter, a Hungarian pharmaceutical company, for Belgium, the Netherlands and Belgian Congo. On 23 October 1934, he founded the N. V. Produkten Richter in Turnhout. After the Second World War, the name for the company products was changed to Eupharma, although the company name Richter would remain until 1956. Paul Janssen founded his own research laboratory in 1953 on the third floor of the building in the Statiestraat, still within the Richter-Eurpharma company of his father.
On 5 April 1956, the name of the company was changed to NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica C. Janssen. On 2 May 1958, the research department in Beerse became a separate legal entity, the N. V. Research Laboratori
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey. Rutgers was chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, it is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the Camden campus; the university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.
The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities as a Public Ivy. Two decades after the College of New Jersey was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church. Through several years of effort by the Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin, the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin; the original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.
The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, making the royal charter easier to obtain; the original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, the divinity, useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt. Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion; when the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes. According to research from Scarlet and Black, "Rutgers depended on slaves to build its campuses and serve its students and faculty.
In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton and considered relocating to New York City. In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr; the college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, shared facilities with Queen's College. During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed "Rutgers College" in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers.
According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received two donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing. Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture and chemistry; the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, the School of Education in 1
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr