Splice (video game)
Splice is a puzzle game developed by Philadelphia-based independent game studio Cipher Prime. Splice was released in 2012, is available for PC, Linux, iPad, Android. Splice is no longer available for download on Google Play; the player progresses through levels in Splice by rearranging groups of cells into target structures. The player has a limited number of moves to create each target structure. Over the game's seventy-seven levels, the player will encounter power-up cells with special abilities; the player must learn to use these complex cells to form complex target structures. Splice's soundtrack was recorded in-house by Cipher Prime co-founder Dain Saint; the soundtrack containing the music used in the first seven sequences of the game, Flight of Angels, the soundtrack containing the music used in its epilogue and Angelology, are both available for download on Cipher Prime's website. Splice received positive reviews, gaining an aggregate review score on Metacritic of 86 for iOS and Android.
Splice official website
Splice the mainbrace
"Splice the mainbrace" is an order given aboard naval vessels to issue the crew with an alcoholic drink. An order for one of the most difficult emergency repair jobs aboard a sailing ship, it became a euphemism for authorized celebratory drinking afterward, the name of an order to grant the crew an extra ration of rum or grog. Braces are the lines. On square-rigged ships, the mainbrace was the longest line in of all the running rigging, it was common to aim for the ship's rigging during naval battles. If the mainbrace was shot away, it was necessary to repair it during the engagement. Repairing it after the battle was a difficult job. Splicing in a large run of hemp was strenuous work, the ship's best Able Seamen were chosen to carry out the task under the supervision of the Boatswain. On completion of the task, it was customary for the men to be rewarded with an extra ration of rum; the Boatswain would take a sip from the ration of each of the men he had selected for task. The order to "splice the mainbrace" came to mean that the crew would receive an extra ration of rum, was issued on special occasions: after victory in battle, the change of a monarch, a royal birth, a royal wedding or an inspection of the fleet.
In cases where the whole fleet was to receive the signal, it would be run up with a lift of flags or signalled by semaphore. A ration of rum a day was standard issue in the Royal Navy until 1970, when concerns over crew members operating machinery under the influence led to the rum ration being abolished. Restrictions were placed on those who could "splice the mainbrace": any man or officer over the age of 18 who desired to take it received an extra issue of one-eighth of a pint of rum. Lemonade was issued those; the rum was mixed with water to make grog for all ratings below Petty Officer. Only ratings marked "G" in the ship's books could draw rum, grog or lemonade when the mainbrace was spliced and no payment in lieu was available; those under 20 were marked "U. A." in the ship's book. "T" stood for Temperance. The issue of rum to wardroom and gunroom officers was stopped in 1881 and ended for warrant officers in 1918. Other navies abolished the grog allowance far earlier, but the order persisted, allowing the crew to take another drink in place of rum or grog.
The Royal New Zealand Navy was the last navy to issue junior and senior ratings a daily tot of rum, issuing its last daily rum ration on 1 March 1990. Today the Royal Canadian Navy is more generous with the allowances, allowing crew members to take 87.5 millilitres of spirits compared with the 62.5 millilitres allowed by the Royal Navy, although the Royal Navy does make allowance for paucity of supplies, permitting two 350 millilitres cans of beer to be issued if commercial spirits are not available. The order "Splice the Mainbrace" was still popular with some of the U. S. Navy's submarine fleet during WWII. On USS Barb, a skipper on combat patrols in WWII, during the boat's 8th and 9th missions in 1944, did in fact announce on the 1MC "Splice the Mainbrace" after each successful attack and sinking of a Japanese ship. On Barb's 8th combat patrol, the skipper promised the sinking of 5 ships. After each sinking the Skipper had a special cake made and each sailor was granted a shot of rot gut whiskey.
On the 9th patrol, the Skipper was able to sneak 24 cases of beer aboard, distributed after each of Barb's successful attacks. Permission to issue the order to splice the mainbrace is restricted; when the Mediterranean fleet received the order from the Prince of Wales in 1932 it was the first time it had happened since 1918. Ships in most of the victorious fleets received the order at the end of the Second World War. King George VI issued the order in 1949 to the crew of HMS Amethyst after the Yangtse Incident, it was ordered on the day of Queen Elizabeth's coronation in 1953, on 29 July 1981 for the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer and of Prince William's birth on 21 June 1982, when "Splice the Mainbrace" was celebrated in the Fleet just one week after the end of the Falklands War. Nowadays, when rum is no longer issued daily, the order is somewhat more given: the Queen issued it after her Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2002, after the Trafalgar 200 Fleet Review in 2005, after her Diamond Jubilee celebrations in 2012.
In Canada, the order was most given by Queen Elizabeth II on 29 June 2010 at the conclusion of the International Fleet Review for the occasion of the Royal Canadian Navy's 100th Anniversary. She signalled: It has given me great pleasure to return with the Duke of Edinburgh to Halifax, Nova Scotia, to witness the International Fleet Review celebrating the Centennial of Canada's Nav
Rope splicing in ropework is the forming of a semi-permanent joint between two ropes or two parts of the same rope by untwisting and interweaving their strands. Splices can be used to form a stopper at the end of a line, to form a loop or an eye in a rope, or for joining two ropes together. Splices are preferred to knotted rope, since while a knot reduces the strength by 20–40%, a splice is capable of attaining a rope's full strength. However, splicing results in a thickening of the line and, if subsequently removed, leaves a distortion of the rope. Most types of splices are used on 3-strand rope, but some can be done on 12-strand or greater single-braided rope, as well as most double braids. While a spliced 3-strand rope's strands are interwoven to create the splice, a braided rope's splice is constructed by pulling the rope into its jacket. Back splice – A splice where the strands of the end of the rope are spliced directly back into the end without forming a loop, it is used to finish off the end of the rope to keep it from fraying.
The end of the rope with the splice is about twice the thickness of the rest of the rope. With nylon and other plastic materials, the back splice is no longer used. Cut splice – A splice similar to the eye splice, it is used for light lines where a single splice would tend to come undone, the rope being wet. It makes a strong knot. A cut splice is a join between two ropes, made by side splicing the ends apart, to make an eye in the joined rope which lies shut when the rope is taut, its original name was bowdlerised to "cut splice". Eye splice – A splice where the working end is spliced into the working part forming a loop. Ring splice – Attached the working end of a rope to a ring or clew. Chain splice – Attached the working end of a rope to a chain. Figure-eight "splice" knot- A splice-like bend knot used for joining two ropes. Horseshoe splice – A cut splice where the two sides of the loop are of unequal length. Long splice – A splice used to join two rope ends forming one rope the length of the total of the two ropes.
The long splice, unlike most splice types, results in a splice, only slightly thicker than the rope without the splice, but sacrifices some of the strength of the short splice. It does this by replacing two of the strands of each rope end with those from the other, cutting off some of the extra strands that result; the long splice allows the spliced rope to still fit through the same pulleys, necessary in some applications. Short splice – Also a splice used to join the ends of two ropes, but the short splice is more similar to the technique used in other splices and results in the spliced part being about twice as thick as the non spliced part, has greater strength than the long splice; the short splice retains more of the rope strength than any knots. Soft shackle – Dyneema soft shackles are strong and safe and are replacing stainless steel shackles. Splices are tapered to make the thicker splice blend into the rest of the line. There are two main types of tapering, the standard and the "West Coast Taper".
Standard tapers progressively remove a portion of each remaining strand—one-third at a time is typical, resulting in a taper of two additional tucks beyond the splice—thus making each successive tuck produce a narrower splice. This is only practical with laid-lines, i.e. those made up of numerous strands laid side by side. West Coast taper is effected by extra-tucks of entire strands, such that the second strand is interweaved one more time than the first and the third is interweaved an additional time after the second. A fid is a hand tool made from wood, plastic, or bone and is used in the process of working with rope. A variety of fid diameters are available depending on the size of rope being used. Styles of fid designs include: Swedish fid is conical instrument with a somewhat long taper. Tubular fid aid in splicing double-braided rope. Uni-fid needed to splice braid with a parallel core. A Marlinspike is a tool made of steel and part of a sailor's pocketknife, used to separate strands of rope from one another.
They flattened point. A pulling fid is used for smaller diameters of braided ropes. A Softfid is a great tool when dealing with braided ropes. Eye splice Stopping knot Whipping knot Western Union splice Nicopress Swaged Sleeve T-splice Talurit swaged sleeve Rat-tail splice David Steel, Explanation of the terms used in rigging, The Maritime History Virtual Archives A. Hyatt Verrill, Knots and Rope Work from Project Gutenberg Eye splice instruction with braided rope, ropeloft.co.uk Grog's Rope Splicing, Animated Knots by Grog Teufelberger Splicing Guides PremiumRopes Rope Splicing Instruction Videos
A line splice is a special type of connection of electrical cables or optical fibers in telecommunication technology. Splices are housed in sleeves to protect against external influences; the splicing of copper wires happens in the following steps: The cores are laid one above the other at the junction. The wires are wrapped two to three times around each other; the core insulation is removed. The bare veins on a length of about 3 cm "strangle" or "twist". In some cases, the strangulation is soldered. To isolate the splice, an insulating sleeve made of paper or plastic is pushed over it; the splicing of copper wires is used on paper insulated wires. LSA techniques are used to connect copper wires, making the copper wires faster and easier to connect. LSA techniques include: Wire connection sleeves and other crimp connectors; the two wires to be connected are inserted into the AVH without being stripped, compressed with special pliers. The about 2 cm long AVH consist of contact and insulation. For wire connection strips several pairs of wires are inserted, the strip is closed with a lid and pressed together with a hydraulic press, which ensures the connection.
Fiber-optic cables are spliced using a special arc-splicer, with installation cables connected at their ends to respective "pigtails" - short individual fibers with fiber-optic connectors at one end. The splicer adjusts the light-guiding cores of the two ends of the glass fibers to be spliced; the adjustment is done automatically in modern devices, whereas in older models this is carried out manually by means of micrometer screws and microscope. An experienced splicer can position the fiber ends within a few seconds. Subsequently, the fibers are fused together with an electric arc. Since no additional material is added, such as gas welding or soldering, this is called a "fusion splice". Depending on the quality of the splicing process, attenuation values at the splice points are achieved by 0.3 dB, with good splices below 0.02 dB. For newer generation devices, alignment is done automatically by motors. Here one differentiates jacket centering. At core centering, the fiber cores are aligned. A possible core offset with respect to the jacket is corrected.
In the jacket centering, the fibers are adjusted to each other by means of electronic image processing in front of the splice. When working with good equipment, the damping value is according to experience at max. 0.1 dB. Measurements are made by means of special measuring devices including optical time-domain reflectometry. A good splice should have an attenuation of less than 0.3 dB over the entire distance. Finished fiber optic splices are housed in splice boxes. One differentiates: Fusion splice Adhesive splicing Crimp splice or NENP, mechanical splice Fusion splice Mechanical splice Yablonx, Andrew D.. Optical fiber fusion splicing. Springer, Heidelberg, New York. ISBN 978-3-540-23104-2
Fusion splicing is the act of joining two optical fibers end-to-end. The goal is to fuse the two fibers together in such a way that light passing through the fibers is not scattered or reflected back by the splice, so that the splice and the region surrounding it are as strong as the intact fiber; the source of heat is an electric arc, but can be a laser, or a gas flame, or a tungsten filament through which current is passed. The process of fusion splicing involves heat to melt or fuse the ends of two optical fibers together; the splicing process begins by preparing each fiber end for fusion. Stripping is the act of removing the protective polymer coating around optical fiber in preparation for fusion splicing; the splicing process begins by preparing both fiber ends for fusion, which requires that all protective coating is removed or stripped from the ends of each fiber. Fiber optical stripping is carried out by passing the fiber through a mechanical stripping device similar to a wire-stripper.
Otherwise, a special stripping and preparation unit that uses hot sulphuric acid or a controlled flow of hot air is used to remove the coating. Under a process patented by Edward J Forrest, Jr and assigned to Illinois Tool Works, Illinois, there is a timed chemical removal process that does not require use of hot sulphuric acid or hot air; the process is patented as a "solvent capture method" conceived to remove the "matrix" that holds individual fibers and creates a "ribbon fiber". This same procedure can be "timed" to remove not only matrix, but coatings and claddings. Cleaning the stripping and cleaving tools is important; the customary means to clean bare fibers is with alcohol and wipes. However, high purity isopropyl alcohol is hygroscopic: it attracts moisture to itself; this is problematic as IPA is either procured in pre-saturated wiper format or in containers ranging for USA quart to gallon to drums. From the host container the IPA is transferred to smaller more usable containers; the hydroscopic nature of IPA is such that the highest quality at 99.9% is the most hygroscopic.
This means that moisture absorption into both the host container as well as the actual user's container begins with the time the original container is opened and continues as amounts are transferred and removed from both. A 2003 laboratory study by ITW Chemtronics noted that 99.9% IPA began to absorb moisture within fifteen minutes. Since there is no provision to deter this, this unique quality of IPA makes it less desirable than chemicals such as HFE-7100 based products or precision hydrocarbons. There is work being done to qualify aqueous based cleaners for this application; the fiber is cleaved using the score-and-break method so that its end-face is flat and perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. The quality of each fiber end is inspected using a microscope. In fusion splicing, splice loss is a direct function of the angles and quality of the two fiber-end faces; the closer to 90 degrees the cleave angle is the lower optical loss the splice will yield. The quality of the cleave tool being used is critical.
Current fusion splicers are cladding alignment. Using one of these methods the two cleaved fibers are automatically aligned by the fusion splicer in the x,y,z plane are fused together. Prior to the removal of the spliced fiber from the fusion splicer, a proof-test is performed to ensure that the splice is strong enough to survive handling and extended use; the bare fiber area is protected either with a splice protector. A splice protector is a heat shrinkable tube with less loss. A simplified optical splicing procedure includes: Characteristics of placement of the splicing process. Checking fiber optic splice closure content and supplementary kits. Cable installation in oval outlet. Cable preparation. Organization of the fibers inside the tray. Installing the heat-shrinkable sleeve and testing it; the basic fusion splicing apparatus consists of two fixtures on which the fibres are mounted and two electrodes. These fixtures are called sheath clamps. Inspection microscope assists in the placement of the prepared fiber ends into a fusion-splicing apparatus.
The fibres are placed into the apparatus and fused together. Fusion splicing used nichrome wire as the heating element to melt or fuse fibers together. New fusion-splicing techniques have replaced the nichrome wire with carbon dioxide lasers, electric arcs, or gas flames to heat the fiber ends, causing them to fuse together; the small size of the fusion splice and the development of automated fusion-splicing machines have made electric arc fusion one of the most popular splicing techniques in commercial applications. Alternatives to fusion splicing include using optical fiber connectors or mechanical splices both of which have higher insertion losses, lower reliability and higher return losses than fusion splicing. ANSI/EIA/TIA-455 Optical splice Single mode optical fiber Multi-mode optical fiber Fiber optic communication Bending Methods of Removing Matrix from Fiber Optic Cable" Patent 7,125,494 "How to Precision Clean All Fiber Optic Connections": Edward J. Forrest, Jr. www.amazon.com. Www.createspace.com/5173068
Genetic engineering called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism; the first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes; the new DNA can be targeted to a specific part of the genome. An organism, generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism; the first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973.
Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato; the Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are modified to increase resistance to insects and herbicides. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003. In 2016 salmon modified with a growth hormone were sold. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function and expression experiments. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases.
As well as producing hormones and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. The same techniques that are used to produce drugs can have industrial applications such as producing enzymes for laundry detergent and other products; the rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology. This has been present since its early use. Although there is a scientific consensus that available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading concern with critics. Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have been raised as potential issues; these concerns have led to the development of a regulatory framework, which started in 1975. It has led to an international treaty, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, adopted in 2000.
Individual countries have developed their own regulatory systems regarding GMOs, with the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe. Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other; this is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism and prevents other undesirable genes from being added. Genetic engineering could fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one, it is an important tool in research. Drugs and other products have been harvested from organisms engineered to produce them. Crops have been developed that aid food security by increasing yield, nutritional value and tolerance to environmental stresses; the DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell, fused or hybridised with the host.
This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. Genetic engineering does not include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. However, some broad definitions of genetic engineering include selective breeding. Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism. Plants, animals or micro organisms that have been changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs.
If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. If genetic material from the same species or a species that can breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic. If genetic engineering is used to r
The eye splice is a method of creating a permanent loop in the end of a rope by means of rope splicing. The Flemish eye is a type of circular loop at the end of a thread. There are several techniques of creating the eye with its knot tied back to the rope or wire. There are various splicing techniques, relate to whether a rope is braided or plaited, whether it has a core and whether the core is made of high-performance fibers. Techniques include: Eye splice in three-strand rope Eye splice in eight-strand rope Eye splice in single braided rope Eye splice in double braided rope with polyester or nylon fiber core Eye splice in rope with braided cover and a laid core Eyes splice in rope with braided cover and parallel fibers in the core Eye splice in double braided rope with a high-performance fiber core For conventional stranded ropes, the ends of the rope are tucked back into the standing end to form the loop. Three tucks are the minimum for natural fibers, five tucks are necessary for synthetics.
Variations of this more traditional eye splice include: Round eyesplice used with round thimbles Lever's eyesplice used with teardrop thimbles Liverpool eyesplice used on wire ropeThe ends of the rope are first wrapped in tape or heated with a flame to prevent each end from fraying completely. The rope is unlayed for a distance equal to three times the diameter for each "tuck", e.g. for five tucks in half inch rope, undo about 7.5 inches. Wrap the rope at that point to prevent it unwinding further. Form the loop and plait the three ends back against the twist of the rope. Practice is required to keep each end to lie neatly. In stiff old rope or in new rope, wound, a marlinspike or fid can facilitate opening up the strands and threading each end. In some cases, the splice is tapered by trimming the working strands after each tuck; the splice can be whipped to protect and strengthen the splice. A rope thimble can be inserted in the eye to prevent chafing if the eye is to be permanently attached to a fixture.
An eight-strand rope consists of two right-twisting pairs. Make sure the left-twisting strands are fed below left-twisting strands, right-twisting strands below the right-twisting ones. Work systematically with different tape colours to keep from getting lost in the mess of strands. An eight-strand square plaited rope can anchor rode; this technique is used for Dyneema ropes. The principle of a Dyneema eye is a core-to-core splice, in which a length of at least 60 times the diameter of the rope is taken back into itself. DSM advises using 60 times the diameter for coated Dyneema, 100 times the diameter for uncoated Dyneema. For 6mm coated rope, this would mean 36 cm. Under tension the rope will pull into itself which produces a strong eye. One can pull out the eye. In ropes with a polyester core, both the core and the cover are neededfor strength. Splicing a rope with a laid core is more complicated than double braided polyester ropes. One needs more force to take the rope back into itself because there is less room between the core and the cover.
A rope with parallel fibers in the core has a tight inner cover to keep the fibers together. This splice is similar to the one for double braided polyester ropes, the main difference is that one cannot take the cover back in to the core because the fibers go through the core. Instructions are published in Splicing Modern Ropes For ropes with a core of high-performance fibers only the core determines the strength; the cover can be used optionally for example, to add UV protection. Dyneema is UV resistant and the cover is not needed. For these ropes, one could leave the cover unused. There are ropes with an extra double layer cover. Depending on the type of splice and rope, there is a variety of tools available such as hollow fids, pulling needles and traditional splicing fids. Make sure to have a marker, splicing tape, measuring tape and a knife or scissors at hand. A hammer and winch are used as well for tougher splices. A inch of good splice will hold 1 ton; the eye splice has several advantages.
The most notable is the permanence of the loop. An important advantage is the lack of stress it puts on the rope. Splices average 25-40% of rope strength decay, low compared to the strongest knots. Literature and reference sources attribute only a 5% strength decay for a properly tied splice. Technically, a tied splice retains 100% of the original strength of the rope but in practice this is the case. Destructive testing of rope in manufacturing facilities makes use of a professional and spliced eyes for connecting the rope to the testing apparatus; the bowline is a practical method of forming a loop in the end of a piece of rope. However, the bowline has an awkward tendency to shake undone; the bowline reduces the strength of the rope at the knot to ~45% of the original unknotted strength. List of knots Nicopress Swaged Sleeve Talurit swaged sleeve Wall and crown knot Grog. "Eye Splice". Animated Knots. Retrieved April 2013