The Enoggera Dam is a heritage-listed dam, located within the outer, western suburb of Enoggera Reservoir, in Brisbane, Australia. The Enoggera Dam was constructed on the upper reach of Breakfast Creek, it was the second major dam built in Australia. It is rare as one of the few remaining examples in Queensland of an intact and functioning reservoir and treatment plant from this period in time; the clay-cored earth-fill dam was built by Joseph Brady. Water supply problems plagued Brisbane's early years. Soon after the Brisbane Municipal Council was established in 1860, a Water Supply Committee was formed; the earliest reservoir in Brisbane, located on the present Law Courts precinct at the intersection of George and Turbot Streets, suffered from accumulation of dead animals and vegetable matter. Breakfast Creek was rejected by the Water Supply Committee. Thomas Oldham, an engineer who had worked on water supply to Melbourne, was employed to conduct a survey and solve Brisbane's problems. One of Oldham's site recommendations on the Brisbane River near Dutton Park was dismissed because of its prohibitive costs.
The other site Oldham suggested was selected. The Surveyor-General, Augustus Gregory suggested a site on Ithaca Creek; this location was abandoned. Enoggera Creek had a large catchment that rose higher in the D'Aguilar Range and had more smaller creeks flowing into it; the location was steep and timbered. It took ten different contractors to just clear the site; the Queensland Government didn't have confidence in the Council to supervise the dam's construction. After requesting revised plans and detailed cost estimates the Board of Waterworks was established to oversee the project. Approval for the dam's construction was given in May 1864. Work began in August 1864, with water flowing by July 1866. A single wrought iron mains pipe, varying from 20 inches to 16 inches in diameter, arrived at Roma Street, with branch pipes from there to various parts of the town. By 1869 the pipelines were extended to a total of eighteen kilometers, benefiting between five and six thousand people. Three outlet pipes were incorporated into the design instead of two.
This allowed the potential supply to increase. The original cost was ₤50,000, raised to ₤65,000. By the end of 1870 more than ₤71,000 had been spent and water supply for the growing city of Brisbane was not being met by strong demand. To solve the problem another dam, Gold Creek Dam was approved in 1881. A commemorative drinking fountain in the City Botanic Gardens is dedicated to the arrival of clean drinking mains water to Brisbane. Dry periods pronounced water quality problems in both Enoggera Dam and Gold Creek Dam built after the Enoggera reservoir was completed; the Mount Crosby Weir and pumping station alleviated some concerns but flooding of the Brisbane River was problematic. It was not until 1912. A spillway was added in 1976. Seven metres was added to the height of the dam wall for flood mitigation in the same year, it was decommissioned in 2003 in early 2006 water from Enoggera Dam was again added to inner north-west Brisbane's drinking water supply, when drought had reduced South East Queensland's water supply to critical levels.
The dam was managed by the Brisbane City Council until July 2008, until it was transferred to Seqwater in a region-wide redistribution of water assets. There are walking tracks in the area, no permit is required. In March 2014, Seqwater released a recreation guide that allowed for water activities including swimming, canoeing and fishing. Public access to the dam is via Walkabout Creek Wildlife Centre; the dam was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register in 2007. List of dams and reservoirs in Australia Media related to Enoggera Reservoir at Wikimedia Commons
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
The Hinze Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam with an un-gated spillway across the Nerang River in the Gold Coast hinterland of South East, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for potable water supply of the Gold Coast region; the impounded reservoir is called Advancetown Lake. Hinze Dam was named in honour of the Hinze family who lived in the valley, flooded by the dam; the dam is located in Advancetown, 15 kilometres south-west of Nerang downstream of the confluence of the Nerang River and Little Nerang Creek. The earthfill dam structure is 1,850 metres long; the 4,261-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 310,730-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 207 square kilometres that includes the Numinbah Valley and Springbrook Plateau, with most being contained within state forests and national parks, the dam creates Advancetown Lake, with a surface area of 1,500 hectares; the uncontrolled un-gated spillway, located at 82 metres above sea level, has a discharge capacity of 550 cubic metres per second.
Managed by the Gold Coast City Council up until 2008, the dam is now managed by Seqwater. The dam provides the benefit of flood mitigation to populated areas along the Nerang River downstream of the dam; the Southport Town Council planned the dam in 1947. It was completed in 1976 and expanded in 1989 and 2011. Stage One was completed in 1976, provided 42,400 megalitres of potable water storage and supply. Stage Two was completed in 1989; this stage was completed at a cost of A$42 million and involved raising the main embankment and intake towers by 18 metres to create a surface area of 9.72 square kilometres. In 2004 the Gold Coast City Council resolved to construct Stage 3 of the dam; when the dam reached full capacity, on 7 January 2008 work began on Stage 3 and was completed on 19 December 2011. After nearly four years of construction the construction cost was A$395 million; the Stage 3 works increased the height of the dam wall from 93.5 metres to 108 metres, increased the reservoir capacity from 161,070 megalitres to 310,730 megalitres, with the added purpose of flood mitigation, beyond water supply.
Stage 3 construction was completed by the Hinze Dam Alliance, a joint venture between Seqwater, with private sector partners URS Corporation, Sinclair Knight Merz and Thiess. The additional works with a higher dam wall provided 4,500 homes below the dam wall with flood protection from a 1974 Brisbane–style flood event; the eastern boat ramp is located in Mudgeeraba and features a craft and paddle launching platform as well as toilets and bin facilities. The western boat ramp, located in Springbrook, contains the same amenities with a smaller car park. In 2012 a body was discovered by fishermen. Advancetown Lake is a popular recreational facility for Gold Coast residents. Since the Stage 3 upgrade, recreational activities allowed include walking, electric or manual-powered boating, fishing and horse riding; the facilities are open from 6 am to 6 pm daily. No camping is permitted around the lake. Dogs are not permitted, while swimming has been discouraged. An interpretive centre was opened on 19 December 2011, along with new parking, walking trails, toilet facilities and barbecue areas.
The final design of the dam was criticised in the media and by residents and politicians, some describing it as a "concrete bunker". The criticism arose because of a reduction in playground and barbecue facilities. Advancetown Lake has one on the western and another on the eastern side; the dam is stocked with Mary River cod, silver perch, golden perch, southern saratoga and bass, while spangled perch are present naturally. Banded grunter have been found in the lake and being illegally introduced, it is recommended that, if caught, they should be destroyed. A Gold Coast City Council permit is required to fish in the dam. A Queensland State Government Stocked Impoundment Permit is not required; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The area surrounding the Hinze Dam was proposed as the location for the mountain bike competition. A new course was constructed to meet international competition requirements; some government representatives as well as some mountain bikers have sought to have the competition moved away to the unsecured trails at Nerang State Forest.
The Gold Coast Mountain Bike Club maintain the course and sometimes host a race on the circuit the first Sunday of each month. Sports on the Gold Coast, Queensland List of dams in Queensland "Hinze Dam Stage 3". SEQ Water. November 2011. "Lake Advancetown Gold Coast. Qld". Fishing Information & Map. Sweetwater Fishing. 2000. "Hinze Dam pictures". Picture Australia. National Library of Australia. "Clay Core cracked as Hinze Dam upgrade reaches major milestone". SEQ Water. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20
The Wivenhoe Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam with a concrete spillway across the Brisbane River in South East Queensland, Australia. The dam wall is located about 80 kilometres by road from the centre of Brisbane; the primary purpose of the dam is the supply of potable water for the Ipswich regions. In addition, the dam provides for flood mitigation control and for recreation; the impounded reservoir is called Lake Wivenhoe and the dam, the lake and a narrow strip of surrounding land forms a locality called Lake Wivenhoe. Wivenhoe Dam was planned in the water storage dam; the 1974 Brisbane flood highlighted the need for flood protection for South East Queensland. The lake forms part of the water storages for the Wivenhoe Power Station; the earth and rock dam structure is 2,300 metres long. The 4,140-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 1,165,000-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 7,020 square kilometres that includes much of the south–western slopes of the D'Aguilar National Park, the dam creates Lake Wivenhoe, with a surface area of 1,094 hectares, a maximum shoreline of 462 kilometres, an average annual evaporation level of 1,872 mm.
The gated spillway, with five steel crest gates that are 12 metres wide and 16.6 metres high, has a discharge capacity of 12,000 cubic metres per second. The dam has an auxiliary spillway to stop over-topping; the dam is managed by SEQ Water since July 2008 when most dam assets were transferred to the statutory authority, as part of a water security project in the South East Queensland region, known as the South East Queensland Water Grid. Wivenhoe was investigated for a dam site in the 1890s and again in 1933. Further investigations into a dam began in the mid 1960s. In November 1971, Government approval was given to proceed with construction. Acquisition of lands of the submerged portion of the dam began in March 1973. In 1976, the Government gave approval to proceed with construction of the pumped storage hydro-electric scheme. Total cost for the hydro-electric project was A$450 million. In March 1977, the first construction contract was awarded; the dam was designed by the Queensland Water Resources Commission.
In June 1983, the completed dam mitigated a severe flood that may have caused damage equal to the 1893 Brisbane flood. Construction work was complete by 1985. To provide the 337.5 square kilometres of land required for the dam, 200 properties were acquired. The catchment area has an average annual rainfall of 940 millimetres; the dam holds twice as much water as Sydney Harbour and holds about seven more capacity than the Hinze Dam on the Gold Coast. Wivenhoe Dam contributes to the Gold Coast's water supply; the dam was designed as a response to the floods that damaged Brisbane in 1974. Built in the late 1970s – early 1980s as a multifunction facility by a consortium of construction companies including Thiess Brothers, Wivenhoe Dam provides a safe water supply to the people of Brisbane and adjacent regions. Additionally, Wivenhoe Dam serves as the lower storage in a pumped-storage, hydro-electric generating facility, the Wivenhoe Power Station; the upper reservoir is formed by Splityard Creek Dam, of earth and rock construction, with a capacity of 28,700 megalitres.
Under normal conditions the dam supplies water via pipeline to both Tarong Power Station and Tarong North Power Station, but during drought conditions only supplies water to Tarong North. During a flood the dam is designed to hold back 1.45 million megalitres of additional water for flood mitigation or 225% capacity. Under the water release plan, defined by law, excess water must be released from the dam within seven days or a week of it reaching 100% capacity. Between April 2004 and September 2008, a 165-metre wide auxiliary spillway with a three-bay fuse plug was installed on the western portion of the dam to further mitigate flooding. In 2007, a feasibility study concluded that Wivenhoe Dam failed to satisfy the Australian National Committee on Large Dams guidelines on acceptable flood capacity. Brisbane water levels reduced to under 20% of capacity, having had no substantial inflow for five years; the largest recorded inflows for the dam occurred in January 2011. On 11 January 2011, Wivenhoe Dam reached its highest level 191% of normal water supply storage capacity, as it held back floodwater.
Because it is an embankment dam, it was not designed to spill over its crest or overtop and there is a risk that if waters spilled over the crest, this could erode the dam wall and cause the dam to fail. In this scenario the water level would need to rise to 225% capacity. To prevent this, the dam was built to include a second emergency spillway. During the peak of the flooding event the dam water level reached 60 centimetres below the auxiliary spillway height. In 2006, emergency plans for placing treated recycled water from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme into the dam to supplement supply were made public. Sixty million litres of recycled water were to be pumped into the dam by early 2009. Increasing rainfall from 2008 resulted in the plan for recycled water to enter the region's drinking water supply to be postponed. Lake Wivenhoe is a camping and outdoor recreation destination. Camping sites are provided at Captain Lumley Hill Areas; the managed camping facilities at Captain Logan Camp include hot showers and toi
Sunshine Coast Region
The Sunshine Coast Region is a local government area located in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. It was created by the amalgamation in 2008 of the City of Caloundra and the Shires of Maroochy and Noosa, it contains 4,194 kilometres of roads, 211 kilometres of coastline and a population of 295,000 at the 2016 Census. The first budget of the new Council for the 2008–2009 financial year totals A$673 million including $498 million operating expenditure, $168 million capital expenditure and $25.2 million for repayment of loans. On 1 January 2014, the Shire of Noosa was re-established independent of the Sunshine Coast Regional council. Prior to 2008, the new Sunshine Coast Region was an entire area of three previous and distinct local government areas: the City of Caloundra. At the establishment of regional local government in Queensland on 11 November 1879 with the Divisional Boards Act 1879, most of the area was part of the Caboolture Division, while the northernmost part around Noosa was part of the Widgee Division centred on Gympie.
The Maroochy Division split away from Caboolture on 5 July 1890. All three divisions became Shires on 31 July 1903 under the Local Authorities Act 1902. In 1910, the Shire of Noosa split from Widgee, on 22 February 1912 the Shire of Landsborough split from Caboolture; the two new entities together with Maroochy were to remain stable for 100 years. On 19 December 1987, the Shire of Landsborough was granted City status, was renamed the City of Caloundra, reflecting the population boom in the coastal section of the City. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the three local governments amalgamate. While it noted all three were "functioning councils with moderate to strong financial performance", it argued that they covered a self-contained region in a geographic and economic sense and that the advantages of coordinated planning in a high-growth area and the avoidance of duplication of facilities were arguments in favour of amalgamation; the councils opposed the amalgamation, the Commission itself noted that the bulk of statewide individual submissions came from this region reflecting a "depth of feeling" regarding the issue.
On 15 March 2008, the City and two Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect twelve councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. In the 2011 census, the Sunshine Coast Region had the 4th largest population of any local government area in Australia. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 March 2013, Noosa residents voted to de-amalgamate Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Council. On 18 March 2013, the Sunshine Coast Regional Council decided its new planning scheme should not apply to those areas that were part of the former Noosa Shire; the Shire of Noosa Shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each represented by one councillor, plus an elected mayor who represents the entire Region; the council is elected for a four-year term. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016 and will not include the Shire of Noosa's census figures.
The Sunshine Coast economy is dominated by two sectors – Healthcare and Retail, which provide 30% of the regional employment. Other significant areas are Accommodation & Food Services, Construction and Professional Services. Efforts are being made to diversify the regional economy by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council. Local educational institutions and community groups have funded a number of initiatives to encourage entrepreneurial and innovative businesses to the area; the University of the Sunshine Coast's Innovation Centre acts as an incubator startup companies, as does the Spark Bureau. The University site at Sippy Downs is designated as a'Knowledge Hub' as part of the Queensland Government's South East Queensland Regional Infrastructure Plan and is master planned as Australia's first university town based on the UK models with the potential for over 6,000 workers in knowledge-based businesses. Sippy Downs was highlighted as an'Innovation Hotspot' in July 2010, by top European Business magazine CNBC Business, with the potential to be'Australia's no-worries-answer to Silicon Valley'.
The Sunshine Coast's major university is the University of the Sunshine Coast with its main campus at Sippy Downs. Central Queensland University has a campus in Noosa. TAFE Queensland services the Sunshine Coast and Wide Bay regions through TAFE East Coast, with three Sunshine Coast campuses at Mooloolaba, Maroochydore & Nambour as well as a Noosa campus; the Sunshine Coast has many varied denomination and public primary and secondary schools. The Lexis English group, providing English classes to international students, has a campus in Maroochydore, while Lexis TESOL Training Centres provides teacher training programs such as the Cambridge CELTA and TESOL; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates libraries at Beerwah, Caloundra, Coolum Beach, Maleny and Nambour. It operates a mobile library service visiting Beerburrum, Bli Bli, Caloundra West, Eudlo, Glass House Mountains, Little Mountain, Mooloolah Valley, Mount Coolum, Mountain Creek, Pacific Paradise, Parklands, Pelican W
CIMIC Group Limited is a international contractor. It is active in the telecommunications and infrastructure, building and property and resources, environmental services industries, it has operations in Australia, South East Asia, New Zealand, the Middle East. Leighton Holdings was rebranded as the CIMIC Group in 2015. CIMIC stands for Construction, Infrastructure and Concessions. Founded in 1949 by Stanley Leighton, an Englishman, Leighton Holdings was first listed on the Melbourne Stock Exchange in 1962. In 1983, Leighton Holdings acquired Thiess Pty Ltd, an Australian civil engineering and construction company that originated in Queensland in 1934. In 2000, Leighton Holdings bought a 70% stake in the John Holland Group. By March 2014, Spanish company ACS Group, through its German-based construction company Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft, was the majority owner of Leighton Holdings, installed Hochtief‘s CEO, Marcelino Fernandez Verdes, as Leighton's CEO. In June 2014, Verdes became chairman of Leighton's executive board.
In December 2014, Leighton Holdings sold John Holland to China Communications Construction for $1.15 billion. In April 2015, following corruption allegations against Leighton Holdings from a time prior to its acquisition by ACS Group, ACS changed Leighton’s name to CIMIC Group. In March 2016, CIMIC purchased mining company Sedgman for A$256 million. In December 2016, CIMIC purchased engineering company UGL Limited for A$524 million. Michael Wright became CEO in succession to Marcelino Fernandez Verdes in November 2017. Major projects undertaken by Leighton Holdings include: Ross River Dam completed in 1971 Anglo-Australian Observatory completed in 1971 Tallowa Dam completed in 1976 Burdekin Dam completed in 1987 Brisbane Airport completed in 1988 ABC Centre, Ultimo completed in 1991 Star City Casino completed in 1997 Eastern Distributor tunnel completed in 1999 Westpac Place, Sydney completed in 2006 East Link, Melbourne completed in 2008 Clem Jones Tunnel completed in 2010 Antilia Building, completed in 2010 Gateway Bridge Duplication completed in 2011 Airport Link, completed in 2012 Victorian Desalination Plant, completed in 2012 About 70% of the shares in CIMIC Group are held by Hochtief which in turn is owned by the ACS Group.
Leighton Asia, a subsidiary of CIMIC Group, was awarded the contract for constructing the Hung Hom station extension of the Sha Tin to Central Link, a high profile railway network extension project in Hong Kong in 2013. In 2018, Leighton Asia was accused of failure to comply with local safety standards and attempting to hide this failure until a whistleblower leaked its evidence to the local press. During a hearing of the commission of inquiry, the Hong Kong Government accused Leighton of corporate arrogance. CIMIC official website