Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The spelling fibre is common in British Commonwealth countries, the binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene or glass fibers, the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most frequent additive is silica, but other such as rubber. The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. In product advertisements, it is referred to simply as graphite fiber for short. In this case the composite consists of two parts, a matrix and a reinforcement, in CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which provides the strength.
The matrix is usually a resin, such as epoxy. Because CFRP consists of two elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity, measured by stress, unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber, the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit virtually no plasticity, with less than 0. 5% strain to failure, although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically. As such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material, One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is much more difficult to process and more expensive, despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue endurance limit. This means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out, environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. The primary element of CFRP is a filament, this is produced from a precursor polymer such as polyacrylonitrile, rayon. Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning filament yarns may vary among manufacturers, after drawing or spinning, the polymer filament yarns are heated to drive off non-carbon atoms, producing the final carbon fiber
The short-lived Plymouth Superbird was a highly modified version of the Plymouth Road Runner with well-known graphics and horn. The cars primary rival was the Ford Torino Talladega, a response to the Mopar aero car. It has been speculated one motivating factor in the production of the car was to lure Richard Petty back to Plymouth. Both of the Mopar aero cars famously featured a protruding, aerodynamic nosecone, a rear wing and, in the case of the Superbird. Superbirds equipped with the top-of-the-line 426 cu in Hemi engine with a pair of four barrel Carter AFB carburettors producing 425 hp could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 5.5 seconds. Developed specifically for NASCAR racing, the Superbird, a modified Road Runner, was Plymouths follow-on design to the Charger Daytona fielded by sister company Dodge in the previous season. The Superbirds smoothed-out body and nosecone were further refined from that of the Daytona, the rear wing was mounted on tall vertical struts that put it into less disturbed air thus increasing the efficiency of the downdraft that it placed upon the cars rear axle.
For nearly 30 years the formula used to determine the exact height of the enormous wing was thought to be a highly guarded Chrysler secret. In the 1990s a retired Chrysler project engineer claimed publicly that the height was determined in much simpler fashion and it should be noted that by a co-incidence the height of the wing was at the optimum level for maximum downforce. The rear-facing fender scoops were to hide cut outs and these cutouts were to allow wheel clearance due to the larger, wider wheels and lowered height of the vehicle for NASCAR. On Daytonas, the scoops were actually for ventilating trapped air from the wells in order to reduce under fender air pressure. For standard road going Superbirds the covers or air extractors were a cosmetic enhancement, NASCARs homologation requirement demanded that vehicles to be raced must be available to the general public and sold through dealerships in specific minimum numbers. Due to increasing emissions regulations, combined with insurance hikes for high performance cars, Superbird decals were placed on the outside edges of the spoiler vertical struts featuring a picture of the Road Runner cartoon character holding a racing helmet.
A smaller version of the decal appears on the driver side headlight door, only 135 models were fitted with the 426 Hemi. As the 440 was less expensive to produce, the Street version of the 426 Hemi engine used in competition was homologated by producing the minimum number required. On the street, the cone and wing were very distinctive. In fact, the 1970 Road Runner was actually quicker in the mile and standard acceleration tests due to the increased weight of the Superbirds nose. Only at speeds in excess of 60 mph did the modifications begin to show any benefit
The Porsche 930 is a sports car built by Porsche between 1975 and 1989, known to the public as the 911 Turbo. It was the makers top-of-the-range 911 model for its entire production duration, Porsche began experimenting with turbocharging technology on their race cars during the late 1960s, and in 1972 began development on a turbocharged version of the 911. Porsche originally needed to produce the car in order to comply with regulations and had intended on marketing it as a street legal race vehicle like the 1973 Carrera 2.7 RS. The FIAs Appendix “J” rules that brought about the 911 Turbo Carrera RSR2.1 in 1974 changed in 1975 and 1976. The FIA announced that cars for Group 4 and Group 5 had to be production cars, for the 1976 season, new FIA regulations required manufactures to produce 400 cars in twenty-four months to gain approval for Group 4. Group 5 would require the car to be derived from a model in Group 3 or 4. Porsches group 4 entry was the 934, homologated on 6 December 1975, for Group 5, Porsche would create one of the most successful racing cars of all time, the 935.
While the original purpose of the Porsche Turbo road car was to gain homologation for the 1976 racing season,400 cars were produced by the end of 1975. Since Porsche wanted to be racing for the 1976 season, they gained FIA homologation for the Porsche Turbo for Group 4 in Nr.645 on 6 Dec ‘75 and the 1, 000th 1976 Turbo was completed on 5 May ‘76. Ernst Fuhrmann adapted the turbo-technology originally developed for the 917/30 CAN-AM car to the 3.0 litre flat-six from the Carrera RS3.0, total output from the engine was 260 PS, much more than the standard Carrera. Porsche badged the vehicle simply as Turbo and debuted it at the Paris Auto Show in October 1974 before putting it on sale in the spring of 1975, export to the United States began in 1976. The 930 proved very fast but very demanding to drive fast, prone by its short wheelbase, rear engine layout to oversteer and turbo-lag. Porsche made its first and most significant changes to the 930 for 1978, enlarging the engine to 3.3 litres and adding an air-to-air intercooler.
By cooling the air charge, the intercooler helped increase power output to 300 hp. Porsche upgraded the brakes to units similar to those used on the 917 racecar.0 litre models, changing emissions regulations in Japan and the U. S. forced Porsche to withdraw the 930 from those markets in 1980. It remained, available in Canada, the 930 remained available in Europe, and for 1983 a 330 PS performance option became available on a build-to-order basis from Porsche. Porsche offered a Flachbau 930 under the Sonderwunschprogramm beginning in 1981, each Flachbau unit was handcrafted by remodeling the front fenders. So few were built that the units often commanded a high premium price
They are typically heat-resistant and rubber-like, and are used in sealants, lubricants, cooking utensils, and thermal and electrical insulation. Some common forms include silicone oil, silicone grease, silicone rubber, silicone resin, more precisely called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes, silicones consist of an inorganic silicon-oxygen backbone chain with organic side groups attached to the silicon atoms. So, silicones are polymers constructed from inorganic-organic monomers, Silicones have in general the chemical formula n, where R is an organic group such as alkyl groups, or phenyl groups. In some cases, organic side groups can be used to two or more of these -Si-O- backbones together. By varying the -Si-O- chain lengths, side groups, and crosslinking, silicones can be synthesized with a variety of properties. They can vary in consistency from liquid to gel to rubber to hard plastic, the most common siloxane is linear polydimethylsiloxane, a silicone oil. The second largest group of materials is based on silicone resins. F. S.
Kipping and Matt Saunders coined the word silicone in 1901 to describe polydiphenylsiloxane by analogy of its formula, Ph2SiO, with the formula of the ketone benzophenone, Ph2CO. Kipping was well aware that polydiphenylsiloxane is polymeric whereas benzophenone is monomeric and noted that Ph2SiO, Silicone is sometimes mistakenly referred to as silicon. The chemical element silicon is a crystalline metalloid widely used in computers, polysiloxanes are among the many substances commonly known as silicones. Molecules containing silicon-oxygen double bonds do exist and are called silanones, despite this, silanones are important as intermediates in gas-phase processes such as chemical vapor deposition in microelectronics production, and in the formation of ceramics by combustion. Most common are materials based on polydimethylsiloxane, which is derived by hydrolysis of dimethyldichlorosilane and this dichloride reacts with water as follows, n Si2Cl2 + n H2O → n + 2n HCl The polymerization typically produces linear chains capped with Si-Cl or Si-OH groups.
Under different conditions the polymer is a cyclic, not a chain, for consumer applications such as caulks silyl acetates are used instead of silyl chlorides. The hydrolysis of the produce the less dangerous acetic acid as the reaction product of a much slower curing process. This chemistry is used in consumer applications, such as silicone caulk. Branches or cross-links in the chain can be introduced by using organosilicon precursors with fewer alkyl groups. Ideally, each molecule of such a compound becomes a branch point and this process can be used to produce hard silicone resins. Similarly, precursors with three groups can be used to limit molecular weight, since each such molecule has only one reactive site
Fiberglass is a type of fiber-reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber. The glass fiber may be arranged, flattened into a sheet. The plastic matrix may be a polymer matrix – most often based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin. The glass fibers are made of various types of glass depending upon the fiberglass use and these glasses all contain silica or silicate, with varying amounts of oxides of calcium and sometimes boron. To be used in fiberglass, glass fibers have to be made very low levels of defects. Fiberglass is a lightweight material and is used for many products. Although it is not as strong and stiff as composites based on fiber, it is less brittle. Its bulk strength and weight are better than many metals, other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK. Because glass fiber itself is referred to as fiberglass, the composite is called fiberglass reinforced plastic. This article will adopt the convention that fiberglass refers to the glass fiber reinforced composite material.
A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933, Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented fibreglas in 1936. Originally, fibreglas was a wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator. A suitable resin for combining the fibreglass with a plastic to produce a material was developed in 1936 by du Pont. The first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamids resin of 1942, peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic and this reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called fiberglass, ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used.
In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a boat of plastic materials. The first car to have a body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab
A semi-trailer truck, more commonly called a semi truck, is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth wheel hitch, the result is that both tractor and semi-trailer will have a distinctly different design than a rigid truck and trailer. The tractor unit typically has two or three axles, those built for hauling heavy-duty commercial-construction machinery may have as many as five, the most common tractor-cab layout has a forward engine, one steering axle, and two drive axles. The fifth-wheel trailer coupling on most tractor trucks is movable fore and aft, ubiquitous in Europe, but less common in North America since the 1990s, is the cabover engine configuration, where the driver sits next to, or over the engine. With changes in the US to the length of the combined vehicle. Cabovers were difficult to service, as the cab could not be lifted on its hinges to a full 90-degree forward tilt, Trucks average from 4 to 8 miles per US gallon, with fuel economy standards requiring better than 7 miles per US gallon efficiency by 2014.
The cargo trailer usually has tandem axles at the rear, each of which has wheels, or eight tires on the trailer. In the US it is common to refer to the number of hubs, rather than the number of tires. The combination of eight tires on the trailer and ten tires on the tractor is what led to the moniker eighteen wheeler, many trailers are equipped with movable tandem axles to allow adjusting the weight distribution. To connect the second of a set of doubles to the first trailer, and to support the front half of the second trailer and this has one or two axles, a fifth-wheel coupling for the rear trailer, and a tongue with a ring-hitch coupling for the forward trailer. Individual states may further allow longer vehicles, known as longer combination vehicles, Long Combination Vehicle types include, Two 28.5 ft trailers. Turnpike Doubles, Two 48 ft trailers, Rocky Mountain Doubles, One 40 to 53 ft trailer and one 28.5 ft trailer. In Canada, a Turnpike Double is two 53 ft trailers, and a Rocky Mountain Double is a 50 ft trailer with a 24 ft pup, future Long Combination Vehicles under consideration and study for the U. S. MAP-21 transportation bill are container doubles.
The US federal government, which regulates the Interstate Highway System, does not set maximum length requirements. Tractors can pull two or three if the combination is legal in that state. Weight maximums are 20,000 lb on an axle,34,000 lb on a tandem. There is a width of 8.5 ft and no maximum height. Roads other than the Interstates are regulated by the individual states, maximum weight varies between 80,000 lb to 171,000 lb, depending on the combination
The Chrysler Crossfire is a rear-wheel drive, 2-door sports car sold by Chrysler and built by Karmann of Germany for model years 2004-2008. Developed during the union of Daimler and Chrysler, the two-seater is based on the Mercedes-Benz R170 platform and shares 80% of its components with the first generation SLK. The second generation SLK was built on a new R171 platform starting in the 2005 model year, having initially arrived in 2001 as a concept car styled by Eric Stoddard, the Chrysler was further refined by Andrew Dyson before production began in 2003 for 2004 model year sales. The name Crossfire refers to the two lines that run from front to rear along the body sides — crossing each other midway through the door panel. Conceived during the period of Chryslers ownership by Daimler-Benz, the name refers to the collaboration of the two companies. The Crossfires fastback roof and broad rear fenders made for a rear end design that prompted automotive journalists, the distinctive boat-tail rear end that reminds more than one observer of the old Rambler Marlin.
When I first espied the rear lines of the Chrysler Crossfire I was instantly transported back to 1965 and my favorite car of that year, motor Trend compared the provocative boattail theme of the 2004 Crossfires sheetmetal to that of the AMC Marlin fastback. However, British motoring journalist Jeremy Clarkson had a less kind interpretation of the Crossfires design, Chrysler executed the interior and exterior styling. All other elements of the car such as wheelbase, engine, chassis structure, an example of this is the engine bay of the Crossfire, which is virtually identical to the Mercedes-Benz SLK320 on the R170 platform. The seats from the Mercedes-Benz SLK320 would bolt directly into the Crossfire chassis, the dashboard layout and instruments are similar to those on the Mercedes-Benz SLK320. The standard transmission is a 6-speed manual with an optional 5-speed automatic. Base and Limited models, originally beginning in the 2004 model year, are equipped with a Mercedes-Benz 3.2 L, 18-valve. SRT-6 models are equipped with a supercharged version of the engine built by AMG.
SRT-6 models came only with the 5-speed automatic transmission, consistent with AMG cars of the same era, the 6-speed transmission used by the Chrysler Crossfire is a variant of the Mercedes sourced NSG-370. The 5-speed automatic transmission in the Crossfire is Mercedes sourced, the automatic achieves a better EPA fuel efficiency rating over the 6MT, mostly due to the difference in gear ratios. Unlike most cars of its time, the Crossfire does not use a rack and pinion steering system, front suspension is unequal length double wishbone suspension with 5 point multi link in the rear. All Crossfire models were built with 2 different wheel sizes, the front wheels are 18-in, with 225-40/18 tires and the rear wheels are 19-in. The sales of the Crossfire were slow, with an average 230-day supply of the vehicles during November 2005, in December, the cars were listed on Overstock. com to clear out inventory
Turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime in fluid dynamics characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to a flow regime, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers. Turbulence is caused by kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow. For this reason turbulence is easier to create in low viscosity fluids, in general terms, in turbulent flow, unsteady vortices appear of many sizes which interact with each other, consequently drag due to friction effects increases. This would increase the energy needed to pump fluid through a pipe, however this effect can be exploited by such as aerodynamic spoilers on aircraft, which deliberately spoil the laminar flow to increase drag and reduce lift. The onset of turbulence can be predicted by a constant called the Reynolds number. However, turbulence has long resisted detailed physical analysis, and the interactions within turbulence creates a complex situation. Richard Feynman has described turbulence as the most important unsolved problem of classical physics, smoke rising from a cigarette is mostly turbulent flow.
However, for the first few centimeters the flow is laminar, the smoke plume becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases, due to its flow velocity and characteristic length increasing. If the golf ball were smooth, the boundary layer flow over the front of the sphere would be laminar at typical conditions. However, the layer would separate early, as the pressure gradient switched from favorable to unfavorable. To prevent this happening, the surface is dimpled to perturb the boundary layer. This results in higher skin friction, but moves the point of boundary layer separation further along, resulting in form drag. The flow conditions in industrial equipment and machines. The external flow over all kind of such as cars, ships. The motions of matter in stellar atmospheres, a jet exhausting from a nozzle into a quiescent fluid. As the flow emerges into this external fluid, shear layers originating at the lips of the nozzle are created and these layers separate the fast moving jet from the external fluid, and at a certain critical Reynolds number they become unstable and break down to turbulence.
Biologically generated turbulence resulting from swimming animals affects ocean mixing, snow fences work by inducing turbulence in the wind, forcing it to drop much of its snow load near the fence
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line. The direction of a line is increasing, horizontal or vertical. A line is increasing if it goes up from left to right, the slope is positive, i. e. m >0. A line is decreasing if it goes down from left to right, the slope is negative, i. e. m <0. If a line is horizontal the slope is zero, if a line is vertical the slope is undefined. The steepness, incline, or grade of a line is measured by the value of the slope. A slope with an absolute value indicates a steeper line Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the vertical change to the horizontal change between two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient, giving the number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative rise, the line may be practical - as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan.
The rise of a road between two points is the difference between the altitude of the road at two points, say y1 and y2, or in other words, the rise is = Δy. Here the slope of the road between the two points is described as the ratio of the altitude change to the horizontal distance between any two points on the line. In mathematical language, the m of the line is m = y 2 − y 1 x 2 − x 1. The concept of slope applies directly to grades or gradients in geography, as a generalization of this practical description, the mathematics of differential calculus defines the slope of a curve at a point as the slope of the tangent line at that point. When the curve given by a series of points in a diagram or in a list of the coordinates of points, the simple idea of slope becomes one of the main basis of the modern world in terms of both technology and the built environment. This is described by the equation, m = Δ y Δ x = vertical change horizontal change = rise run. Given two points and, the change in x from one to the other is x2 − x1, substituting both quantities into the above equation generates the formula, m = y 2 − y 1 x 2 − x 1.
The formula fails for a line, parallel to the y axis. Suppose a line runs through two points, P = and Q =, since the slope is positive, the direction of the line is increasing
Phenol, known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group and it is mildly acidic and requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause chemical burns. Phenol was first extracted from tar, but today is produced on a large scale from petroleum. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and it is primarily used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, Bakelite, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides. Phenol is appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL, homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide, is far more water-soluble and it reacts completely with aqueous NaOH to lose H+, whereas most alcohols react only partially.
One explanation for the increased acidity over alcohols is resonance stabilization of the anion by the aromatic ring. In this way, the charge on oxygen is delocalized on to the ortho. In another explanation, increased acidity is the result of orbital overlap between the lone pairs and the aromatic system. The pKa of the enol of acetone is 10.9, the acidities of phenol and acetone enol diverge in the gas phase owing to the effects of solvation. About 1⁄3 of the acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects. Phenolate esters are more stable toward hydrolysis than acid anhydrides and acyl halides but are sufficiently reactive under mild conditions to facilitate the formation of amide bonds, Phenol exhibits keto-enol tautomerism with its unstable keto tautomer cyclohexadienone, but only a tiny fraction of phenol exists as the keto form. The equilibrium constant for enolisation is approximately 10−13, meaning only one in every ten trillion molecules is in the keto form at any moment. The small amount of stabilisation gained by exchanging a C=C bond for a C=O bond is more than offset by the large destabilisation resulting from the loss of aromaticity, Phenol therefore exists essentially entirely in the enol form.
Phenoxides are enolates stabilised by aromaticity, under normal circumstances, phenoxide is more reactive at the oxygen position, but the oxygen position is a hard nucleophile whereas the alpha-carbon positions tend to be soft. Phenol is highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution as the oxygen atoms pi electrons donate electron density into the ring, by this general approach, many groups can be appended to the ring, via halogenation, acylation and other processes
Talladega Superspeedway, formerly known as Alabama International Motor Speedway, is a motorsports complex located north of Talladega, Alabama. It is located on the former Anniston Air Force Base in the city of Lincoln. A tri-oval, the track was constructed in 1969 by the International Speedway Corporation, the track currently hosts the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, NASCAR Xfinity Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Talladega is the longest NASCAR oval with a length of 2.66 miles like the Daytona International Speedway, at its peak, Talladega had a seating capacity of 175,000 spectators, although its current capacity is 80,000 spectators. During the 1960s, William Bill France, Sr. wanted to build a faster and longer than Daytona International Speedway. After failed attempts to reason with local government in Orange County, North Carolina with the Occoneechee Speedway, he attempted to find a new spot for a race track and make his idea a reality. After failing to secure a location near the research triangle around Raleigh and he would end up breaking ground on an old airfield on May 23,1968.
The track was named the Alabama International Motor Speedway, the name would remain for twenty years until 1989 when the facilitys name was changed to Talladega Superspeedway. The track opened on September 13,1969 at a cost of $4 million, after the first race, Talladega hosted two Cup Series races a year, one of which would become part of the 10-race NASCAR Cup Series Chase for the Championship. Since its opening year, Talladega has hosted many races and has been repaved four times, Talladega has had many first-time winners, such as Larry Schild, Sr. Richard Brickhouse, Brian Vickers, and Brad Keselowski. A 4-mile infield road course was in operation from the founding until 1983. In the 1970s, six IMSA GT Championship races were held at the speedway, in May 2006, Talladega started to re-surface the track and the apron. Construction started on May 1 and lasted until September 18, the first race on the resurfaced race track was a NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series race on October 7. In December 2013, the ISC announced removal of the 18, 000-seat Allison Grandstand on the backstretch, the 4, 000-ft backstraightway was renamed the Alabama Gang Superstretch in time for the 2014 Aarons 499 held in the spring.
Speeds in excess of 200 mph are commonplace at Talladega, Talladega has the record for the fastest recorded time by a NASCAR vehicle on a closed oval course, with the record of 216.309 mph set by Rusty Wallace on June 9,2004. Buddy Baker was the first driver to run at a speed over 200 mph, Bill France himself invited Chrysler to come on down to run a 200 lap for publicity for the April race. The car was fully Nascar inspected and certified, Nascar sanctioned the event and Bill Gazaway was there with the official timing equipment. Bakers 200mph lap was set while driving the No.88 Chrysler Engineering Charger Daytona and it is currently undergoing restoration in Detroit, after being found in the late 1990s in Iowa
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally protecting occupants and minimizing repair costs. Invented by Briton Frederick Simms in 1901, bumpers ideally minimize height mismatches between vehicles and protect pedestrians from injury, bumpers were at first just rigid metal bars. On the 1968 Pontiac GTO, General Motors brought forth an Endura body-colored plastic front bumper designed to absorb low-speed impact without permanent deformation and it appeared in a television commercial where John DeLorean hit the new car with a sledgehammer and no damage resulted. Similar elastomeric bumpers were available on the front and rear of the 1970-71 Plymouth Barracuda, current design practice is for the bumper structure on modern automobiles to consist of a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made of steel, fiberglass composite, or plastic. Bumpers of most modern automobiles have been made of a combination of polycarbonate, a bumper valance or valance panel is a trim piece located in the lower part of the front or rear bumper.
Bumper valances are intended to improve efficiency of the vehicle by directing airflow in the same way that an air dam does. Bumper valances may include the lip at the bottom. However, in many cases valance panel plays a role by covering a lower part of the radiator in the front of the vehicle or concealing the gap between dual exhaust pipes in the rear. Bumpers offer protection to other components by dissipating the kinetic energy generated by an impact. This energy is a function of mass and velocity squared. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the product of the mass, until 1959, such rigidity was seen as beneficial to occupant safety among automotive engineers. Modern theories of vehicle crashworthiness point in the direction, towards vehicles that crumple progressively. A completely rigid vehicle might have excellent bumper protection for vehicle components, bumpers are increasingly being designed to mitigate injury to pedestrians struck by cars, such as through the use of bumper covers made of flexible materials.
Front bumpers, have lowered and made of softer materials, such as foams and crushable plastics. The height and placement of bumpers may be specified, to ensure that when vehicles of different heights are in an accident. Bumpers cannot fully protect against moderate or high speed collisions, underride collisions, in which a smaller vehicle such as a passenger sedan slides under a larger vehicle such as a tractor-trailer often result in severe injuries or fatalities. The platform bed of a typical tractor-trailer is at the height of seated adults in a typical passenger car. Around 500 people are killed this way in the United States annually and they are required to be not more than 22 in from the road