An absentee ballot is a vote cast by someone, unable or unwilling to attend the official polling station to which the voter is allocated. Numerous methods have been devised to facilitate this. Increasing the ease of access to absentee ballots is seen by many as one way to improve voter turnout, though some countries require that a valid reason, such as infirmity or travel, be given before a voter can participate in an absentee ballot. Among countries where voters are allocated to one or several specific polling station, some countries provide a mechanism by which voters can cast their ballots on election day at a different polling station; the reasons for allocating voters to specific polling stations are logistical. Absentee voting at a different polling station might be catered for by, for example, designating some larger polling stations as available for absentee voting, equipping such polling stations with the ballot papers applicable to an absentee voter. In the electoral terminology of some countries, such as Australia, "absentee voting" means a vote cast at a different polling station to one to which the voter has been allocated.
"Early voting", "proxy voting" or "postal voting" are separate concepts in these countries. In a postal vote, the ballot papers are posted out to the voter – only on request – who must fill them out and return them with some form of certification by a witness and their signature to prove their identity. To cast a proxy vote, the user appoints someone as their proxy, by authorizing them to cast or secure their vote in their stead; the proxy must be trusted by the voter, as in a secret ballot there is no way of verifying that they voted for the correct candidate. In an attempt to solve this, it is not uncommon for people to nominate an official of their chosen party as their proxy. Corporations sometimes use Internet voting in shareholder elections. In the 2012, French citizens living abroad were permitted to cast vote electronically in French parliamentary elections. In 2017, the system was dropped after the French National Cybersecurity Agency assessed an "extremely high risk" of cyberattacks in the wake of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.
Electronic voting was banned in the Netherlands in 2007, in 2017 Dutch authorities abandoned electronic vote counting, conducting an all-paper, all-manual vote count in an effort to block foreign interference in its elections. In Switzerland, six cantons are conducting an electronic voting pilot program. In three cantons, Swiss voters resident abroad may vote electronically. Since June 2016, in the canton of Basel Stadt, both Swiss voters resident abroad and persons with disabilities living within the canton may vote using an electronic system. Since 2005, Estonia has allowed voters to cast votes via the Internet; the Estonian Internet-voting system uses the Estonian national identity card, associated with a PINs unique to each voter: "all Estonians are issued a government ID with a scannable chip and a PIN number that gives them a unique online identity — they can use this identity to file their taxes or pay library fines or buy bus passes."Texas law allows American astronauts who cannot vote in person and are unable to vote via absentee ballot such as those aboard the International Space Station and Mir space station cast their ballots electronically, via email, from orbit since 1997.
Ballots are sent via secure email to the Johnson Spaceflight Center and passed on to the astronauts' home counties in Texas. The first American to cast a ballot from space was astronaut David Wolf. Washington voters who are military or overseas may return their ballots by email to their county elections department as an alternative to the standard vote-by-mail system. In Australia the term "absentee ballot" refers to the procedure used when a voter attends a voting place, not in the electoral district in which they are registered to vote. Instead of marking the ballot paper and putting it in the ballot box, the voter's ballot paper is placed in an envelope and it is sent by the voting official to the voter's home district to be counted there. Postal voting and early voting are separate procedures available to voters who would not be in their registered electoral districts on a voting day. In all German elections, postal votes are available on demand; the requirement for an excuse has been removed in 2008 for elections on the federal level.
As of now, India does not have an absentee ballot system for all citizens. In a restricted sense, The Representation of the People Act-1950 section 20 allows people such as people on polling duty and serving in armed forces, Head of state like President to vote in absentia through postal means. Section 20 of the RPA-1950 disqualifies a non-resident Indian from getting his/her name registered in the electoral rolls, it prevents an NRI from casting his/her vote in elections to the Parliament and to the State Legislatures. In August 2010, Representation of the People Bill-2010 which allows voting rights to NRI's was passed in both Lok Sabha with subsequent gazette notifications on N
Voter suppression is a strategy used to influence the outcome of an election by discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting. It is distinguished from political campaigning in that campaigning attempts to change voting behavior by changing the opinions of potential voters through persuasion and organization. Voter suppression, attempts to reduce the number of voters who might vote against a candidate or proposition; the tactics of voter suppression range from minor changes to make voting less convenient, to physically intimidating and physically attacking prospective voters, illegal. Voter suppression can be effective if a significant number of voters are intimidated or disenfranchised. In 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Shelby v. Holder that voting laws had resulted in voter suppression and discrimination. In Australia, it is mandatory for citizens to enroll to vote and it is their responsibility to update their enrollment when they change their address. So, it is estimated that about 6% of eligible Australian voters are not enrolled, or are enrolled incorrectly.
These are disproportionately younger voters, many of whom might neglect to enroll when they attain voting age. In 2006, the Howard Government legislated to close the electoral roll much earlier once an election was called. While voters had been allowed seven days of grace after an election had been called to arrange or update their enrollment, new voters were now allowed only until 8:00 pm on the day that the electoral writ was issued to lodge their enrollment form, while those who needed to update their addresses were allowed three days. In Australia, the Prime Minister has the right to determine the date of the election, so long as constitutional rules regarding the maximum term of the parliament are adhered to; this measure was therefore to result in many newer voters being precluded from voting in the first election for which they were eligible because the time to arrange their enrollment once an election is called had been reduced. The measure was seen as an attempt at voter suppression aimed at younger voters, who surveys had shown are more than the general population to vote for the opposition, the Australian Labor Party, or the Greens.
The Government denied that they were trying to suppress some voters, insisting that the purpose of the reform was to smooth the administration of elections and to reduce the possibility of electoral fraud. This was in spite of the fact that the Australian Electoral Commission had requested no such reform, there was no evidence of significant electoral fraud and that the Australian Electoral Commission had been dealing with hundreds of thousands of late enrollments without significant problems for decades. In July 2010, the left-leaning lobby group GetUp! launched a challenge to this law. The High Court of Australia expedited the hearing so that a ruling could be made in time for the 2010 federal election; the majority ruling struck down early closing of the roll, reinstating the old rule allowing voters seven days grace to arrange or update their enrollment. Australian citizens of the ages 16 or 17 can enroll online so that when they turn 18 they are able to vote. Shortly before the Canadian 2011 Federal Election, vote suppression tactics were exercised by issuing robocalls and live calls to notify voters that their polling station had changed.
The locations offered by these messages were intentionally false to lead voters several hours from the correct stations, identified themselves illegally as coming from Elections Canada. In litigation brought by The Council of Canadians, a federal court found that such fraud had occurred and had been perpetrated by someone with access to the Conservative Party's voter database, including its information about voter preferences; the court stated that the evidence did not prove that the Conservative Party or its successful candidates were directly involved. It did, criticize the Conservative Party for making “little effort to assist with the investigation”; the court did not annul the result in any of six ridings where the fraud had occurred, because it concluded that the number of votes affected had been too small to affect the outcome. In April 2019, during Israel's general elections for the 21st Knesset, Likud activists installed hidden cameras in polling stations in Arab communities. Election observers were seen wearing such cameras.
Hanan Melcer, the Head of the General Elections Committee, said. The following day, PR agency Kaizler Inbar took credit for the operation and said it had been planned in collaboration with Likud, they additionally claimed that voter turnout in Arab communities had fallen under 50% thanks to the presence of the agency's observers in the polling stations. Lutfur Rahman was the directly elected mayor of Tower Hamlets, in London until he was removed from office for breaching electoral rules, his supporters intimidated voters at polling stations. Current proposals by the Conservative Party to require one of several forms of expensive photo-ID in order to vote are to reduce the turnout of young and poor voters more to vote Labour. In the United States, elections are administered locally, forms of voter suppression vary among jurisdictions. At the founding of the country, the right to vote in most states was limited to property-owning white males. Over time, the right to vote was formally granted to racial minorities and youth.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Southern states passed Jim Crow laws to suppress poor and racial minority voters – such laws included poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses. Most of these voter suppression tactics were made illegal after the enactment
A voting machine is a machine used to register and tabulate votes. The first voting machines were mechanical but it is more common to use electronic voting machines. Traditionally, a voting machine has been defined by the mechanism the system uses to cast votes and further categorized by the location where the system tabulates the votes. Voting machines have different levels of usability, security and accuracy. Certain systems may be more or less accessible to all voters, or not accessible to those voters with certain types of disabilities, they can have an effect on the public's ability to oversee elections. The first major proposal for the use of voting machines came from the Chartists in 1838. Among the radical reforms called for in The People's Charter were universal suffrage and voting by secret ballot; this required major changes in the conduct of elections, as responsible reformers, the Chartists not only demanded reforms but described how to accomplish them, publishing Schedule A, a description of how to run a polling place, Schedule B, a description of a voting machine to be used in such a polling place.
The Chartist voting machine, attributed to Benjamin Jolly of 19 York Street in Bath, allowed each voter to cast one vote in a single race. This matched the requirements of a British parliamentary election; each voter was to cast his vote by dropping a brass ball into the appropriate hole in the top of the machine by the candidate's name. Each voter could only vote; the ball advanced a clockwork counter for the corresponding candidate as it passed through the machine, fell out the front where it could be given to the next voter. In 1875, Henry Spratt of Kent received a U. S. patent for a voting machine that presented the ballot as an array of push buttons, one per candidate. Spratt's machine was designed for a typical British election with a single plurality race on the ballot. In 1881, Anthony Beranek of Chicago patented the first voting machine appropriate for use in a general election in the United States. Beranek's machine presented an array of push buttons to the voter, with one row per office on the ballot, one column per party.
Interlocks behind each row prevented voting for more than one candidate per race, an interlock with the door of the voting booth reset the machine for the next voter as each voter left the booth. A Psephograph was patented by Italian inventor Boggiano in 1907. By July 1936, IBM had mechanized voting and ballot tabulation for single transferable vote elections. Using a series of dials, the voter could record up to twenty ranked preferences to a punched card, one preference at a time. Write-in votes were permitted; the machine prevented a voter from spoiling their ballot by skipping rankings and by giving the same ranking to more than one candidate. A standard punched-card counting machine would tabulate ballots at a rate of 400 per minute. A document ballot voting system records votes, counts votes, produces a tabulation of the vote count from votes cast on paper cards or sheets. A document ballot voting system can allow for electronic tabulation; the first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been in Rome in 139 BCE, the first use of paper ballots in the United States was in 1629 to select a pastor for the Salem Church.
Punched card systems employ a small clipboard-sized device for recording votes. Voters punch holes in the cards with a ballot marking device. Typical ballot marking devices carry a ballot label that identifies the candidates or issues associated with each punching position on the card, although in some cases, the names and issues are printed directly on the card. After voting, the voter may place the ballot in a ballot box, or the ballot may be fed into a computer vote tabulating device at the precinct; the idea of voting by punching holes on paper or cards originated in the 1890s and inventors continued to explore this in the years that followed. By the late 1890s John McTammany's voting machine was used in several states. In this machine, votes were recorded by punching holes in a roll of paper comparable to those used in player pianos, tabulated after the polls closed using a pneumatic mechanism. Punched-card voting was proposed in the mid-20th century, but the first major success for punched-card voting came in 1965, with Joseph P. Harris' development of the Votomatic punched-card system.
This was based on IBM's Port-A-Punch technology. Harris licensed the Votomatic to IBM. William Rouverol built the prototype system; the Votomatic system was successful. By the 1996 Presidential election, some variation of the punched card system was used by 37.3% of registered voters in the United States. Votomatic style systems and punched cards received considerable notoriety in 2000 when their uneven use in Florida was alleged to have affected the outcome of the U. S. presidential election. An optical scan, or marksense, voting system allows a voter to record votes by making marks directly on the ballot in voting response locations. A paper-based system may allow for the voter's selections to be indicated by marks made on a paper ballot by an electronic input device; some traditionally non-document ballot voting systems may print a voter-verified paper audit trail to serve as a document for each vote. An electronic ballot marker or ballot marking device is categorized as any such input device that does not independently record, store, or tabulate the voter selections.
Used in the United States until the 1990s, direct recording voting systems are mechanical systems to tabulate votes. This was the first voting technology commercialized in the United
Elections in the United States
Elections in the United States are held for government officials at the federal and local levels. At the federal level, the nation's head of state, the President, is elected indirectly by the people of each state, through an Electoral College. Today, these electors always vote with the popular vote of their state. All members of the federal legislature, the Congress, are directly elected by the people of each state. There are many elected offices at state level, each state having at least an elective Governor and legislature. There are elected offices at the local level, in counties, towns, townships and villages. According to a study by political scientist Jennifer Lawless, there were 519,682 elected officials in the United States as of 2012. While the United States Constitution does set parameters for the election of federal officials, state law, not federal, regulates most aspects of elections in the U. S. including primaries, the eligibility of voters, the running of each state's electoral college, as well as the running of state and local elections.
All elections—federal and local—are administered by the individual states. The restriction and extension of voting rights to different groups has been a contested process throughout United States history; the federal government has been involved in attempts to increase voter turnout, by measures such as the National Voter Registration Act of 1993. The financing of elections has long been controversial, because private sources make up substantial amounts of campaign contributions in federal elections. Voluntary public funding for candidates willing to accept spending limits was introduced in 1974 for presidential primaries and elections; the Federal Elections Commission, created in 1975 by an amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act, has the responsibility to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, to oversee the public funding of U. S. presidential elections. The most common method used in U. S. elections is the first-past-the-post system, where the highest polling candidate wins the election.
Some may use a two-round system, where if no candidate receives a required number of votes there is a runoff between the two candidates with the most votes. Since 2002, several cities have adopted instant-runoff voting in their elections. Voters rank the candidates in order of preference rather than voting for a single candidate. If a candidate secures more than half of votes cast, that candidate wins. Otherwise, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated. Ballots assigned to the eliminated candidate are recounted and assigned to those of the remaining candidates who rank next in order of preference on each ballot; this process continues. In 2016, Maine became the first state to adopt instant-runoff voting statewide for its elections, although due to state constitutional provisions, the system is only used for federal elections and state primaries; the eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the constitution and regulated at state level. The constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color, sex, or age for citizens eighteen years or older.
Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility. Some states ban convicted criminals felons, from voting for a fixed period of time or indefinitely; the number of American adults who are or permanently ineligible to vote due to felony convictions is estimated to be 5.3 million. Some states have legacy constitutional statements barring declared incompetent from voting. While the federal government has jurisdiction over federal elections, most election laws are decided at the state level. All U. S. states. Traditionally, voters had to register at state offices to vote, but in the mid-1990s efforts were made by the federal government to make registering easier, in an attempt to increase turnout; the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 required state governments that receive certain types of federal funding to make the voter registration process easier by providing uniform registration services through drivers' license registration centers, disability centers, schools and mail-in registration.
Other states allow citizens same-day registration on Election Day. In many states, citizens registering to vote may declare an affiliation with a political party; this declaration of affiliation does not cost money, does not make the citizen a dues-paying member of a party. A party cannot prevent a voter from declaring his or her affiliation with them, but it can refuse requests for full membership. In some states, only voters affiliated with a party may vote in that party's primary elections. Declaring a party affiliation is never required; some states, including Georgia, Minnesota, Virginia and Washington, practice non-partisan registration. Voters unable or unwilling to vote at polling stations on Election Day can vote via absentee ballots. Absentee ballots are most sent and received via the United States Postal Service. Despite their name, absentee ballots are requested and submitted in person. About half of all states and U. S. territories allow "no excuse absentee," where no reason is required to request an absentee ballot.
Others require a valid reason, such as infirmity or tra
Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election: a way for an electorate to elect, i.e. choose, among several candidates for rule. In a representative democracy voting is the method by the which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, etc. A vote is a formal expression of an individual's choice against some motion. Many countries use a secret ballot, a practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy.
Voting takes place at a polling station. Different voting systems use different types of votes. Plurality voting does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast. In a voting system that uses a single vote per race, when more than two candidates run, the winner may have less than fifty percent of the vote. A side effect of a single vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism, tends to produce a two-party system. An alternative to a single-vote system is approval voting. To understand why a single vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates, consider a simple lab experiment where students in a class vote for their favorite marble. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed "up for election", if three of them are green, one is red, one is blue a green marble will win the election; the reason is. In fact, in this analogy, the only way that a green marble is to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green.
If the same percentage of people prefer green as those who prefer red and blue, to say if 33 percent of the voters prefer green, 33 percent prefer blue, 33 percent prefer red each green marble will only get eleven percent of the vote, while the red and blue marbles will each get 33 percent, putting the green marbles at a serious disadvantage. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color, in the majority will still win. In other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner, different from the majority. If the experiment is repeated using approval voting, where voters are encouraged to vote for as many candidates as they approve of the winner is much more to be any one of the five marbles, because people who prefer green will be able to vote for every one of the green marbles. A development on the'single vote' system is to have two-round elections, or repeat first-past-the-post; this system is most common around the world. In most cases, the winner must receive a majority, more than half.
And if no candidate obtains a majority at the first round the two candidates with the largest plurality are selected for the second round. Variants exist on these two points: the requirement for being elected at the first round is sometimes less than 50%, the rules for participation in the runoff may vary. An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in some elections in Australia and the USA. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference. Votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% of the vote the candidate with the fewest votes is excluded and their votes redistributed according to the voters nominated order of preference; the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes. The system is designed to produce the same result as an exhaustive ballot but using only a single round of voting. In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives.
So, a voter might vote for Alice and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place Emily Alice Daniel, Charlie. Ranked voting systems, such as those famously used in Australia, use a ranked vote. In a voting system that uses a scored vote, the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten. See cardinal voting systems; some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could vote for Charlie on a ballot with two votes; these types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, are used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. Most of the time, when the citizens of a country are invited to vote, it is for an election. However, people can vote in referendums and initiatives. Since the end of the eighteenth century, more than five hundred national referendums were organised in the world.
A donkey vote is a ballot cast in an election that uses a preference voting system, where a voter is permitted or required to rank candidates on the ballot paper, ranks them based on the order they appear on the ballot paper. The voter that votes in this manner is referred to as a donkey voter; this involves numbering the candidates in the order they appear on the ballot paper: first preference for the first-listed candidate, second preference for the second-listed candidate, so on. However, donkey votes can occur in reverse, such that someone numbers the candidates from the bottom up the ballot paper. In systems where a voter is required to place a number against each candidate for the vote to be valid, the voter may give the first preference to the candidate they prefer run all the other numbers donkey fashion. Donkey votes are most common where preference voting is combined with compulsory voting, such as in Australia where all candidates must be ranked on the ballot paper. There are different versions of the phenomenon applicable in the Australian House of Representatives, Australian Senate and in the Australian jurisdictions that use the Hare–Clark single transferable vote system.
Donkey votes may occur for several reasons, including voter apathy, protest voting, simplicity on How-to-vote cards, the complexity of the voting system, or voter ignorance of the voting system rules. Alternatively, what appears as a donkey vote may in fact be a genuine representation of a voter's preferences. Preferential voting for a single seat is used in elections for the Federal House of Representatives, for all mainland State lower houses, for the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly, it was used for the Western Australian Legislative Council until 1986, the Victorian Legislative Council until 2006. A variant was used for the South Australian Legislative Council before 1973, with two seats per "province" being filled at each election, but by majority-preferential voting, not by proportional representation; the donkey vote has been estimated at between 1 and 2% of the vote, which could be critical in a marginal seat. In 1983, reforms were made to Federal electoral legislation to reduce the impact of donkey voting including: listing of party names besides each candidate.
These reforms as well as an increase in electoral education funding have reduced the impact of donkey voting in Federal elections in recent years. As states have introduced similar reforms, the phenomenon has been reduced in other jurisdictions. However, donkey voting still needs to be taken into account when assessing the size of the swing or two-party vote in particular electorates; the by-election for the Federal electorate of Werriwa, held on 19 March 2005, following the resignation of Federal Labor leader Mark Latham, provides a good example for understanding the nature of donkey voting. At this by-election, 16 candidates were nominated; this large number of candidates led to an increased incentive to cast a donkey vote. Every candidate that issued how-to-vote cards used some variation of the donkey vote when instructing his or her voters how to mark preferences to simplify the task of voting, made onerous by needing to vote for 16 candidates, many with no public profile. Candidates allocated their first few preferences and last few preferences to candidates according to their wishes numbered the rest of the boxes from top to bottom or bottom to top.
For example, The Greens advocated the following preferences: 15 Woodger, Janey 1 Raue, Ben 14 Young, James 13 Lees, Mal 3 Hayes, Chris 12 Vogler, Robert 11 Tan, Greg 10 Bryant, Joe 16 Doggett, Charles 9 Head, Mike 8 Sykes, Mick 7 Bargshoon, Sam 2 McGookin, Pat 6 Locke, Deborah 5 Aussie-Stone, Marc 4 Mannoun, NedIn this case, the how-to-vote card advocated a first preference for the Greens, a second preference for the Progressive Labour Party, a third preference for Labor and a last preference for One Nation. Apart from these preferences, the card advocates a reverse Donkey Vote; the donkey vote was reflected in the high vote for Australians Against Further Immigration, who would gain far fewer votes, but were placed first on the ballot. The Australian Senate had a preferential system between 1919 and 1949. From 1934, to elect a State's three senators at a periodic Senate poll, voters had to mark their preference order among the candidates listed on the ballot paper against the names of each of the candidates.
Candidates could be listed in groups, but voters could choose any order of candidates regardless of their grouping, because Section 7 of the Constitution provides that senators must be directly chosen by the people. Within each group, the candidates were listed in alphabetical order, the groups were listed in what was called'ranked alphabetical order', which ensured that a group in which all surnames started with'A' would be at the top of the ballot paper if there were no other group with that feature; the groups were not identified by a party name, but just shown as
The secret ballot known as Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation and potential vote buying. The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy. Secret ballots are used in conjunction with various voting systems; the most basic form of secret ballot utilizes blank pieces of paper, upon which each voter writes his or her choice. Without revealing the votes to anyone, the voter would fold the ballot paper and place it in a sealed box, emptied for counting. An aspect of secret voting is the provision of a voting booth to enable the voter to write on the ballot paper without others being able to see what is being written. Today, printed ballot papers are provided, with the names of the candidates or questions and respective check boxes. Provisions are made at the polling place for the voters to record their preferences in secret, the ballots are designed to eliminate bias and to prevent anyone from linking voter to ballot.
A problem of privacy arises with moves to improve efficiency of voting by the introduction of postal voting and electronic voting. Some countries permit. In ancient Greece, secret ballots were used in several situations, like ostracism, to remain hidden from people seeking favors. In ancient Rome, the laws regulating elections were collectively known as Tabellariae Leges, the first of, introduced in 139 BC. Today, the practice of casting secret ballots is so commonplace that most voters would not consider that any other method might be used. Other methods, used and which are still used in some places and contexts include "oral votes" as well as open ballot systems involving the public display of votes or roll calls. Other public voting methods include raising a hand to indicate a vote, or the use of coloured marbles or cards to indicate a voting choice. Article 31 of the Constitution of the Year III of the revolution states that "All elections are to be held by secret ballot"; the same goes with the constitution of 1848: voters could hand-write the name of their preferred candidate on their ballot at home or receive one distributed on the street.
The ballot was folded in order to prevent other people from reading its contents. Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte attempted to abolish the secret ballot for the 1851 plebiscite with an electoral decree requesting electors to write down "yes" or "no" under the eyes of everyone, but he faced strong opposition and changed his mind, allowing secret ballot to take place. According to the official web site of the Assemblée nationale, the voting booth was permanently adopted only in 1913; the demand for a secret ballot was one of the six points of Chartism. The British parliament of the time refused to consider the Chartist demands, but it is notable that Lord Macaulay, in his speech of 1842, while rejecting Chartism's six points as a whole, admitted that the secret ballot was one of the two points he could support; the London School Board election of 1870 was the first large-scale election by secret ballot in Britain. After several failed attempts, the secret ballot was extended in the Ballot Act 1872 reducing the cost of campaigning and was first used on 15 August 1872 to re-elect Hugh Childers as MP for Pontefract in a ministerial by-election following his appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The original ballot box, sealed in wax with a liquorice stamp, is held at Pontefract museum. However, the use of numbered ballots makes it possible in theory if given access to the relevant documents, to identify which candidate voters voted for. Meaning voting in the UK is not physically secret only in so much as the law says the information should not be accessed. In Australia, secret balloting appears to have been first implemented in Tasmania on 7 February 1856; until the original Tasmanian Electoral Act 1856 was "re-discovered" credit for the first implementation of the secret ballot went to Victoria, where it was pioneered by the former mayor of Melbourne, William Nicholson, South Australia. Victoria enacted legislation for secret ballots on 19 March 1856, South Australian Electoral Commissioner William Boothby gets credit for creating the system enacted into law in South Australia on 2 April of that same year; the other Australian colonies followed: New South Wales and Western Australia.
New Zealand implemented secret voting in 1870. State electoral laws, including the secret ballot, applied for the first election of the Australian Parliament in 1901, the system has continued to be a feature of federal elections and referenda; the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 does not explicitly set out the secret ballot but a reading of sections 206, 207, 325, 327 of the Act would imply its assumption. Sections 323 and 226 do however, apply the principle of a secret ballot to polling staff and would support the assumption. Before 1890, partisan newspapers printed filled-out ballots which party workers distributed on election day so voters could drop them directly into the boxes. All of the states replaced these with secret ballots around 1890, popularly called "Australian ballots." They were listed all the candidates impartially. The "Australian ballot" is defined as having four parts: an official ballot bei