A state is a political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly by use of force within a certain geographical territory. Some states are sovereign, other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where supreme authority lies in another state; the term "state" applies to federated states that are members of a federation, in which sovereignty is shared between member states and a federal body. Speakers of American English use the terms "state" and "government" as synonyms, with both words referring to an organized political group that exercises authority over a particular territory. In British and Commonwealth English, "state" is the only term that has that meaning, while "the government" instead refers to the ministers and officials who set the political policy for the territory. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia; the first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, codification of new forms of religion.
Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence. Today, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state; the word state and its cognates in some other European languages derive from the Latin word status, meaning "condition, circumstances". The English noun state in the generic sense "condition, circumstances" predates the political sense, it is introduced to Middle English c. 1200 both directly from Latin. With the revival of the Roman law in 14th-century Europe, the term came to refer to the legal standing of persons, in particular the special status of the king; the highest estates those with the most wealth and social rank, were those that held power. The word had associations with Roman ideas about the "status rei publicae", the "condition of public matters". In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.
The early 16th-century works of Machiavelli played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense. The contrasting of church and state still dates to the 16th century; the North American colonies were called "states" as early as the 1630s. The expression L'Etat, c'est moi attributed to Louis XIV of France is apocryphal, recorded in the late 18th century. There is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state; the term "state" refers to a set of different, but interrelated and overlapping, theories about a certain range of political phenomena. The act of defining the term can be seen as part of an ideological conflict, because different definitions lead to different theories of state function, as a result validate different political strategies. According to Jeffrey and Painter, "if we define the'essence' of the state in one place or era, we are liable to find that in another time or space something, understood to be a state has different'essential' characteristics".
Different definitions of the state place an emphasis either on the ‘means’ or the ‘ends’ of states. Means-related definitions include those by Max Weber and Charles Tilly, both of whom define the state according to its violent means. For Weber, the state "is a human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”, while Tilly characterises them as "coercion-wielding organisations". Ends-related definitions emphasis instead the teleological aims and purposes of the state. Marxist thought regards the ends of the state as being the perpetuation of class domination in favour of the ruling class which, under the capitalist mode of production, is the bourgeoisie; the state exists to defend the ruling class's claims to private property and its capturing of surplus profits at the expense of the proletariat. Indeed, Marx claimed that "the executive of the modern state is nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie".
Liberal thought provides another possible teleology of the state. According to John Locke, the goal of the state/commonwealth was "the preservation of property", with'property' in Locke's work referring not only to personal possessions but to one's life and liberty. On this account, the state provides the basis for social cohesion and productivity, creating incentives for wealth creation by providing guarantees of protection for one's life and personal property. Jinnah favoured a state with the least functions, he was of the opinion that until society becomes self-regulative and self-evolving and until the individual becomes perfect, the state, so long, would be necessary. The most used definition is Max Weber's, which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory. General categories of state institutions include administrative bureaucracies, legal systems, military or religious organizations.
Another accepted definition of the state is the one given at the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States in 1933. It provides that "he state as a person of i
Adam Ferguson, FRSE known as Ferguson of Raith, was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. Ferguson was sympathetic to traditional societies, such as the Highlands, for producing courage and loyalty, he criticized commercial society as making men weak and unconcerned for their community. Ferguson has been called "the father of modern sociology" for his contributions to the early development of the discipline, his most well known work is his Essay on the History of Civil Society. Born at Logierait in Atholl, Scotland, the son of Rev Adam Ferguson, he received his education at Logierait Parish School, Perth Grammar School, at the University of Edinburgh and the University of St Andrews. In 1745, owing to his knowledge of Gaelic, he gained appointment as deputy chaplain of the 43rd regiment, the licence to preach being granted him by special dispensation, although he had not completed the required six years of theological study, it remains a matter of debate as to whether, at the Battle of Fontenoy, Ferguson fought in the ranks throughout the day, refused to leave the field, though ordered to do so by his colonel.
He did well, becoming principal chaplain in 1746. He continued attached to the regiment till 1754, disappointed at not obtaining a living, he left the clergy and resolved to devote himself to literary pursuits. After residing in Leipzig for a time, he returned to Edinburgh where in January 1757 he succeeded David Hume as librarian to the Faculty of Advocates, but soon relinquished this office on becoming tutor in the family of the Earl of Bute. In 1759 Ferguson became professor of natural philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, in 1764 transferred to the chair of "pneumatics" "and moral philosophy". In 1767, he published his Essay on the History of Civil Society, well received and translated into several European languages. In the mid-1770s he met Voltaire, his membership of The Poker Club is recorded in its minute book of 1776. In 1776 appeared his anonymous pamphlet on the American Revolution in opposition to Dr Richard Price's Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, in which he sympathised with the views of the British legislature.
In 1778 Ferguson was appointed secretary to the Carlisle Peace Commission which endeavoured, but without success, to negotiate an arrangement with the revolted colonies. In 1780 he wrote the article "History" for the second edition of Encyclopædia Britannica; the article is 40 pages long and replaced the article in the first edition, only one paragraph. In 1783 appeared his History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic. Ferguson believed that the history of the Roman Republic during the period of their greatness formed a practical illustration of those ethical and political doctrines which he studied especially; the history reads well and impartially, displays conscientious use of sources. The influence of the author's military experience shows itself in certain portions of the narrative. Tired of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science. In his seventieth year, intending to prepare a new edition of the history, visited Italy and some of the principal cities of Europe, where he was received with honour by learned societies.
From 1795 he resided successively at Neidpath Castle near Peebles, at Hallyards on Manor Water, at St Andrews, where he died on 22 February 1816. He is buried against the east wall, his large mural monument includes a carved profile portrait in marble. In his ethical system Ferguson treats man as a social being, illustrating his doctrines by political examples; as a believer in the progression of the human race, he placed the principle of moral approbation in the attainment of perfection. Victor Cousin criticised Ferguson's speculations: We find in his method the wisdom and circumspection of the Scottish school, with something more masculine and decisive in the results; the principle of perfection is a new one, at once more rational and comprehensive than benevolence and sympathy, which in our view places Ferguson as a moralist above all his predecessors. By this principle Ferguson attempted to reconcile all moral systems. With Thomas Hobbes and Hume he admits the power of self-interest or utility, makes it enter into morals as the law of self-preservation.
Francis Hutcheson's theory of universal benevolence and Adam Smith's idea of mutual sympathy he combines under the law of society. But, as these laws appear as the means rather than the end of human destiny, they remain subordinate to a supreme end, the supreme end of perfection. In the political part of his system Ferguson follows Montesquieu, pleads the cause of well-regulated liberty and free government, his contemporaries, with the exception of Hume, regarded his writings as of great importance. Ferguson's An Essay on the History of Civil Society drew on classical authors and contemporary travel literature, to analyze modern commercial society with a critique of its abandonment of civic and communal virtues. Central themes in Ferguson's theory of citizenship are conflict, political participation and m
The Fatal Conceit
The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism is a 1988 book written by the economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek and edited by the philosopher William Warren Bartley. Bruce Caldwell has how far the author; the title of the book is a reference to a passage from Adam Smith, in his The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In the book, Hayek aims to refute socialism by demonstrating that socialist theories are not only logically incorrect but that their premises are incorrect. According to Hayek, civilizations grew because societal traditions placed importance on private property, leading to expansion and the modern capitalist system, which he calls the extended order. Hayek says this demonstrates a key flaw within socialist thought, which holds only purposefully designed changes can be the most efficient, he says statist economies cannot be efficient because dispersed knowledge is required in a modern economy. Additionally, Hayek asserts that since modern civilization, all of its customs and traditions led to the current order and are needed for its continuance, fundamental changes to the system that try to control it are doomed to fail since they are impossible or unsustainable in modern civilization.
Price signals are the only means of enabling each economic decision maker to communicate tacit knowledge or dispersed knowledge with each other to solve the economic calculation problem. There is scholarly debate on the extent of William Warren Bartley's influence on the work. Bartley was the editor who prepared the book for publication once Hayek fell ill in 1985. However, the inclusion of material from Bartley's philosophical point of view and citations that other people provided to Bartley have led to questions about how much of the book was written by Hayek and whether Hayek knew about the added material. Bruce Caldwell thinks the evidence "clearly points towards a conclusion that the book was a product more of pen than of Hayek's.... Bartley may have written the book". Dispersed knowledge Fallibilism Invisible hand Opportunity cost Tax choice "The Use of Knowledge in Society", essay by Hayek
Evolutionary history of life
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which living and fossil organisms evolved, from the earliest emergence of life to the present. Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago and evidence suggests life emerged prior to 3.7 Ga. The similarities among all known present-day species indicate that they have diverged through the process of evolution from a common ancestor. 1 trillion species live on Earth of which only 1.75–1.8 million have been named and 1.6 million documented in a central database. These living species represent less than one percent of all species that have lived on earth; the earliest evidence of life comes from biogenic carbon signatures and stromatolite fossils discovered in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks from western Greenland. In 2015, possible "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. In March 2017, putative evidence of the oldest forms of life on Earth was reported in the form of fossilized microorganisms discovered in hydrothermal vent precipitates in the Nuvvuagittuq Belt of Quebec, that may have lived as early as 4.28 billion years ago, not long after the oceans formed 4.4 billion years ago, not long after the formation of the Earth 4.54 billion years ago.
Microbial mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea were the dominant form of life in the early Archean Epoch and many of the major steps in early evolution are thought to have taken place in this environment. The evolution of photosynthesis, around 3.5 Ga led to a buildup of its waste product, oxygen, in the atmosphere, leading to the great oxygenation event, beginning around 2.4 Ga. The earliest evidence of eukaryotes dates from 1.85 Ga, while they may have been present earlier, their diversification accelerated when they started using oxygen in their metabolism. Around 1.7 Ga, multicellular organisms began to appear, with differentiated cells performing specialised functions. Sexual reproduction, which involves the fusion of male and female reproductive cells to create a zygote in a process called fertilization is, in contrast to asexual reproduction, the primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of macroscopic organisms, including all eukaryotes; however the origin and evolution of sexual reproduction remain a puzzle for biologists though it did evolve from a common ancestor, a single celled eukaryotic species.
Bilateria, animals with a front and a back, appeared by 555 Ma. The earliest complex land plants date back to around 850 Ma, from carbon isotopes in Precambrian rocks, while algae-like multicellular land plants are dated back to about 1 billion years ago, although evidence suggests that microorganisms formed the earliest terrestrial ecosystems, at least 2.7 Ga. Microorganisms are thought to have paved the way for the inception of land plants in the Ordovician. Land plants were so successful that they are thought to have contributed to the Late Devonian extinction event. Ediacara biota appear during the Ediacaran period, while vertebrates, along with most other modern phyla originated about 525 Ma during the Cambrian explosion. During the Permian period, including the ancestors of mammals, dominated the land, but most of this group became extinct in the Permian–Triassic extinction event 252 Ma. During the recovery from this catastrophe, archosaurs became the most abundant land vertebrates. After the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 Ma killed off the non-avian dinosaurs, mammals increased in size and diversity.
Such mass extinctions may have accelerated evolution by providing opportunities for new groups of organisms to diversify. The oldest meteorite fragments found on Earth are about 4.54 billion years old. The Moon has the same composition as Earth's crust but does not contain an iron-rich core like the Earth's. Many scientists think that about 40 million years after the formation of Earth, it collided with a body the size of Mars, throwing into orbit crust material that formed the Moon. Another hypothesis is that the Earth and Moon started to coalesce at the same time but the Earth, having much stronger gravity than the early Moon, attracted all the iron particles in the area; until 2001, the oldest rocks found on Earth were about 3.8 billion years old, leading scientists to estimate that the Earth's surface had been molten until then. Accordingly, they named this part of Earth's history the Hadean. However, analysis of zircons formed 4.4 Ga indicates that Earth's crust solidified about 100 million years after the planet's formation and that the planet acquired oceans and an atmosphere, which may have been capable of supporting life.
Evidence from the Moon indicates that from 4 to 3.8 Ga it suffered a Late Heavy Bombardment by debris, left over from the formation of the Solar System, the Earth should have experienced an heavier bombardment due
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the economy, it became common in advanced industrial economies in the 1970s and 1980s, as a result of new trends in economic thinking about the inefficiencies of government regulation, the risk that regulatory agencies would be controlled by the regulated industry to its benefit, thereby hurt consumers and the wider economy. Economic regulations were promoted during the Gilded Age, in which progressive reforms were touted as necessary to limit externalities like corporate abuse, unsafe child labor, pollution, to mitigate boom and bust cycles. Around the late 1970s, such reforms were deemed as burdensome on economic growth and many politicians espousing neoliberalism started promoting deregulation; the stated rationale for deregulation is that fewer and simpler regulations will lead to raised levels of competitiveness, therefore higher productivity, more efficiency and lower prices overall.
Opposition to deregulation may involve apprehension regarding environmental pollution and environmental quality standards, financial uncertainty, constraining monopolies. Regulatory reform is a parallel development alongside deregulation. Regulatory reform refers to organized and ongoing programs to review regulations with a view to minimizing and making them more cost effective; such efforts, given impetus by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, are embodied in the United States Office of Management and Budget's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the United Kingdom's Better Regulation Commission. Cost–benefit analysis is used in such reviews. In addition, there have been regulatory innovations suggested by economists, such as emissions trading. Deregulation can be distinguished from privatization, where privatization can be seen as taking state-owned service providers into the private sector. Argentina underwent heavy economic deregulation and had a fixed exchange rate during the Menem administration.
In December 2001, Paul Krugman compared Enron with Argentina, claiming that both were experiencing economic collapse due to excessive deregulation. Two months Herbert Inhaber claimed that Krugman confused correlation with causation, neither collapse was due to excessive deregulation. Having announced a wide range of deregulatory policies, Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced the policy of "Minimum Effective Regulation" in 1986; this introduced now familiar requirements for "regulatory impact statements", but compliance by governmental agencies took many years. The labour market under the Hawke/Keating Labor governments operated under an accord. John Howard's Liberal Party of Australia in 1996 began deregulation of the labor market, subsequently taken much further in 2005 through their WorkChoices policy. However, it was reversed under the following Rudd Labor government. Natural gas is deregulated in most of the country, with the exception of some Atlantic provinces and some pockets like Vancouver Island and Medicine Hat.
Most of this deregulation happened in the mid-1980s. There is price comparison service operating in some of these jurisdictions Ontario, Alberta and BC; the other provinces have not attracted suppliers. Customers have the choice of purchasing from a deregulated supplier. In most provinces the LDC is not allowed to offer a term contract, just a variable price based on the spot market. LDC prices are changed either monthly or quarterly; the province of Ontario began deregulation of electricity supply in 2002, but pulled back temporarily due to voter and consumer backlash at the resulting price volatility. The government is still searching for a stable working regulatory framework; the current status is a regulated structure in which consumers have received a capped price for a portion of the publicly owned generation. The remainder of the price has been market price based and there are numerous competitive energy contract providers. However, Ontario is installing Smart Meters in all homes and small businesses and is changing the pricing structure to Time of Use pricing.
All small volume consumers are to be shifted to the new rate structure by the end of 2012. There is price comparison service operating in these jurisdictions; the province of Alberta has deregulated their electricity provision. Customers are free to choose which company they sign up with, but there are few companies to choose from and the price of electricity has increased for consumers because the market is too small to support competition. If they choose they may remain with the utility at the Regulated Rate Option. Former Premier Ralph Klein based the entire deregulation scheme on the Enron model, continued with it after the publicized and disastrous California electricity crisis 2003 Corrections to EU directive about software patents Deregulation of the air industry in Europe in 1992 gave carriers from one EU country the right to operate scheduled services between other EU states; the taxi industry was deregulated in Ireland leading to an influx of new taxis. This was due to the price of a licence dropping overnight.
The number of taxis increased dramatically. The Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher started a programme of deregulation and privatisation after their victory at the 1979 general election; these included express coach, British Telecom, privatisation of London bus services, local bus services (Trans
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and philosopher. Dostoevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political and spiritual atmospheres of 19th-century Russia, engage with a variety of philosophical and religious themes, his most acclaimed works include Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov. Dostoevsky's oeuvre consists of 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short stories and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest psychologists in world literature, his 1864 novella Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. Born in Moscow in 1821, Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age through fairy tales and legends, through books by Russian and foreign authors, his mother died in 1837 when he was 15, around the same time, he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute.
After graduating, he worked as an engineer and enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn extra money. In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which gained him entry into St. Petersburg's literary circles. Arrested in 1849 for belonging to a literary group that discussed banned books critical of Tsarist Russia, he was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted at the last moment, he spent four years in a Siberian prison camp, followed by six years of compulsory military service in exile. In the following years, Dostoevsky worked as a journalist and editing several magazines of his own and A Writer's Diary, a collection of his writings, he began to travel around western Europe and developed a gambling addiction, which led to financial hardship. For a time, he had to beg for money, but he became one of the most read and regarded Russian writers. Dostoevsky was influenced by a wide variety of philosophers and authors including Pushkin, Augustine, Dickens, Lermontov, Poe, Cervantes, Kant, Hegel, Solovyov, Sand and Mickiewicz.
His writings were read both within and beyond his native Russia and influenced an great number of writers including Russians like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Anton Chekhov as well as philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Jean-Paul Sartre. His books have been translated into more than 170 languages. Dostoevsky's parents were part of a multi-ethnic and multi-denominational noble family, its branches including Russian Orthodox Christians, Polish Roman Catholics and Ukrainian Eastern Catholics; the family traced its roots back to a Tatar, Aslan Chelebi-Murza, who in 1389 defected from the Golden Horde and joined the forces of Dmitry Donskoy, the first prince of Muscovy to challenge the Mongol authority in the region, whose descendant, Danilo Irtishch, was ennobled and given lands in the Pinsk region in 1509 for his services under a local prince, his progeny taking the name "Dostoevsky" based on a village there called Dostoïevo. Dostoevsky's immediate ancestors on his mother's side were merchants.
His father, Mikhail Andreevich, was expected to join the clergy but instead ran away from home and broke with the family permanently. In 1809, the 20-year-old Mikhail Andreevich Dostoevsky enrolled in Moscow's Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, in 1818, he was appointed a senior physician. In 1819 he married Maria Nechayeva; the following year, he took up a post at the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. In 1828, when his two sons and Fyodor, were eight and seven he was promoted to collegiate assessor, a position which raised his legal status to that of the nobility and enabled him to acquire a small estate in Darovoye, a town about 150 km from Moscow, where the family spent the summers. Dostoevsky's parents subsequently had six more children: Varvara, Lyubov, Vera and Aleksandra. Fyodor Dostoevsky, born on 11 November 1821, was the second child of Dr. Mikhail Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya, he was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow.
Dostoevsky encountered the patients, who were at the lower end of the Russian social scale, when playing in the hospital gardens. Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age. From the age of three, he was read heroic sagas, fairy tales and legends by his nanny, Alena Frolovna, an influential figure in his upbringing and love for fictional stories; when he was four his mother used the Bible to teach him to write. His parents introduced him to a wide range of literature, including Russian writers Karamzin and Derzhavin. Although his father's approach to education has been described as strict and harsh, Dostoevsky himself reports that his imagination was brought alive by nightly readings by his parents; some of his childhood experiences found their way into his writings. When a nine-year-old girl had been raped by a drunk, he was asked to fetch his
Murray Newton Rothbard was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism. Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of anarcho-capitalism, a staunch advocate of historical revisionism and a central figure in the 20th-century American libertarian movement, he wrote over twenty books on political theory, revisionist history and other subjects. Rothbard asserted that all services provided by the "monopoly system of the corporate state" could be provided more efficiently by the private sector and wrote that the state is "the organization of robbery systematized and writ large", he opposed central banking. He categorically opposed all military and economic interventionism in the affairs of other nations. According to his protégé Hans-Hermann Hoppe, "here would be no anarcho-capitalist movement to speak of without Rothbard". Economist Jeffrey Herbener, who calls Rothbard his friend and "intellectual mentor", wrote that Rothbard received "only ostracism" from mainstream academia.
Rothbard rejected mainstream economic methodologies and instead embraced the praxeology of his most important intellectual precursor, Ludwig von Mises. To promote his economic and political ideas, Rothbard joined Llewellyn H. "Lew" Rockwell, Jr. and Burton Blumert in 1982 to establish the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Alabama. Rothbard's parents were David and Rae Rothbard, Jewish immigrants to the United States from Poland and Russia, respectively. David Rothbard was a chemist. Murray attended a private school in New York City. Rothbard stated that he much preferred Birch Wathen to the "debasing and egalitarian public school system" he had attended in the Bronx. Rothbard wrote of having grown up as a "right-winger" among friends and neighbors who were "communists or fellow-travelers". Rothbard characterized his immigrant father as an individualist who embraced the American values of minimal government, free enterprise, private property and "a determination to rise by one's own merits... "ll socialism seemed to me monstrously coercive and abhorrent".
He attended Columbia University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics in 1945 and eleven years his PhD in economics in 1956. The delay in receiving his PhD was due in part to conflict with his advisor Joseph Dorfman and in part to Arthur Burns rejecting his doctoral dissertation. Burns was a longtime friend of the Rothbard family and their neighbor at their Manhattan apartment building, it was only after Burns went on leave from the Columbia faculty to head President Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisors that Rothbard's thesis was accepted and he received his doctorate. Rothbard stated that all of his fellow students there were extreme leftists and that he was one of only two Republicans on the Columbia campus at the time. During the 1940s, Rothbard became acquainted with Frank Chodorov and read in libertarian-oriented works by Albert Jay Nock, Garet Garrett, Isabel Paterson, H. L. Mencken and others as well as Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises. In the early 1950s, when Mises was teaching at the Wall Street division of New York University Business School, Rothbard attended Mises' unofficial seminar.
Rothbard was influenced by Mises' book, Human Action. Rothbard attracted the attention of the William Volker Fund, a group that provided financial backing to promote various right-wing ideologies in the 1950s and early 1960s; the Volker Fund paid Rothbard to write a textbook to explain Human Action in a form which could be used to introduce college undergraduates to Mises' views. For ten years, Rothbard was paid a retainer by the Volker Fund, which designated him a "senior analyst"; as Rothbard continued his work, he enlarged the project. The result was Rothbard's book Man and State, published in 1962. Upon its publication, Mises praised Rothbard's work effusively. In 1953, he married JoAnn Schumacher -- -- in New York City. JoAnn was a close adviser as well as hostess of his Rothbard Salon, they enjoyed a loving marriage and Rothbard called her "the indispensable framework" behind his life and achievements. According to Joey, patronage from the Volker Fund allowed Rothbard to work from home as a freelance theorist and pundit for the first fifteen years of their marriage.
The Volker Fund collapsed in 1962, leading Rothbard to seek employment from various New York academic institutions. He was offered a part-time position teaching economics to the engineering students of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in 1966 at age 40; this institution had no economics department or economics majors and Rothbard derided its social science department as "Marxist". However, Justin Raimondo writes that Rothbard liked his role with Brooklyn Polytechnic because working only two days a week gave him freedom to contribute to developments in libertarian politics. Rothbard continued in this role for twenty years until 1986. 60 years old, Rothbard left Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute for the Lee Business School at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, where he held the title of S. J. Hall Distinguished Professor of Economics, an endowed chair paid for by a libertarian businessman. According to Rothbard's friend and fellow Misesian economist Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Rothbard led a "fringe existence" in academia, but he was able to attract a large number of "students and disciples" through his writings, thereby becoming "the creator and one of the principal agents of the contempo