Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site. The small bulb like projection coming out from the yeast cell is called a bud; the new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent organism only when it is mature, leaving behind scar tissue. Since the reproduction is asexual, the newly created organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism. Organisms such as hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding. In hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site; these buds develop into tiny individuals and, when mature, detach from the parent body and become new independent individuals. Internal budding or endodyogeny is a process of asexual reproduction, favoured by parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, it involves an unusual process in which two daughter cells are produced inside a mother cell, consumed by the offspring prior to their separation.
Endopolygeny is the division into several organisms at once by internal budding. Some cells divide asymmetrically by budding, for example Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast species used in baking and brewing; this process results in a smaller ` daughter' cell. Cryo-electron tomography revealed that mitochondria in cells divide by budding. In some multicellular animals, offspring may develop as outgrowths of the mother. Animals that reproduce by budding include corals, some sponges, some acoel flatworms, echinoderm larvae. Colonies of some bee species have exhibited budding behavior, such as Apis dorsata. Although budding behavior is rare in this bee species, it has been observed when a group of workers leave the natal nest and construct a new nest near the natal one. In virology, budding is a form of viral shedding by which enveloped viruses acquire their external envelope from the host cell membrane, which bulges outwards and encloses the virion. In agriculture and horticulture, budding refers to grafting the bud of one plant onto another.
Fragmentation Paratomy Fission
In vitro studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. Colloquially called "test-tube experiments", these studies in biology and its subdisciplines are traditionally done in labware such as test tubes, Petri dishes, microtiter plates. Studies conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms. In contrast to in vitro experiments, in vivo studies are those conducted in animals, including humans, whole plants. In vitro studies are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings, such as microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules. For example, microorganisms or cells can be studied in artificial culture media, proteins can be examined in solutions. Colloquially called "test-tube experiments", these studies in biology and their subdisciplines are traditionally done in test tubes, Petri dishes, etc.
They now involve the full range such as the omics. In contrast, studies conducted in living beings are called in vivo. Examples of in vitro studies include: the isolation and identification of cells derived from multicellular organisms in. Viruses, which only replicate in living cells, are studied in the laboratory in cell or tissue culture, many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work in whole animals. Polymerase chain reaction is a method for selective replication of specific DNA and RNA sequences in the test tube. Protein purification involves the isolation of a specific protein of interest from a complex mixture of proteins obtained from homogenized cells or tissues. In vitro fertilization is used to allow spermatozoa to fertilize eggs in a culture dish before implanting the resulting embryo or embryos into the uterus of the prospective mother. In vitro diagnostics refers to a wide range of medical and veterinary laboratory tests that are used to diagnose diseases and monitor the clinical status of patients using samples of blood, cells, or other tissues obtained from a patient.
In vitro testing has been used to characterize specific adsorption, distribution and excretion processes of drugs or general chemicals inside a living organism. These ADME process parameters can be integrated into so called "physiologically based pharmacokinetic models" or PBPK. In vitro studies permit a species-specific, more convenient, more detailed analysis than can be done with the whole organism. Just as studies in whole animals more and more replace human trials, so are in vitro studies replacing studies in whole animals. Living organisms are complex functional systems that are made up of, at a minimum, many tens of thousands of genes, protein molecules, RNA molecules, small organic compounds, inorganic ions, complexes in an environment, spatially organized by membranes, in the case of multicellular organisms, organ systems; these myriad components interact with each other and with their environment in a way that processes food, removes waste, moves components to the correct location, is responsive to signalling molecules, other organisms, sound, taste and balance.
This complexity makes it difficult to identify the interactions between individual components and to explore their basic biological functions. In vitro work simplifies the system under study, so the investigator can focus on a small number of components. For example, the identity of proteins of the immune system, the mechanism by which they recognize and bind to foreign antigens would remain obscure if not for the extensive use of in vitro work to isolate the proteins, identify the cells and genes that produce them, study the physical properties of their interaction with antigens, identify how those interactions lead to cellular signals that activate other components of the immune system. Another advantage of in vitro methods is that human cells can be studied without "extrapolation" from an experimental animal's cellular response. In vitro methods can be miniaturized and automated, yielding high-throughput screening methods for testing molecules in pharmacology or toxicology The primary disadvantage of in vitro experimental studies is that it may be challenging to extrapolate from the results of in vitro work back to the biology of the intact organism.
Investigators doing in vitro work must be careful to avoid over-interpretation of their results, which can lead to erroneous conclusions about organismal and systems biology. For example, scientists developing a new viral drug to treat an infection with a pathogenic virus may find that a candidate drug functions to prevent viral repl
The smuts are multicellular fungi characterized by their large numbers of teliospores. The smuts get their name from a Germanic word for dirt because of their dark, thick-walled, dust-like teliospores, they are Ustilaginomycetes and can cause plant disease. The smuts are grouped with the other basidiomycetes because of their commonalities concerning sexual reproduction. Smuts are crop pathogens that most notably affect members of the grass family and sedges. Economically important hosts include maize, wheat, oats and forage grasses, they hijack the plants' reproductive systems, forming galls which darken and burst, releasing fungal teliospores which infect other plants nearby. Before infection can occur, the smuts need to undergo a successful mating to form dikaryotic hyphae. Sugarcane smut or Ustilago scitaminea Sydow is caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum; the smut'whip' is a curved black structure which emerges from the leaf whorl, which aids in the spreading of the disease. Sugarcane smut causes significant losses to the economic value of a sugarcane crop.
Sugarcane smut has been found in the eastern seaboard areas of Australia, one of the world's highest-yielding sugar areas. For the sugarcane crop to be infected by the disease, large spore concentrations are needed; the fungi uses its smut-whip to ensure that the disease is spread to other plants, which occurs over a time period of three months. As the inoculum is spread, the younger sugarcane buds just coming out of the soil will be the most susceptible; because water is necessary for spore germination, irrigation has been shown to be a factor in spreading the disease. Therefore, special precautions need to be taken during irrigation to prevent spreading of the smut. Another way to prevent the disease from occurring in the sugarcane is to use fungicide; this can be done by either pre-plant post-plant spraying with the specific fungicide. Pre-plant soaking has been proven to give the best results in preventing the disease, but post-plant spraying is a practical option for large sugarcane cultivations.
Corn smut infects maize and is a delicacy in Mexico, where it was enjoyed by the Aztecs. It converts the kernels into black, powdery fungal tissues; the smut is sold in the markets in Mexico while other parts of the world continue to reject it as an ingredient for food dishes. Corn smut is called huitlacoche by some Mexicans, the Aztecs called it cuitlacoche. Investigators have found that the amount of protein in corn smut is greater than that of the corn, greater than that of oats and clover hay. Huitlacoche is used for some of the several recipes including soups, steak sauces and crepes. Covered smut Tilletia tritici and T. laevis Ergot, which includes the species Claviceps purpurea Loose smut, Ustilago nudaPotato smut TCK smut Tilletia controversa Smut Fungi from Deacon, J: "Fungal Biology", Blackwell Publishing, 2005
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, the two disciplines remain related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. Mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. Pioneer mycologists included Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, Lewis David von Schweinitz. Many fungi produce toxins and other secondary metabolites. For example, the cosmopolitan genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe.
Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts, e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, lichens. Many fungi are able to break down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin, the more durable component of wood, pollutants such as xenobiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By decomposing these molecules, fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes are economically and important, as some cause diseases of animals as well as plants. Apart from pathogenic fungi, many fungal species are important in controlling the plant diseases caused by different pathogens. For example, species of the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma considered as one of the most important biological control agents as an alternative to chemical based products for effective crop diseases management. Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as'forays', after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "A foray among the funguses".
Some fungi can cause disease in humans and other animals - The study of pathogenic fungi that infect animals is referred to as medical mycology. It is presumed. Mushrooms were first written about in the works of Euripides; the Greek philosopher Theophrastos of Eresos was the first to try to systematically classify plants. It was Pliny the Elder, who wrote about truffles in his encyclopedia Naturalis historia; the word mycology comes from the Greek: μύκης, meaning "fungus" and the suffix -λογία, meaning "study". The Middle Ages saw little advancement in the body of knowledge about fungi. Rather, the invention of the printing press allowed some authors to disseminate superstitions and misconceptions about the fungi, perpetuated by the classical authors; the start of the modern age of mycology begins with Pier Antonio Micheli's 1737 publication of Nova plantarum genera. Published in Florence, this seminal work laid the foundations for the systematic classification of grasses and fungi; the term mycology and the complementary mycologist were first used in 1836 by M.
J. Berkeley. For centuries, certain mushrooms have been documented as a folk medicine in China and Russia. Although the use of mushrooms in folk medicine is centered on the Asian continent, people in other parts of the world like the Middle East and Belarus have been documented using mushrooms for medicinal purposes. Certain mushrooms polypores like lingzhi mushroom were thought to be able to benefit a wide variety of health ailments. Medicinal mushroom research in the United States is active, with studies taking place at City of Hope National Medical Center, as well as the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. Current research focuses on mushrooms that may have hypoglycemic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-pathogenic activity, immune system-enhancing activity. Recent research has found that the oyster mushroom contains the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin, mushrooms produce large amounts of vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet light, that certain fungi may be a future source of taxol.
To date, lovastatin, griseofulvin and psilocybin are the most famous drugs that have been isolated from the fifth kingdom of life. Ethnomycology Fungal biochemical test List of mycologists List of mycology journals Mushroom hunting Mycotoxicology Pathogenic fungi Protistology Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth. Introduction to the History of Mycology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21013-3. Professional organizations BMS: British Mycological Society MSA: Mycological Society of America Amateur organizations MSSF: Mycological Society of San Francisco North American Mycological Association Puget Sound Mycological Society Oregon Mycological Society IMA Illinois Mycological Association Miscellaneous links Online lectures in mycology University of South Carolina The WWW Virtual Library: Mycology MykoWeb links page Mycological Glossary at the Illinois Mycological Association FUNGI Magazine for professionals and amateurs - largest circulating U. S. publication concerning all things mycological] Fungal Cell Biology Group at University of Edinburgh, UK.
Mycological Marvels Cornell University, Mann Library