In the United States, a design patent is a form of legal protection granted to the ornamental design of a functional item. Design patents are a type of industrial design right. Ornamental designs of jewelry, beverage containers and computer icons are examples of objects that are covered by design patents. A similar concept, a registered design can be obtained in other countries. In Kenya, South Korea and Hungary, industrial designs are registered after performing an official novelty search. In the countries of the European Community, one needs to only pay an official fee and meet other formal requirements for registration. For the member states of WIPO, cover is afforded by registration at WIPO and examination by the designated member states in accordance with the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement. A US design patent covers the ornamental design for an object having practical utility. An object with a design, similar to the design claimed in a design patent cannot be made, copied or imported into the United States without the permission of the patent holder.
The copy does not have to be exact for the patent to be infringed. It only has to be similar. Design patents with line drawings cover only the features shown as solid lines. Items shown as dotted lines are not covered; this is one of the reasons Apple was awarded a jury verdict in the US case of Samsung. Apple's patent showed much of their iPhone design as broken lines, it didn't matter. The fact that the solid lines of the patent were the same as Samsung's design meant that Samsung infringed the Apple design patent. Design patents are subject to both the non-obviousness standards of the patent code. However, because design patents are not measured based on the utility of the designs to which they are directed, there is an open question as to how to measure the non-obviousness of an ornamental design. Both novel fonts and computer icons can be covered by design patents. Icons are only covered, when they are displayed on a computer screen, thus making them part of an article of manufacture with practical utility.
Screen layouts can be protected with design patents. In China, Japan, South Africa, the United States, a design patent application is not published and is kept secret until granted. In Brazil, the applicant can request that the application be kept in secrecy for a period of 180 days from the filing date; this will delay the prosecution and granting of the application for 180 days. In Japan, an applicant can request that a design be kept secret for a period of up 3 years after the registration has been granted. In 1842, George Bruce was awarded the first design patent, U. S. Patent D1; the design patent was for a new font. In 1879, Auguste Bartholdi was awarded design patent U. S. Patent D11,023 for the Statue of Liberty; this patent covered the sale of small copies of the statue. Proceeds from the sale of the statues helped raise money to build the full statue in New York harbor. In 1919, three design patents were granted for the badge of the American Legion, U. S. Patent D54,296. S. Patent D55,398. S. Patent D92,187.
The original terms of these patents were to have expired in 1933, but Congress has continually extended their protection. The patents were extended for an additional fourteen-year term by an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act in 2007 that passed the Senate on June 22, 2006. In 1936, Frank A. Redford was awarded U. S. Patent D98,617 for the Wigwam Motel. Apple Inc. owns various patents regarding the design of the iPhone smartphone line and its related products. US utility patents protect the functionality of a given item. Providing the maintenance fees are paid, utility patents are valid for up to 20 years from the date of filing. Design patents cover the ornamental nonfunctional design of an item. Design patents can be invalidated. Design patents are valid for 14 years from the date of issue if filed prior to May 13, 2015, or 15 years from the date of issue if filed on or after May 13, 2015. There are no maintenance fees. "In general terms, a “utility patent” protects the way an article is used and works, while a “design patent” protects the way an article looks.
The ornamental appearance for an article includes its shape/configuration or surface ornamentation applied to the article, or both. Both design and utility patents may be obtained on an article if invention resides both in its utility and ornamental appearance."MPEP - Distinction Between Design and Utility Patents Copyright prevents nonfunctional items from being copied. To show copyright infringement, the plaintiff must show the infringing item was copied from the original; the copyrighted artistic expression must either have no substantial practical utility or be separable from the useful substrate. Design patents, on the other hand, cover the ornamental aspects of functional items from being infringed. One does not have to show, thus a design, arrived at independently can still infringe a design patent. Many objects can be covered by both design patents; the Statue of Liberty is one such example. Trademarks and trade dress are used to protect consumers from confusion as to the source of a manufactured object.
To get trademark protection, the trademark owner must show that the mark is not to be confused with other trademarks for items in the same general
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia is one of the largest encyclopedic dictionaries of the English language. In its day it was compared favorably with the Oxford English Dictionary and consulted for more factual information than would be the case for a dictionary; the first edition was published from 1889 to 1891 by The Century Company of New York, was describe as being "six volumes in twenty four". In 1895 a 10 volume edition was published, with the first eight volumes containing the dictionary proper, the last two containing a biographical dictionary and a world atlas. Editions in either the 10 or 8 volume format were published in 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903 and 1904. In 1901 the title and subtitle changed from The Century Dictionary. Further editions were published in 1909 and 1911, this time in 12 volumes each; the first edition was in 7,046 pages with some 10,000 wood-engraved illustrations. It was edited by Sanskrit scholar and linguist William Dwight Whitney, with Benjamin Eli Smith's assistance.
It was a great expansion of the smaller Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, which in turn had been based on the 1841 edition of Noah Webster's American Dictionary. After Whitney's death in 1894, supplementary volumes were published under Smith's supervision, including The Century Cyclopedia of Names and The Century Atlas. A two-volume Supplement of new vocabulary, published in 1909, completed the dictionary. A reformatted edition, The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, was published in 1911 in twelve quarto volumes: ten of vocabulary, plus the volume of names and the atlas; this set went through several printings, the last in 1914. The same year, the ten vocabulary volumes were published as one giant volume, about 8500 pages in a thin paper; the now much coveted India paper edition appeared around this time in five double volumes plus one additional for the Cyclopedia. The completed dictionary contained over 500,000 entries, more than Webster's New International or Funk and Wagnalls New Standard, the largest other dictionaries of the period.
Each form of a word was treated separately, liberal numbers of quotations and additional information were included to support the definitions. In its etymologies, Greek words were not transliterated. Although no revised edition of the dictionary was again published, an abridged edition with new words and other features, The New Century Dictionary was published by Appleton-Century-Crofts of New York in 1927, reprinted in various forms for over thirty-five years; the New Century became the basis for the American College Dictionary, the first Random House Dictionary, in 1947. The three-volume New Century Cyclopedia of Names, an expansion of the 1894 volume, was published in 1954, edited by Clarence Barnhart; the Century Dictionary was admired for the quality of its entries, the craftsmanship in its design and binding, its excellent illustrations. It has been used as an information source for the makers of many dictionaries, including editors of the Oxford English Dictionary, who cited it over 2,000 times in the first edition.
In 1913, Stewart Archer Steger from the University of Virginia published his Ph. D. dissertation "American Dictionaries" and devoted a 14-page Chapter VI to Century Dictionary. He concluded the chapter with these words: "Altogether, The Century Dictionary far surpasses anything in American lexicography"; the works are out of copyright, efforts have been made to digitize the volumes. 1889–91 1911, University of Michigan and Cornell University Adams, James Truslow. Dictionary of American History. New York: Scribner, 1940. Bailey, Richard W.. "Origins". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 1–16. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0014. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Metcalf, Allan. "Typography". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 17–28. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0018. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Liberman, Anatoly. "Etymology". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 29–54. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0000. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17.
Gilman, E. W.. "Definitions and Usage". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 55–67. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0003. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Lance, Donald M.. "Pronunciation". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 68–78. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0006. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Hancher, Michael. "Illustrations". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 79–115. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0009. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Barnhart, Robert K.. "Aftermath". Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 17: 116–125. Doi:10.1353/dic.1996.0012. ISSN 2160-5076. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Steger, Stewart Archer. "VI. The Century Dictionary". American dictionaries. Baltimore: J. H. Furst. Pp. 83–91. Retrieved 12 March 2018; the complete Century Dictionary is in image form, where it can be searched by the word or viewed by the page in its original form, with zoom-in option. The Century Dictionary, Supplement online with easy word search
Shiv chiv and shivvie is a homemade knife-like weapon one fashioned in prison. The word is certainly evolved from 17th-century "chive"; the related verb shiv means "to stab someone", a shivver being a criminal who attacks victims with a knife. An improvised prison knife is often called a shank; the word is prison slang for an improvised knife. A shiv can be anything from a glass shard with fabric wrapped around one end to form a handle, to a razor blade stuck in the end of a toothbrush. In the 1950s, British criminal Billy Hill described his use of the shiv: In the Federal Bureau of Prisons, sharpened instruments, knives are considered contraband and their possession is punishable as a greatest severity level prohibited act
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
A weapon, arm or armament is any device that can be used with intent to inflict damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, law enforcement, self-defense, warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a tactical, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs and axes, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological weapons and cyberweapons. Something, re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed weaponized, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized laser; the use of objects as weapons has been observed among chimpanzees, leading to speculation that early hominids used weapons as early as five million years ago. However, this can not be confirmed using physical evidence because wooden clubs and unshaped stones would have left an ambiguous record.
The earliest unambiguous weapons to be found are the Schöningen spears, eight wooden throwing spears dating back more than 300,000 years. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana, numerous human skeletons dating to 10,000 years ago may present evidence of traumatic injuries to the head, ribs and hands, including obsidian projectiles embedded in the bones that might have been caused from arrows and clubs during conflict between two hunter-gatherer groups, but the evidence interpretation of warfare at Nataruk has been challenged. The earliest ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques led to a series of revolutions in military technology; the development of metal tools began with copper during the Copper Age and was followed by the Bronze Age, leading to the creation of the Bronze Age sword and similar weapons. During the Bronze Age, the first defensive structures and fortifications appeared as well, indicating an increased need for security.
Weapons designed to breach fortifications followed soon after, such as the battering ram, in use by 2500 BC. The development of iron-working around 1300 BC in Greece had an important impact on the development of ancient weapons, it was not the introduction of early Iron Age swords, however, as they were not superior to their bronze predecessors, but rather the domestication of the horse and widespread use of spoked wheels by c. 2000 BC. This led to the creation of the light, horse-drawn chariot, whose improved mobility proved important during this era. Spoke-wheeled chariot usage peaked around 1300 BC and declined, ceasing to be militarily relevant by the 4th century BC. Cavalry developed; the horse increased the speed of attacks. In addition to land based weaponry, such as the trireme, were in use by the 7th century BC. European warfare during the Post-classical history was dominated by elite groups of knights supported by massed infantry, they were involved in mobile combat and sieges which involved various siege tactics.
Knights on horseback developed tactics for charging with lances providing an impact on the enemy formations and drawing more practical weapons once they entered into the melee. By contrast, infantry, in the age before structured formations, relied on cheap, sturdy weapons such as spears and billhooks in close combat and bows from a distance; as armies became more professional, their equipment was standardized and infantry transitioned to pikes. Pikes are seven to eight feet in length, used in conjunction with smaller side-arms. In Eastern and Middle Eastern warfare, similar tactics were developed independent of European influences; the introduction of gunpowder from the Asia at the end of this period revolutionized warfare. Formations of musketeers, protected by pikemen came to dominate open battles, the cannon replaced the trebuchet as the dominant siege weapon; the European Renaissance marked the beginning of the implementation of firearms in western warfare. Guns and rockets were introduced to the battlefield.
Firearms are qualitatively different from earlier weapons because they release energy from combustible propellants such as gunpowder, rather than from a counter-weight or spring. This energy is released rapidly and can be replicated without much effort by the user; therefore early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons. Firearms became important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant. During the U. S. Civil War new applications of firearms including the machine gun and ironclad warship emerged that would still be recognizable and useful military weapons today in limited conflicts. In the 19th century warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Since the mid-18th century North American French-Indian war through the beginning of the 20th century, human-powered weapons were reduced from the primary weaponry of the battlefield yielding to gunpowder-based weaponry.
Sometimes referred to as the "Age of Rifles", this period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun. Of particular note, Howitzers were able to destroy masonry fortresses and other fortifications, this single invention caused a Revolution in
Lusikkahaarukka is a stainless steel, folding spoon-fork combination issued together with a mess kit in the Finnish Army. It is used in camping and outdoors activities; the spoon portion is a oversized soup spoon which makes it useful for stirring when the mess kit is used to cook rations in the field. The fork portion is used as most foods are more eaten with the spoon; when folded, the lusikkahaarukka can be inserted in a fitting slot on the Finnish army mess kit, although this is discouraged because, more than not, it slips off from the fittings and starts to rattle around. The Finnish army conscripts are allowed to carry their civilian puukkos while in uniform, everyone is assumed to own one, so a separate knife is not needed. Invented along pakki in Imperial Germany in late 19th or early 20th century it came to Finland along Jägers in 1918; the copy of original model of the lusikkahaarukka is manufactured by Hackman and is one of the oldest items still in use by the Finnish army. The lusikkahaarukka are hard wearing, indeed current conscripts are issued with lusikkahaarukka manufactured during World War II.
LuHa – portmanteau analogous to spork Lusikkahaarukka-mysteeri – Translates as "spoon-fork mystery". Mysteerio – "mystery play"