MediaCityUK is a 200-acre mixed-use property development on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal in Salford and Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. The project was developed by Peel Media; the land occupied by the development was part of the Port of Manchester Docks. The BBC signalled its intention to move jobs to Manchester in 2004, the Salford Quays site was chosen in 2006; the Peel Group was granted planning permission to develop the site in 2007, construction of the development, with its own energy generation plant and communications network, began the same year. Based in Quay House, the principal tenant is the BBC, whose move marks a large-scale decentralisation from London. ITV Granada completed the first phase of its move to MediaCityUK on 25 March 2013, followed in two stages by the northern arm of ITV Studios: the second stage involved Coronation Street being moved to a new production facility on Trafford Wharf next to the Imperial War Museum North at the end of 2013; the Studios on Broadway houses seven high-definition studios, claimed to be the largest such facility in Europe.
MediaCityUK is to be developed in two phases. The 36-acre first phase was completed in 2011, the second is dependent on its success. Metrolink, Greater Manchester's light-rail system, was extended to MediaCityUK with the opening of the MediaCityUK tram stop on 20 September 2010 and further extensions are planned. Road access was improved by the construction of the Broadway Link Road. Salford Quays, at the eastern end of the Manchester Ship Canal on the site of the former Manchester Docks, became one of the first and largest urban regeneration projects in the United Kingdom after the closure of the dockyards in 1982. MediacityUK, an area on both banks of the ship canal, is part of a joint tourism initiative between Salford City Council and Trafford Borough Council encompassing The Quays, Trafford Wharf and parts of Old Trafford; the Quays development includes the Imperial War Museum North. A total of 200 acres of land was earmarked for the development of MediaCityUK; the first phase of its development was focused on a 36-acre site at Pier 9 on Salford Quays.
In 2010 it was announced that the ITV production centre would be built on Trafford Wharf in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford. In 2003 reports emerged that, as part of the plans for the renewal of its Royal Charter, the BBC was considering moving whole channels or strands of production from London to Manchester. Early discussions involved a plan where the BBC would move to a new media village proposed by Granada Television at its Bonded Warehouse site at Granada Studios in the city. Proposals to relocate 1,800 jobs to Manchester were unveiled by BBC Director General, Mark Thompson, in December 2004; the BBC justified the move as its spending per head was low in northern England where it had low approval ratings and its facilities at New Broadcasting House in Manchester needed replacing. An initial list of 18 sites was narrowed to a short-list of four during 2005, two in Manchester – one at Quay Street, close to Granada Studios, one on Whitworth Street and two in Salford – one close to the Manchester Arena and one at Pier 9 on Salford Quays.
The site at Salford Quays was chosen in June 2006 and the move north was conditional on a satisfactory licence fee settlement from the government. The chosen site was the last undeveloped site at Manchester Docks, an area, subject to considerable investment and was emerging as a tourist destination and commercial centre; the vision of the developers Peel Group, Salford City Council, the Central Salford Urban Regeneration Company and the Northwest Regional Development Agency was to create a significant new media city capable of competing on a global scale with developments in Copenhagen and Singapore. Salford City Council granted planning consent for an outline application for a multi-use development on the site involving residential and studio and office space in October 2006 and consent for a detailed planning application followed in May 2007. In the same month the BBC Trust approved moving five London-based departments to the development; the departments to be moved were Sport, Children's, Future Media and Technology and Radio Five Live.
Construction started in 2007 with the site owner, Peel Group as developer and Bovis Lend Lease as contractor. The media facilities opened in stages from 2007, it featured three large sound stages suitable for drama commercials. In January 2011 Peel Media received planning permission to convert on-site offices used by Bovis Lend Lease during the construction of the first phase into the Greenhouse; the first trial show took place in November 2010 in Studio HQ2. The half-hour test show featured a power failure and a fire drill, which involved a full evacuation of the audience and crew; the first programme filmed at MediaCityUK was Don't Scare the Hare in February 2011, the first to transfer was A Question of Sport, the same month. BBC employees started transferring to the development in May 2011, a process. BBC Director General Mark Thompson confirmed that up to a further 1,000 jobs could be created or transferred to the site. In January 2012 the BBC was accused of not supporting the community by MP, Hazel Blears, after it was reported that only 26 of 680 jobs created at the development had gone to residents of Salford.
Channel 4 has expressed an interest in moving some activities to MediaCityUK. The BBC had stated that either BBC One or BBC Two could move to MediaCityUK by 2015 if the confirmed moves were successful however this is yet to happen. Traditiona
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
BBC News (TV channel)
BBC News is a British free-to-air television news channel. It was launched as BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997 at 5:30 pm as part of the BBC's foray into digital domestic television channels, becoming the first competitor to Sky News, running since 1989. For a time, looped news and weather bulletins were available to view via BBC Red Button. On 22 February 2006, the channel was named News Channel of the Year at the Royal Television Society Television Journalism Awards for the first time in its history; the judges remarked that this was the year that the channel had "really come into its own."From May 2007, viewers in the UK could watch the channel via the BBC News website. In April 2008, the channel was renamed BBC News as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's news output, complete with a new studio and presentation, its sister service, BBC World was renamed BBC World News while the national news bulletins became BBC News at One, BBC News at Six and BBC News at Ten. Across the day the channel averages about twice the audience of Sky News.
The channel broadcasts from Broadcasting House in the West End of London. In 2017, it was named the RTS News Channel of the Year BBC News 24 was available to digital terrestrial and cable television subscribers. To this day, it and BBC Parliament remain the only BBC "digital" channels which are made available to analogue cable subscribers; this coverage was improved in 1998 with the advent of digital television in the United Kingdom allowing satellite and digital terrestrial television viewers to view the service. It was difficult to obtain a digital satellite or terrestrial receiver without a subscription to Sky or ONdigital but now the channel forms an important part of the Freeview and Freesat channel packages; the BBC had run the international news channel BBC World for two and a half years prior to the launch of BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997. Sky News had had a free hand with domestic news for over eight years and being owned by News Corporation their papers were used to criticise the BBC for extending its news output.
Sky News objected to the breaking of its monopoly, complaining about the costs associated with running a channel that only a minority could view from the licence fee. Sky News claimed that a number of British cable operators had been incentivised to carry News 24 in preference to the commercial Sky News. However, in September 1999 the European Commission ruled against a complaint made by Sky News that the publicly funded channel was unfair and illegal under EU law; the Commission ruled that the licence fee should be considered state aid but that such aid was justified due to the public service remit of the BBC and that it did not exceed actual costs. The channel's journalistic output has been overseen by Controller of the channel, Kevin Bakhurst, since 16 December 2005; this was a return to having a dedicated Controller for the channel in the same way as the rest of the BBC's domestic television channels. At launch, Tim Orchard was Controller of News 24 from 1997 until 2000. Editorial decisions were overseen by Rachel Atwell in her capacity as Deputy Head of television news.
Her deputy Mark Popescu became responsible for editorial content in 2004, a role he continued in until the appointment of Bakhurst as Controller in 2005. A further announcement by Head of television news Peter Horrocks came at the same time as Bakhurst's appointment in which he outlined his plan to provide more funding and resources for the channel and shift the corporation's emphasis regarding news away from the traditional BBC One bulletins and across to the rolling news channel; the introduction of simulcasts of the main bulletins on the channel was to allow the news bulletins to pool resources rather than work against each other at key times in the face of competition from Sky News. The BBC Governors' annual report for 2005/2006 reported that average audience figures for fifteen-minute periods had reached 8.6% in multichannel homes, up from 7.8% in 2004/2005. The 2004 report claimed that the channel outperformed Sky News in both weekly and monthly reach in multichannel homes for the January 2004 period, for the first time in two years moved ahead of Sky News in being perceived as the channel best for news.
On 21 April 2008, BBC News 24 was renamed BBC News on the channel itself – but is referred to as the BBC News Channel on other BBC services. This is part of the creative futures plan, launched in 2006, to bring all BBC News output under the single brand name; the BBC News Channel moved from the Studio N8 set, which became home to BBC World News, to what was the home of the national news in Studio N6, allowing the channel to share its set with the BBC News at One and the BBC News at Ten – with other bulletins moving to Studio TC7. The channel relocated, along with the remaining BBC News services at Television Centre, to the newly refurbished Broadcasting House on 18 March 2013 at 13:00 GMT. Presentation and on-screen graphics were refreshed, with new full HD studios and a live newsroom backdrop. Moving cameras in the newsroom form part of the top of the hour title sequence and are used at the start of weather bulletins. On 16 July 2013, the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC News would be launched by early 2014.
The channel broadcasts on the BBC's new HD multiplex on Freeview. HD output from BBC News has been simulcast on BBC One HD and BBC Two HD since the move to Broadcasting House in March 2013; the channel launched on 10 December 2013, though will roll-out nationwide up to June 2014. Each hour consists of headlines o
BBC News Online
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production. The website contains international news coverage, as well as British, entertainment and political news. Many reports are accompanied by audio and video from the BBC's television and radio news services, while the latest TV and radio bulletins are available to view or listen to on the site together with other current affairs programmes. BBC News Online is linked to its sister department website, that of BBC Sport. Both sites follow similar layout and content options and respective journalists work alongside each other. Location information provided by users is shared with the website of BBC Weather to provide local content. From 1998 to 2001 the site was named best news website at the BAFTA Interactive Entertainment Awards when the award category was withdrawn, it has won both the Judges' award and the People's Voice award for best news site at the annual Webby Awards. The website was launched on 4 November 1997, headed by founding editor Mike Smartt and Project Director Bob Eggington.
The broader editorial team was brought together from within the BBC, from print journalism and from some online sites. The BBC had created special websites marking the 1995 Budget, the 1996 Olympic Games, 1997 general election, the death of Princess Diana in 1997, but nothing on the scale of the launch of the main site itself, which required the development of a new production system, for which a team, led by Matthew Karas was specially hired; the original design was created by a team, including Matt Jones, based on designs commissioned from consultancy Lambie-Nairn, has been redesigned several times to match the visual style of BBC News television bulletins and to exploit increases in readers' typical screen resolutions. A major overhaul in 2003 by Paul Sissons and Maire Flynn, coincided with a relaunch of the BBC News Channel and featured a wider page design; the site launched a set of semi-official RSS 0.91 syndication feeds in June 2003 and upgraded them to full feed RSS 2.0 in 2008. Each news index has its own RSS feed, including the in-depth sections.
In 2004 the BBC News website partnered with Moreover Technologies, in a response to the 2003 Graf Report, to provide links from BBC articles to rival publishers. Whilst the BBC does not censor or change results the algorithms used tend to give greater weight to national and international sources over regional or local ones. Mike Smartt, who became editor in chief in 2000, was succeeded by Pete Clifton, subsequently promoted to Head of BBC News Interactive and replaced by the previous editor Steve Herrmann in 2005; the BBC began providing real-time global user information in June 2006. A restructuring of BBC News starting in 2007 saw the dissolution of the separate BBC News Interactive department. New features were introduced, including the publicising of video content more prominently. From May 2007, the website began to offer a live video stream of BBC News 24, the rolling news channel now known as the BBC News channel. In line with the introduction of new features across BBC Online, including a new navigation bar, the site was updated in 2008 with wider centred page designs, larger images and an increased emphasis on audio and visual content.
Beginning on 30 April 2009, some published stories included in-text links to in-site profile articles on people and organisations. The BBC announced on 19 November 2009 that it was to pay more attention to search engine optimisation by extending news headlines. On 14 July 2010 the site was redesigned, with the vertical section headings moved to run horizontally near the top of the page; the new design, incorporating larger in-line videos within news articles and standardised font usage, was introduced as a first step to bringing the entire BBC website into line with its new style guidelines. It was met with mixed opinions. However, there was criticism, with some stating that the use of white space was too widespread and led to the need for continuous and excessive scrolling. On 4 March 2014, the BBC launched a beta version of the website, built around the principles of responsive web design, allowing the presentation of content to adjust automatically for a wide variety of screen sizes, from desktop computer to smartphones and tablet devices.
The new design went live on 23 March 2015. There are two different editions of the site: a UK edition, which gives prominence to UK stories, an international edition, which prioritises international news. Internet users with IP addresses originating from the UK are served the UK edition, all others receive the international edition; the international version contains an "Advertise With Us" link at the bottom. The international version of the website is operated by BBC Global News Ltd. the for-profit BBC subsidiary which operates the BBC World News television channel. All articles are archived indefinitely and can be retrieved via searching or by browsing the extensive Special Reports section, which contains collections of articles relating to major news stories; the previous seven days' top stories were available through the Week at a Glance section of the website. As well as pure news articles, the site contains material to support BBC news, current affairs and factual programmes. BBC News Online uses a blog-style system for correspondents to write articles within their specialism.
Television Centre, London
Television Centre is a building complex in White City, West London, the headquarters of BBC Television between 1960 and 2013. The first BBC staff moved into the Scenery Block in 1953, the centre was opened on 29 June 1960, it is one of the most recognisable facilities of its type, having appeared as the backdrop for many BBC programmes. Parts of the building are Grade II listed, including the central ring and Studio 1. Most of the BBC's national television and radio news output came from Television Centre, in years most recorded television was output from the nearby Broadcast Centre at 201 Wood Lane, care of Red Bee Media. Live television events from studios and routing of national and international sporting events took place within Television Centre before being passed to the Broadcast Centre for transmission, it was announced on 21 September 2010 that the BBC would cease broadcasting from Television Centre in 2013. On 13 June 2011 the BBC announced that Television Centre was on the market, that it was "inviting bid proposals from people looking for a conventional, freehold property or those interested in a joint venture", suggesting that it may yet remain connected to the BBC.
In July 2012 it was announced that the complex had been sold to property developers Stanhope plc for around £200 million and that the BBC would retain a continued presence at Television Centre through its commercial subsidiaries BBC Studios and Post Production and BBC Worldwide. BBC Studios and Post Production was due to move back to Television Centre to operate Studio 1, 2 and 3 in 2015, but it was announced in July 2014 that it had agreed with the developers, Stanhope, to move back in 2017, at the same time as other key tenants, to enable the most efficient overall site construction programme to take place. BBC Worldwide moved into office space in the Stage 6 building following extensive refurbishment in 2015; the radio and television news departments moved to Broadcasting House in central London, the home of BBC Radio, as part of a reorganisation. BBC News moved to new facilities in Broadcasting House on 18 March 2013, but TVC remained in active use with many programmes being taped in the studios until it closed for redevelopment on 31 March 2013.
BBC TVC was one of the largest such facilities in the world and was the second-oldest operational television studio in the United Kingdom, after Granada Studios where Granada Television was based for many decades. Stanhope said in April 2014 that the new Television Centre development would "pay homage to the original use of the building" and retain original features of the buildings including the "doughnut", atomic dot wall and Helios statue; the new Television Centre will be opened up to the public and will offer entertainment and leisure facilities, including a new branch of members' club Soho House, offices aimed at the creative sector and 1,000 new homes, together with pedestrian access through the site providing connectivity with the local area, including Hammersmith Park. The refurbished Studios 1, 2 and 3 reopened in September 2017 and, since the closure of ITV's London Studios, have been the recording location for Good Morning Britain, This Morning and Loose Women; the building is 4 miles west in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham.
The nearest Underground stations are Wood Lane. On Friday 1 April 1949 Norman Collins, the Controller of the BBC Television Service, announced at the Television Society's annual dinner at The Waldorf Hilton, London that a new TV centre would be built in Shepherd's Bush. London broadcasts at the time came from Lime Grove Studios, it was to be the largest television centre in the world. Riverside Studios in Hammersmith were used from 1954, it turned out to be twice as big. On 24 August 1956 the main contract was awarded to Higgs and Hill, which built The London Studios for ITV in 1972; the building was planned to cost £9m. When it opened, the Director of BBC television was Gerald Beadle, the first programme broadcast was First Night with David Nixon in Studio Three. In 1997 the BBC News Centre was opened, in a new complex at the front of the building; the decision to move radio news to this building was attributed to Director General John Birt, a move, resisted by the managing director of BBC Radio, Liz Forgan, who resigned after failing to dissuade the governors.
Birt's decision caused problems. The building featured a central circular block around which were studios, engineering areas and the News Centre. In the centre of the main block was a statue designed by T. B. Huxley-Jones of Helios, the Greek god of the sun, to symbolise the radiation of television around the world. At the foot of the statue were two reclining figures, symbolising sound and vision, the components of television, it was a fountain, but owing to the building's unique shape it was too noisy for the staff in the overlooking offices, there were problems with water leakage into the videotape area directly beneath. Though there was a foundation stone marked'BBC 1956' in the basement of the main building, construction began in 1951. Various extensions have been added; the BBC had to seek accommodation elsewhere, such as the nearby BBC White City complex comprising White City One, a 25,000 square metre office building, the adjacent Broadcast and Media Centres. With the
Karthi Gnanasegaram is a British television and radio presenter working for the BBC, Classic FM, Royal Opera House and IMG. As of 2011 she is a regular presenter on the BBC for sports programmes and on BBC One Ten o'clock News, BBC Breakfast, Chris Evans Breakfast Show and the BBC One BBC Weekend News; as of 2017 she is a presenter on Classic FM. She studied at King Edward VI High School for Girls, a well-known public school in Edgbaston, followed by a Classics degree at Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge. Whilst at Cambridge she wrote for the student newspaper, played hockey and badminton and played the violin in various orchestras including Emmanuel College, Cambridge. After working on BBC News and BBC Entertainment show, Liquid News, Gnanasegaram was a sports reporter and presenter at BBC London News, she played herself in the BBC drama The Amazing Mrs Pritchard. She presented Sportsworld and StreetFood at Al Jazeera English in Doha before returning to the UK to present the news and sport for Sky News.
Gnanasegaram returned to the BBC and was part of their presenting line-up at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and presented a BBC1 highlights show during the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. At The Championships, Wimbledon in 2016, Gnanasegaram presented 6-Love-6 with John McEnroe, Tim Henman, Mary Pierce for BBC Sport, she hosts Wimbledon tennis coverage on BBC Radio 5 Live and BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra as well as reports on matches. Gnanasegaram reports for BBC Sport on Match of the Day, Football Focus, Final Score and The Championships, Wimbledon, she has presented and reported from the Wimbledon tennis championships for BBC Radio Five Live and BBC Sport since 2008. Gnanasegaram appears on BBC Radio 2 on The Chris Evans Breakfast Show and Simon Mayo Drivetime participating in the Confessions, she is a regular presenter of the Today Sports Desk and was involved in the shows guest edited by Lenny Henry and Sir Bradley Wiggins. Gnanasegaram has covered Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, French Open tennis, Champions League final, Open Golf Championships, Ryder Cups, Ashes cricket Tests, The Boat Race and has appeared on BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour.
In 2016, Gnanasegaram was part of the BBC Sport team at the 2016 Rio Olympics. She was a commentator for tennis, diving and taekwondo amongst other sports at the Rio Olympic Park for BBC 5 Live. In 2018, she was the amazon prime on-court player interviewer at Eastbourne tennis championships and she was the presenter for the evening sessions for the US Open. Karthi is a presenter for Premier League Productions, produced by IMG Sports. In 2017, Gnanasegaram started presenting for Classic FM in their 25th anniversary year. In 2018, she presented the Classic FM Sporting Music Countdown Show with Henry Blofeld; the UK voted and chose Chariots of Fire as the nation's favourite piece of classical music related to sport. She played both the violin and piano to Grade 8, toured Europe playing the violin with various West Midlands orchestras during her school holidays; as a student, Gnanasegaram represented the University of Cambridge in tennis and badminton, as well as playing in various orchestras. In 2017 Gnanasegaram read the Classified Football Results on Sports Report, BBC Radio and BBC World Service becoming only the second female to do so after Charlotte Green.
Gnanasegaram hosted live performances of La bohème and Don Giovanni for the Royal Opera House alongside Gok Wan in Trafalgar Square during the summer of 2018. She represented the University of Cambridge at badminton gaining two Blue, she represented Emmanuel College, Cambridge in rowing. Gnanasegaram is a Wolverhampton Wanderers fan. TV Newsroom BBC Sports BBC Radio 5 8. Http://www.radiotimes.com/news/2016-08-18/rio-2016-olympics-on-tv-today-thursday-18-august--day-13 9. Http://www.classicfm.com/radio/shows-presenters/karthi-gnanasegaram/