National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Japanese occupation of British Borneo
Before the outbreak of World War II in the Pacific, the island of Borneo was divided into five territories. Four of the territories were in the north and under British control – Sarawak, Labuan, an island, British North Borneo. On 16 December 1941, Japanese forces landed at Miri, Sarawak having sailed from Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina, it took the Japanese less than a month to conquer the entire island. The Japanese subsequently renamed the northern part as North Borneo, Labuan as Maida Island and the neighbouring Dutch territories as South Borneo. For the first time in modern history all of Borneo was under a single rule. British Borneo was occupied by the Japanese for over three years, they promoted the Japanisation of the local population by requiring them to learn the Japanese language and customs. The Japanese divided the North Borneo into five provincial administrations and constructed airfields. Several prisoner of war camps were operated by the Japanese. Allied soldiers and most colonial officials were detained in them, together with members of underground movements who opposed the Japanese occupation.
Meanwhile, local Malay leaders were maintained in position with Japanese surveillance and many foreign workers were brought to the territory. Towards the end of 1945, Australian commandos were deployed to the island by US submarines with the Allied Z Special Unit conducting intelligence operations and training thousands of indigenous people to fight the Japanese in guerrilla warfare in the Borneo Campaign in preparation for the arrival of the main Allied liberation missions. Following landings in North Borneo and Labuan from 10 June 1945 by a combination of Australian and American forces, the island of Borneo was liberated; the British Military Administration formally took over from the Japanese on 12 September 1945. The Japanese intention to gain control of Borneo was associated with the concept of a unified Greater East Asia; this was developed by General Hachirō Arita, an army ideologist who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1936 to 1940. Japanese leaders envisioned an Asia guided by Tokyo with no western interference and likened the Japanese Empire to an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine.
The island was seen by Japan as strategically important, being located on the main sea routes between Java, Sumatra and the Celebes. Control of these routes was vital to securing the territory. With the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Japanese immigrants had been welcomed since the 1900s. Companies such as Mitsubishi and Nissan were involved in trade with the territory. Japanese immigrants had been in the Kingdom of Sarawak since 1915, with some of them working as hawkers and some Japanese women working in the red-light district; this presented opportunities for espionage, which were taken up by the Japanese military from 1930. Secret telegrams revealed that the Japanese ships docking at Jesselton were engaged in espionage. In 1940 the Americans and British had placed an embargo on exports of raw materials to Japan because of its continuing aggression in China and the Japanese invasion of French Indochina. Chronically short of natural resources, Japan needed an assured supply of oil, in order to achieve its long-term goal of becoming the major power in the Pacific region.
Southeast Asia, which consisted of European colonies, subsequently became a prime target for Japan. It hoped to obtain resources as well to ending the Western colonialism period; the Japanese invasion plan called for the British territories to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Army and the Dutch territories to the south by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The IJA allocated the 35th Infantry Brigade to northern Borneo; the Brigade was led by Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi and consisted of units stationed at Canton in southern China. On 13 December 1941, the Japanese invasion convoy left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina, with an escort of the cruiser Yura, the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division, Shinonome and Usugumo, submarine-chaser Ch 7 and the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru. Ten transport ships carried the advance party of the invasion force; the Support Force—commanded by Rear Admiral Takeo Kurita—consisted of the cruisers Kumano and Suzuya and the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri.
The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria move on Kuching and the nearby airfields. The convoy proceeded without being detected and, at dawn on 16 December, two landing units secured Miri and Seria with little resistance from British forces. Kuala Belait and Lutong were captured on the same day with around 10,000 Japanese soldiers ashore. On 22 December, Brunei Town was captured and the main Japanese force moved westwards towards Kuching after securing the oilfields in northern Sarawak; the Japanese air force. After escorts drove off a lone Dutch submarine, the Japanese task force entered the mouth of the Santubong River on 23 December; the convoy, including twenty transports carrying Japanese troops commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka, arrived off Cape Sipang and had completed disembarkation by the next morning. The 2nd Battalion of the 15th Punjab Regiment, stationed in Kuching, was the sole Allied infantry unit on the island. Although they resisted the Japanese attack on the airfield, they were soon outnumbered and retreated up the Santubong River.
On 25 December, Japanese troops captured Kuching airfield. The Punjab Regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area. After the Japanese secured Singkawang on 29 December, the rest
Brunei Civil War
The Brunei Civil War was a civil war fought in the Bruneian Empire from 1660 to 1673. During the reign of the thirteenth Sultan Muhammad Ali, there was a disagreement between the son of the Sultan, Pengiran Muda Bongsu and Pengiran Muda Alam, the son of Pengiran Abdul Mubin over the results of a cockfight which Pengiran Muda Bungsu lost, his defeat was jeered by Pengiran Muda Alam. In his rage, Bongsu escaped from the scene. In revenge, Abdul Mubin and his followers garroted Sultan Muhammad Ali. Abdul Mubin made himself the fourteenth Sultan and took the title of "Sultan Hakkul Abdul Mubin", he tried to appease the previous Sultan's followers by appointing Muhammad Ali's grandson, Muhyiddin as the new Bendahara. After a while, Muhammad Ali's supporters took revenge by convincing Bendahara Muhyiddin to stand up against Abdul Mubin. Bendahara Muhyddin refused, but later agreed to do so, his supporters started making disturbances in the form of poking spears into homes. Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin moved his palace to Chermin Island under the advice of Muhyiddin with the intent to wait the crisis out.
After he left, Muhyiddin declared himself the fifteenth sultan. A battle between the two competing Sultans ensued. Thus, the civil war of Brunei started. During the Civil War, Abdul Mubin fled to Kinarut where, he stayed there for ten years, repelling repeated attacks by Sultan Muhyiddin, they returned to Brunei after a final attack by Muhyiddin's forces in which they failed to defeat Abdul Mubin. Muhyiddin was concerned that the civil war was dragging on too long and asked the help of the sultan of Sulu to send forces, he promised the land of eastern Sabah as a reward for the Sulu's assistance. Muhyiddin emerged victorious. Abdul Mubin was killed in the civil war, it is not clear to historians. The Sultan of Sulu at that time on his part, claimed that he was asked by Brunei to help and was promised eastern Sabah as a reward; as promised, the Sultan of Sulu received eastern Sabah as an honorary gift from the Sultan of Brunei, for the Tausugs' help during the civil war. Sabah Brunei Sultanate of Sulu History of Brunei History of Sabah Sultan of Brunei Cockfighting
Other men sometimes referred to as White Rajahs include Englishman Alexander Hare in Borneo, Scot John Clunies Ross in the Cocos Islands, Dane Mads Lange in Bali. For the book by Nigel Barley, see Nigel Barley The White Rajahs were a dynastic monarchy of the British Brooke family, who founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak, located on the north west coast of the island of Borneo, from 1841 to 1946; the first ruler was an Englishman James Brooke. As a reward for helping the Sultanate of Brunei fight piracy and insurgency among the indigenous peoples, he was granted the province of Kuching, known as Sarawak Asal in 1841 and received independent kingdom status. Based on descent through the male line in accordance with the Will of Sir James Brooke, the White Rajahs' dynasty continued through Brooke's nephew and grandnephew, the latter of whom ceded his rights to the United Kingdom in 1946, his nephew had been the legal heir to the throne and objected to the cession, as did most of the Sarawak members of the Council Negri.
Sarawak was part of the realm of Brunei until 1841 when James Brooke was granted a sizeable area of land in the southwest area of Brunei – around the town of Sarawak and the nearby mining region of Bau – from Bruneian Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. He was confirmed with the title of Rajah of the territory; the Kingdom of Sarawak developed and expanded during the rule of the first two White Rajahs, growing to occupy much of the north region of the island of Borneo. The Brooke administrations annexed more land from Brunei; the White Rajahs were all related: James and Charles had short grammar school educations, Vyner and Anthony went to public schools and Cambridge University. All but Anthony are buried at Sheepstor parish church, Devon. Anthony Brooke had his ashes interred at Sheepstor as well as at the Brooke Family graveyard in Kuching, as per his last wish; the White Rajahs pursued a policy of paternalism, with the goal of protecting the "native peoples" from "capitalist exploitation". While James Brooke laid much of the groundwork for the expansion of Sarawak, his nephew Charles, the second Rajah, was the great builder.
He constructed public buildings to serve welfare, such as a hospital, in addition to forts. He worked to extend the borders of the state. Vyner Brooke instituted significant political reforms during his tenure, he ended the absolute rule of the Rajah in 1941, before the Japanese invasion of World War II, by granting new powers to the Council Negri. Bertram co-ruled with his elder brother, taking turns of 6 – 8 months in charge of the country each year. By 1939 Bertram's son Anthony had taken the reins of government, it was with a considerable controversy that Vyner attempted to cede Sarawak to Britain secretly in 1946 in what gave rise to the anti-cession movement of Sarawak; the Sovereign: His Highness The Rajah of Sarawak The consort of the ruling prince: Her Highness The Ranee of Sarawak The Heir Apparent: His Highness The Rajah Muda of Sarawak Wife of the Heir Apparent: Her Highness The Ranee Muda of Sarawak The Heir Presumptive: His Highness The Tuan Muda of Sarawak Wife of the Heir Presumptive: Her Highness The Dayang Muda of Sarawak Daughters of the Sovereign and his heirs: Dayang.
In accordance with the Will of the first Rajah, Sir James Brooke, the line of succession to the'sovereignty of Sarawak and all the rights and privileges whatsoever thereto belonging,' was to the heirs male lawfully begotten of the Rajah's nephew Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. Charles inherited under the Will in 1868, confirmed the succession in his own will of 1913. On his accession in 1918, his son Vyner swore to uphold the Will'as forming the constitution of the state'; this unique testamentary trust became known as'The Sarawak Sovereignty Trust'. When James Brooke first arrived in Sarawak, it was governed as a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei. Brooke reorganised the government according to the British model creating a civil service, it recruited European, chiefly British, officers to run district outstations. The Sarawak Service was continually reformed by his successors. Rajah James retained many of the customs and symbols of Malay monarchy, combined them with his own style of absolute rule.
The Rajah acted as chief judge in Kuching. The White Rajahs were determined to prevent the indigenous peoples of Sarawak from being exploited by Western business interests, they allowed the Borneo Company Limited to assist in managing the economy. The core of the early Sarawak economy was antimony followed by gold, mined in Bau by Chinese syndicates who imported numerous workers from China. After the local Chinese uprising in 1857, the mining operations were taken over by the Borneo Company; the Borneo Company provided military support to the White Rajahs during crises such as the Chinese uprising. One of the company steamships, the Sir James Brooke, helped recapture Kuching. Rajah Charles formed a small paramilitary force, the Sarawak Rangers, to police and defend the expanding state; this small army manned a series of forts around the country, acted as the Rajahs' personal guard, performed ceremonial duties. After the Second World War, during which Sarawak and Borneo had been occupied by Japanese forces, the third rajah, Vyner Brooke, ceded his life interest in Sarawak to the Colonial Office.
Unclear as to the legality of cession, the British Government passed a Bill of Annexa
Craig Adams (ice hockey)
Craig D. Adams is a Bruneian-born Canadian former professional ice hockey player, who most played with the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. Adams was born in Seria, but was raised in Calgary, Alberta and playing hockey in the community of Lake Bonavista. Adams won the Stanley Cup with the Pittsburgh Penguins. Adams was selected in the 9th round, 223rd overall, in the 1996 NHL Entry Draft by the Hartford Whalers where he gained the distinction of being their last draft pick. Adams was drafted after his freshman season at Harvard University, he suffered a season-ending shoulder injury on December 27, 1997 in a game against the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Adams made his NHL debut in the 2000–01 season with the Hurricanes, who had relocated from Hartford, had been a regular in the NHL since the 2002–03 season. In the 2004-05 he signed for the Italian team Milano Vipers during the NHL lock-out. There he won the Italian League. On August 25, 2005 he signed a contract with the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, but was traded back to the Hurricanes on October 3, a few days before the 2005–06 NHL season began.
Adams was a member of the Hurricanes 2006 Stanley Cup-winning team. On January 17, 2008 Adams was traded to the Chicago Blackhawks for a conditional pick in the 2009 NHL Entry Draft. During the 2008-09 season, Adams was claimed by the Pittsburgh Penguins off waivers from the Blackhawks on March 4, 2009. Adams would go on to win his second Stanley Cup championship. On June 29, 2009, Adams was re-signed by the Penguins to a two-year contract. On June 9, 2011, Adams was re-signed by the Penguins to another two-year contract. On July 5, 2013, Adams was re-signed again to a two-year contract. At the beginning of the 2013–14 season, on October 3, 2013, Adams scored the 50th goal of his career against Cory Schneider of the New Jersey Devils. On April 29, 2015, after seven seasons within the organization, Adams was informed by the Pittsburgh Penguins that he would not be re-signed to another contract. On January 26, 2016, after a 14-year career, Adams announced his retirement. Adams was the first NHL player to be born in Brunei.
He was born in the country. The family settled in Alberta shortly afterwards, he attended Strathcona Tweedsmuir School for high school. Adams is married since 2003 to his wife Anne Cellucci, a daughter of the late Paul Cellucci, former Governor of Massachusetts and US Ambassador to Canada, they have three children together. On June 22, 1996 the Hartford Whalers drafted Craig Adams in the ninth-round of the 1996 NHL draft. On July 31, 2001 the Carolina Hurricanes re-signed restricted free agent Craig Adams to a 2-year contract. On May 1, 2003 the Carolina Hurricanes re-signed restricted free agent Craig Adams to a 1-year contract. On July 28, 2004 the Milano Vipers signed Craig Adams. On August 25, 2005 the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim signed free agent Craig Adams to a 1-year contract. On October 3, 2005 the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim traded Craig Adams to the Carolina Hurricanes in exchange for Bruno St. Jacques. On June 30, 2006 the Carolina Hurricanes re-signed Craig Adams to a 3-year contract. On January 17, 2008 the Carolina Hurricanes traded Craig Adams to the Chicago Blackhawks in exchange for a conditional 2009 ninth-round pick.
On March 4, 2009 the Pittsburgh Penguins claimed Craig Adams off of waivers from the Chicago Blackhawks. On June 29, 2009 the Pittsburgh Penguins re-signed Craig Adams to a 2-year contract. On June 9, 2011 the Pittsburgh Penguins re-signed Craig Adams to a 2-year/$1.35 million contract. On July 5, 2013 Adams was re-signed by the Pittsburgh Penguins to a 2-year, $1.5 million contract. On January 26, 2016, Adams announced his retirement from professional hockey at the age of 38, after 14 seasons in the NHL. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Transport in Brunei
Transport of Brunei consist of air and sea. There was some rail transport in Brunei, but most of it was closed down. Land Transport Department, Ministry of Communications Ports Department, Ministry of Communications Department of Civil Aviation, Ministry of Communications