Stock car racing
Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Brazil having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring 0.25 to 2.66 miles. The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR, its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races range between 200 to 600 miles in length; the cars were production models, but are now modified. Top level stock cars exceed 200 mph at speedway tracks and on superspeedway tracks such as Daytona International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway. Contemporary NASCAR-spec top level cars produce maximum power outputs of 860-900 hp from their aspirated V8 engines. In October 2007 American race car driver Russ Wicks set a speed record for stock cars in a 2007-season Dodge Charger built to NASCAR specifications by achieving a maximum speed of 244.9 mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats.
For the 2015 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season, power output of the competing cars ranged from 750 to 800 hp. In the 1920s, moonshine runners during the Prohibition era would have to outrun the authorities. To do so, they had to upgrade their vehicles—while leaving them looking ordinary, so as not to attract attention. Runners started getting together with fellow runners and making runs together, they would challenge one another and progressed to organized events in the early 1930s. The main problem racing faced was the lack of a unified set of rules among the different tracks; when Bill France, Sr. saw this problem, he set up a meeting at the Streamline Hotel in order to form an organization that would unify the rules. When NASCAR was first formed by France in 1948 to regulate stock car racing in the U. S. there was a requirement that any car entered be made of parts available to the general public through automobile dealers. Additionally, the cars had to be models; this is referred to as "homologation".
In NASCAR's early years, the cars were so "stock" that it was commonplace for the drivers to drive themselves to the competitions in the car that they were going to run in the race. While automobile engine technology had remained stagnant in World War II, advanced aircraft piston engine development had provided a great deal of available data, NASCAR was formed just as some of the improved technology was about to become available in production cars; until the advent of the Trans-Am Series in 1967, NASCAR homologation cars were the closest thing that the public could buy, very similar to the cars that were winning national races. The 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket V-8 with a displacement of 303 cu in is recognized as the first postwar modern overhead valve engine to become available to the public; the Oldsmobile was an immediate success in 1949 and 1950, all the automobile manufacturers could not help noticing the higher sales of the Oldsmobile 88 to the buying public. The motto of the day became "win on Sunday, sell on Monday".
However, in spite of the fact that several competing engines were more advanced, the aerodynamic and low-slung Hudson Hornet managed to win in 1951, 1952, 1953 with a 308 cu in inline six-cylinder that used an old-style flathead engine, proving there was more to winning than just a more powerful engine. At the time, it took three years for a new design of car body or engine to end up in production and be available for NASCAR racing. Most cars sold to the public did not have a wide variety of engine choices, the majority of the buying public at the time was not interested in the large displacement special edition engine options that would soon become popular. However, the end of the Korean War in 1953 started an economic boom, car buyers began demanding more powerful engines. In 1953, NASCAR recommended that the drivers add roll bars, but did not require them. In 1955, Chrysler produced the C-300 with its Chrysler FirePower engine 300 hp 303 cu in OHV engine, which won in 1955 and 1956. In 1957, several notable events happened.
The Automobile Manufacturers Association banned manufacturers from using race wins in their advertising and giving direct support to race teams, as they felt it led to reckless street racing. This forced manufacturers to become creative in producing race parts to help racers win. Race teams were caught trying to use factory produced racing parts that were not available to the public, though many parts passed muster by being labeled as heavy-duty "police" parts. Car manufacturers wanted to appear compliant with the ban, but they wanted to win; the NASCAR tracks at the time were dirt tracks with modest barriers, during the 1957 season a Mercury Monterey crashed into the crowd. This killed many spectators, resulted in a serious overhaul of the safety rules, which in turn prompted the building of larger, more modern tracks. In 1957, Chevrolet sold enough of their new fuel injected engines to the public in order to make them available for racing, but Bill France banned fuel injection and superchargers from NASCAR before they could race.
However without official factory support or the use of fuel injection, Buck Baker won in 1957 driving a small-block V-8 Chevrolet Bel Air. In 1961, Ford introduced the F1 390 in a low drag Galaxie "Starliner", but 1960 and'61 championships were won by drivers in 409-powered Chevrolet Impalas. Pont
Songkhla is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Satun, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Yala. To the south it borders Perlis of Malaysia. In contrast to most other provinces, the capital Songkhla is not the largest city in the province; the much newer city of Hat Yai, with a population of 359,813, is larger, with twice the population of Songkhla. This leads to the misconception that Hat Yai is the provincial capital; the province is on the coast of the Gulf of Thailand. The highest elevation is Khao Mai Kaeo at 821 meters. In the north of the province is Songkhla Lake, the largest natural lake in Thailand; this shallow lake covers an area of 1,040 km², has a south-north extent of 78 kilometers. At its mouth on the Gulf of Thailand, near the city of Songkhla, the water becomes brackish. A small population of Irrawaddy Dolphins live in the lake, but are in danger of extinction due to accidental capture by the nets of the local fishing industry. Songkhla Province hosts two national parks.
San Kala Khiri covers 214 km² of mountain highlands on the Thai-Malay border. Khao Nam Khang, is in the boundary mountains. Chinese Communist guerrillas inhabited this region until the 1980s. Within the boundaries of the city of Songkhla is Cape Samila Beach, the most popular beach in the province; the famous mermaid statue can be found here. The two islands Ko Nu and Ko Maew, not far from the beach, are popular landmarks, a preferred fishing ground. According to a local folk tale, a cat and dog were traveling on a Chinese ship, when they attempted to steal a crystal from a merchant. While trying to swim ashore, both the cat and the mouse became the two islands; the crystal turned into the white sandy beach. The name Songkhla is the Thai corruption of Singgora; this refers to a lion-shaped mountain near the city of Songkhla. Songkhla was the seat of an old Malay Kingdom with heavy Srivijayan influence. In ancient times, Songkhla formed the northern extremity of the Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka; the city-state succeeded as the Sultanate of Singgora, it became a tributary of Nakhon Si Thammarat, suffering damage during several attempts to gain independence.
Archaeological excavations on the isthmus between Lake Songkhla and the sea reveal that in the 10th through the 14th century this was a major urbanized area, a center of international maritime trade, in particular with Quanzhou in China. The long Sanskrit name of the state that existed there has been lost; the short vernacular name was Satingpra, coming from the Mon-Khmer sting/steng/stang and the Sanskrit pura. The ruins of the important port city of Satingpra are just few kilometres north of Songkhla city. Since the 18th century, Songkla has been under Thai suzerainty. In 1909, Songkhla was formally annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, negotiated with the British Empire, in which Siam gave up its claim to Kelantan in return for Britain recognizing Siam's right to the provinces north of that. In the 18th century many Chinese immigrants from Guangdong and Fujian, came to the province. Rising to economic wealth, one of them won the bidding for the major tax farm of the province in 1769, establishing the Na Songkhla family as the most wealthy and influential.
In 1777 the family gained political power, when the old governor was dismissed and Luang Inthakhiri became the new governor. In 1786 the old governor started an uprising, put down after four months; the position was thereafter inherited in the family and was held by eight of his descendants until 1901, when Phraya Wichiankhiri was honorably retired as part of the administrative reforms of Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. The family's former home was converted into the Songkhla National Museum in 1953. Songkhla was the scene of heavy fighting when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941 and parts of the city were destroyed. Buddhists make up about three-quarters of the population, most of whom are of native Thai or Thai Chinese descent. About a quarter of the population are Muslim, most of them belong to a Thai-speaking Muslim group, called Sam-Sam. People claiming to be of Malay ethnicity make up a minority among the Muslim populace; the Songkhla Malays are similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.
They speak the Patani Malay language, which differs from Bahasa Malay in vocabulary and pronunciation. Phetkasem Road, running all the way from Bangkok, ends at the border crossing to Malaysia in Sadao. Asian highway 2 and 18 run through the province. Of note is the Tinsulanond Bridge, which crosses Songkhla Lake to connect the narrow land east of the lake at the coast with the main southern part of the province. With a length of 2.6 km it is the longest concrete bridge in Thailand. Built in 1986, the bridge consists of two parts; the southern 1,140 m connects Mueang district with the island Ko Yo, the northern part of 1,800 m to Ban Khao Khiao. Kanchanawanit Road, which runs from Songkhla town, though Hat Yai, all the way to the Malaysian border at Sadao District, is considered the unofficial dividing line separating the Thai south from its deep south, Muslim-majority region; the southern railway operated by the State Railway of Thail
Futsal Thai League
The Futsal Thai League is the top league for futsal clubs in Thailand. It is sponsored by AIS and therefore known as the AIS Futsal Thai League. Thailand national futsal team Football records in Thailand Futsal Thailand League Division 1 2007 League Fixtures 2007 League Club Official Website Football Association of Thailand
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
2007 AFC Asian Cup
The 2007 AFC Asian Cup was the 14th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation. The finals were held from 7 to 29 July 2007. For the first time in its history, the competition was co-hosted by four nations: Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. For the first time in the nation's history, Iraq won the continental title after it defeated Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the final; as the winner, Iraq represented the AFC in the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. Before 2007 and every four years, Asia held its continental tournament from 1956 until China in 2004. With the Summer Olympic Games and the European Football Championship held in the same year as the Asian Cup, the AFC changed their tradition. Beginning in 2007, Asia will hold its continental tournament a year earlier, every four years henceforth from that date. An estimated worldwide television audience of 650 million people tuned in to watch the 2007 AFC Asian Cup. Australia participated for the first time since moving to the AFC from the OFC.
Australia happened to be the tournament's first nation aside from the co-hosts to qualify for the 2007 Asian Cup. The then-AFC President Mohammed Bin Hammam proposed and presented a move to have four host nations for the 2007 Asian Cup. However, he regretted this decision and called it his "mistake", citing the financial and logistic difficulties in organising an event across four countries, he said that "It is proving difficult for have to have four organising committees, four media centres and there are financial considerations." He revealed that " it ", if he had the choice. In June 2005, the AFC warned Thailand that it needed to improve its facilities before 2007, otherwise it would be dropped being replaced with Singapore. On 12 August of the same year, the AFC confirmed that Thailand would be a co-host of the 2007 Asian Cup. However, in October 2006, Thailand was again warned to improve its facilities in 90 days; the qualification round ran from 22 February 2006 to 15 November 2006. For the first time, the defending champions did not get an automatic qualification and had to play in the qualification.
Twenty-four nations were split into six four-team groups for 12 remaining spots in the finals. The four co-hosts – Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam – were granted automatic qualification. For the first time, the seeds are based on the October 2006 FIFA World Rankings instead of the basis of the performance from the previous AFC Asian Cup competition; this was to ensure. The four seeded teams were announced on 19 December 2006; the seeds comprised Pot 4 in the draw. Pot 1 consists of the teams from all co-hosts. On 19 December 2006, the draw was held in the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre; the Official Match Ball for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup was launched by Nike on 15 May 2007, making it the first time that a ball had been launched for any football competition in Asia. The Nike Mercurial Veloci AC features four blue stripes with gold trim with each host city's name inscribed, as well as the AFC Asian Cup logo. 16 referees and 24 assistant referees were cleared following a fitness test on 2 July in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
One referee and two assistant referees were named from the CAF. † Replaced Shamsul Maidin after the referee pulled out with injury. The AFC selected "I Believe", a 2004 single by Thai singer Tata Young as the tournament's official song; the Asian Cup saw many upsets in the early stages of the tournament. In Group A, Oman held favourites Australia to a surprising draw. Oman would have won save for an injury time goal from Tim Cahill. Next, hosts Vietnam shocked Gulf Champions UAE with a 2–0 victory. In the same group, Qatar held Japan to a shock 1–1 draw; the result caused Japan coach Ivica Osim to fly into a rage in which he branded his players as'amateurs' and reduced his interpreter to tears. In Group D, Indonesia continued the undefeated streak of the hosts by defeating Bahrain 2–1. Malaysia ended up as the only host country to drop their match, losing to China 5–1. Thailand recorded just its 2nd win in the Asian Cup finals, its first win in regulation, when they beat Oman 2–0 on 12 July. Meanwhile, Australia was upset by a 3–1 defeat against Iraq the following day, leaving them floundering in the tournament despite high expectations.
However, Australia's 4–0 demolition of Thailand at the last match day saw them into the quarterfinals. Vietnam continued to stun all predictions when drew 2006 ASIAD champion Qatar 1–1 while Japan thrashed the UAE 3–1. Though, Vietnam was crushed 1–4 by Asian champion Japan last match, but the UAE's 2–1 comeback win over Qatar witnessed Vietnam's first time to qualify into the next round, became the only host to progress through despite being in the group of three champions. On the other hand, while Malaysia continued its poor form with 0–5 and 0–2 loss to Uzbekistan and Iran, thus went out of tournament with no point, China's shocking elimination occurred when they got a hammered 0–3 defeat on the hand of the Uzbeks, despite having drawn 2–2 with Iran and was expected to qualify from group stage with an easy win. Bahrain shocked them whole tournament by defeating South Korea 2–1 in Group D, leaving the Koreans in the verge of elimination when Indonesia was beaten 1–2 by Saudi Arabia. However, South Korea progressed with a 1–0 win over host Indonesia, enough to seal them in.
In the quarterfinals, Iraq defeated Vietnam 2–0, while South Korea needed a penalty shootout to eliminate Iran 4–2. Jap
Thailand National Games
The Thailand National Games is a national multi-sport event held every two years among athletes from all over Thailand. The Games were regulated by the Organization of the Sport of Thailand from the first games in Bangkok, from the 1967 games until the 1984 games. Since the 1985 games, they have been organized by the Sports Authority of Thailand, after the breakup of the Organization of the Sport of Thailand; the games are recognized by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports are described as the largest multi-sport event in Thailand. In its history, twenty-six province have hosted the National Games. Seventy-seven provinces have participated in the games, including Bueng Kan, the latest participant in 2011; the last games was held in Songkhla, Thailand from 20 to 30 June 2017. Thailand National Games known as "Thailand Regional Games" organized by the Organization of the Sport of Thailand to qualified Thai athletes to 1967 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games held in Bangkok, Thailand; the first Thailand Regional Games held in Bangkok from 1 to 5 November 1967, the competition was represented from five regions.
After that, The fifth Thailand Regional Games was added from 5 to 10 regions by Bangkok moved from the Region 1 to the Region 10. In 1984, the Organization of the Sport of Thailand committee was renamed to "Thailand National Games" and used in 1985 Games, with changed the objective of the Thailand National Games to make the strengthen of Thai sport. On 23 February 1999, the Thai cabinet agreed with Sports Authority of Thailand was to hosted the Thailand National Games every two years in 2002, 2004 and 2006, the games was represented from 10 regions to 76 provinces However, the Thai cabinet in 2006 agreed with Sports Authority of Thailand was to hosted the Thailand National Games every year from two years in 2007, because to continuation in the development of the Thai sport but represented by the provinces. On 26 July 2013, the Thai cabinet assembled at the Sports Authority of Thailand congress and agreed that the Thailand National Games should be held every two years instead of one year beginning 2018 onwards, because at present time, many national and international events affect the rehearse and budget needed to send the athletes to the events.
In 1978 Games was postponed by the 1978 Udon Thani floods because the publics was afflicted to shortage the consumer goods and needed time to restore the conditions after the flood, until the Udon Thani 1978 Organising Committee was postponed this competition from October 1978 to January 1979. In 2011 Games was postponed by the 2011 Thailand floods because the publics was afflicted to shortage the consumer goods and needed time to restore the conditions after the flood and the athletes wasn't rehearse to this event, until the Khon Kaen 2011 Organising Committee was postponed this competition from November 2011 to March 2012. In 2015 the Games opening ceremony was postponed from 11 December 2015 to 12 December 2015 due to the Bike for dad ปั่นเพื่อพ่อ event, while the 2016 games was cancelled due to King Bhumibol's passing. Royal flame is the flame from the King to light the cauldron during competitions; the flame was introduced at the 1967 Thailand Regional Games in Bangkok. The Organizing committee must contact the Office of His Majesty's Principal Private Secretary to receive the flame.
After His Majesty the King knew the contact, the governor of the host will receive the flame from the King at the palace. The flame was lit at Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram in Bangkok once a year; this flame use for the royal ceremony, cremation ceremony or the sport event ceremony include the Southeast Asian Games, Asian Games, Summer Universiade etc. Official Website of the 35th National Games in Suphan Buri Official Website of the 36th National Games in Nakhon Si Thammarat Official Website of the 37th National Games in Phitsanulok [http://www.songkhlagames.com/main Sports Authority of Thailand
Krabi-Krabong is a weapon-based martial art from Thailand. It is related to other Southeast Asian fighting styles such as Malay silat, Burmese banshay and Cambodian kbach kun boran; the royal bodyguard corps of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej were said to be trained in krabi-krabong. The system's name refers to namely the Thai sword and staff. Two swords are wielded as a pair. Unarmed krabi-krabong makes use of kicks, pressure point strikes, joint locks and throws; the weapons of krabi-krabong include the following: Krabi: sabre/curved sword Daab: single-edge sword Krabong: staff/pole Daab song mue: Thai double swords, one in each hand Kean/Lo: buckler/shield made from wood or buffalo hide Phlong: stick/ cudgel either paired or used with a shield Ngao: bladed staff Mai sok san: a pair of clubs worn on the forearms Krabi-krabong was developed by the ancient Thai warriors for fighting on the battlefield. It was used in conjunction with muay boran but whether the two arts were developed together or independently is uncertain.
Early warfare in Indochina was between rival kingdoms and were fought en masse. Individual fighters carried rhino hide shields; the Burmese invasion of 1767 resulted in the loss of cultural documents. However, the Thai fighting arts were traditionally passed down orally and did not rely on written documents for their preservation. Simon de la Loubère, the French diplomat from the court of Louis XIV, observed the existence of muay Thai and Krabi-krabong in his famous account Du Royaume de Siam while visiting the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1688. We thus can assume that Krabi-krabong, along with Muay Thai, has long been practiced in the pre-modern Siam. Archaeological findings and classical dances bear testament to the myriad of weapons that were once used in Thailand; some of them are no longer found in the country's martial arts today, such as the kris, trishula and vajra. Entire dances were built on individual weapons, calisthenics used by the modern Thai military are still based on these dances; the weapons, their design and the pre-fight war dance in krabi-krabong show evidence of Indian derivation combined with Chinese characteristics.
South Indian scholars, holy men and traders were influential in the evolution of Thai culture and martial arts. The Tamil stick-fighting style of silambam was of particular importance to the history of numerous Southeast Asian fighting systems. During the colonial period, silambam became more common in Southeast Asia than in India where it was banned by the British rulers. Asian elephants were an integral part of warfare in Thailand, they would be mounted by higher-ranking warriors like generals or royalty. To choose a successor to Intaraja I, his two sons fought on elephants. Krabi-krabong was practiced by the palace mahouts or elephant trainers. From the back of an elephant, archers could shoot arrows at enemies below or, if he was wielding a polearm, engage in hand-to-hand combat with another mounted fighter. After the 15th-century introduction of gunpowder, elephants served as tanks with cannons mounted on their backs; the legs were the war-elephant's weak spot, so they had to be guarded by up to four foot soldiers.
Although mahouts no longer practice martial arts, reenactments of such battles are staged by performers who are from families that have been training elephants since the Ayutthaya Kingdom. As Indochinese trade extended to Japan, small communities of Japanese people were living and trading around the region. After the Battle Of Sekigahara in 1600, many of those from the losing side of the war came to Thailand. Others were pirates or official traders; the Japanese fled Ayutthaya after the Bamars invaded in 1767 but they left their influence on the local fighting arts. Many of the techniques, stances and throws of krabi-krabong are similar to those found in jujutsu and Okinawan kobudō. In Thailand, as with other countries in Southern and Southeast Asia, monks acted as teachers to their local community. Young boys would be sent to the temples where, aside from learning about Theravada Buddhism, they would be taught subjects ranging from languages to astrology. One such establishment was the Buddhaisawan Temple in Ayutthaya where the monks taught sword-fighting to their students.
The origin of these monks is unknown but they are believed to have come from the kingdom of Lan Na in Northern Thailand. The modern Buddhaisawan Sword Fighting Institute was led by Sumai Mesamana until his death in 1998, his son Pramote Mesamana began training in krabi-krabong at the age of 6. According to the younger Mesamana, the art was passed down in his family from father to son since the Ayutthaya Kingdom. During the 16th century, the First Toungoo Empire ruled over parts of Thailand. Naresuan was born to King Maha Thammaracha but until the age of 16 he was a hostage of the Bamars. Upon his return to the Ayutthaya Kingdom, he renounced allegiance to Bamars on behalf of his father the king. Having studied at Wat Buddhaisawan, Naresuan was well-versed in fighting with the single-edge sword; the Bamars attacked the capital numerous times in succession but were always repelled by Naresuan's forces. In a final attempt to retake their Thai states, the Bamars sent an army of 25,000 warriors led by Mingyi Swa, the crown prince of Burma atop a war-elephant.
Knowing he was outnumbered, Naresuan charged his own