Yishun known as Nee Soon, is a planning area and residential town located in the northeastern corner of the North Region of Singapore, bordering Simpang and Sembawang to the north, Mandai to the west, the Central Water Catchment to its southwest, Ang Mo Kio to its south, as well as Seletar and Sengkang to its east. The name Yishun is a Mandarin romanisation of Lim Nee Soon, a prominent industrialist who made his fortune from the rubber and pineapple plantations he had in the area. Lim Nee Soon was a banker and general commission agent, he was the first general manager of the Bukit Sembawang Rubber Company Limited, formed in 1908. Nee Soon and Company was formed in 1911. Nee Soon was one of the pioneers, he served on the Rural Board from 1913 to 1921 and was appointed a Justice of Peace. In the field of education, he was one of the founders of Chinese High School and was a member of the Raffles College Committee. Nee Soon Road was named in 1950 by the Rural Board to facilitate postal services. Several roads in Yishun are named after his business concerns and family members.
Nee Soon was a leading member of the Teochew clan association poit ip huay kwan, a close friend of Dr Sun Yat Sen. The name Nee Soon was one of those changed at the height of the campaign to replace dialect names with Mandarin ones. While the government revoked some of its decisions and reinstated names like Bukit Panjang, Yishun remained unchanged and is now the name attached to streets, roads and many amenities; the development of Yishun started in 1976 with the first HDB apartments being built at the Chong Pang area. Yishun Neighbourhood 1 was developed 1981, followed by Neighbourhood 7 and Neighbourhood 2. Neighbourhood 6, 8 and 9 were developed in 1987, together with the Town Centre. Neighbourhood 3 and 4 followed later in 1992. Construction of Neighbourhood 5 was started in 2009 and was completed in 2015. Within the Yishun vicinity, 8 of its neighbourhoods are allocated for construction of HDB apartments namely Yishun Neighbourhood 1, Yishun Neighbourhood 2, Yishun Neighbourhoods 3, 4 and 5, Yishun Neighbourhood 6 and 9, Yishun Neighbourhood 7, Yishun Neighbourhood 8.
Yishun planning areas contain the subzones of Yishun South, Yishun West, Yishun East, Nee Soon, Lower Seletar and Yishun Central. Areas in Springleaf and Nee Soon are private housing. Northpoint City - The largest shopping mall in the North, it is located beside Yishun MRT Station. Known as Northpoint Shopping Centre, it underwent its first expansion, completed in 2010, it included a new building connected to the main shopping mall built on a plot of land next to it. The expansion had more shops as well. Additionally, Yishun community library moved to its new location, at the top floor of Northpoint Shopping Centre; the shopping centre was opened in 1992 making it the first modern sub-urban mall in a major housing estate. Sub-urban malls are a standard feature in all housing estates. Northpoint Shopping Centre was renamed Northpoint City after undergoing a massive expansion which will not only include shopping areas but an air-conditioned bus interchange, a condominium called North Park Residences, a community club, the first to be located in a shopping mall.
The latest expansion brings the number of shops and restaurants to 500. GV Yishun - The first Golden Village Cinema opened in May 1992, it was the largest multiplex with the most screens in Asia. On 1 November 2010 GV Yishun completed a three-month S$5 million refurbishment and opened as Asia's first green multiplex, featuring a cinematic experience enhanced by energy efficiency, water efficiency, sustainable operations and management, indoor environmental quality. GV Yishun has a capacity of 1477 seats with 20 berths set aside for wheelchair-bound patrons, its signature ten cinema halls have seen three of them upgraded to full 3D digital halls. Restaurants like Arnold’s Fried Chicken and Gelarè can be found at the ground level of GV Yishun. Junction Nine - The first mixed development in Yishun. Situated at the junction of Yishun Ring Road and Yishun Avenue 9, Junction Nine is a seven-minute walk away from Yishun MRT station with Sheng Shiong Supermarket as one of its anchor tenants. Wisteria Mall - Opened on 28 July 2018, Wisteria Mall is the only heartland mall in the southern part of a mature Yishun estate.
Wisteria Mall has Fairprice Finest supermarket and Kopitiam food court as its anchor tenants. Chong Pang City - Chong Pang City is located in Neighbourhood 1, it has a collection of a hawker centre and a market. There are small and family-run businesses, as well as major retailers such as a Giant supermarket, CK department store, McDonald's, Watson's and Guardian pharmacies, 7-Elevens. Chong Pang City was the largest neighbourhood centre in Yishun until the opening of Northpoint Shopping Centre and Yishun 10. Neighbourhood Centres - There are various neighbourhood centres such as Nee Soon East and Khatib Central. A typical "heartland" neighbourhood centre would consist of stores such as provision stores, supermarket chains, mini-marts, local banks, salons. In the last few decades, fast food outlets like McDonald's, KFC as well as pharmacies have opened in these areas. Yishun Park Hawker Centre - Operated by the Timbre Group, the Yishun Park Hawker Centre at Yishun Avenue 11 opened on 20th Sep 2017.
Familiar names at the 800-seater hawker ce
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Singapore national football team
The Singapore national football team is the association football national team of the city-state of Singapore. It is organised by the Football Association of Singapore; the most significant successes of the team have come in the regional AFF Championship, which Singapore has won four times in 1998, 2004–05, 2007, 2012. Singapore is the first team to achieve this feat and the only team to win in all the finals they played. In 1998, Singapore beat Vietnam 1–0 in the final to capture the country's first major international football title. In the 2004–05 competition, Singapore defeated Indonesia in a two-leg final 5–2 on aggregate. Singapore retained the trophy in 2007. In 2012, Singapore won the trophy a record 4th time, again defeating three-time champions Thailand 3–2 on aggregate in the final. In the 2007 AFC Asian Cup qualification, Singapore became the only team to beat Iraq where Iraq were en route to their Asian Cup winning campaign. Singapore drew with China 0–0 and 1–1 at home in 2006 and 2009 respectively.
In March 2008, Australia failed to beat Singapore when the game ended in a goalless draw. In January 2007, Singapore achieved a national record 11–0 win against Laos in the 2007 AFF Championship. Mohd Noh Alam Shah scored 7 goals in the match. In the FIFA World Rankings, Singapore's highest standing was in the first release of the figures, in August 1993, at 73rd. Singapore was the Asian Football Confederation's'Mover of the Year' in 2005. Singapore's main rivals on the international stage are their geographical neighbours and Indonesia, past matches between these two teams have produced much drama. Over the years, Singapore has included several naturalised citizens in its team such as Fahrudin Mustafić from Yugoslavia, Daniel Bennett from England, Shi Jiayi and Qiu Li from China. Singapore is the 165th-ranked team in the world as of October 2018. In 1892, the Singapore Amateur Football Association applied to become a registered society; the HMS Malaya Cup was launched in 1921 by officers of a British battleship in Malaya, Singapore was one of the six teams that took part in the inaugural year, won the event.
While the representative side in the Malaysia Cup and the Malaysian League was not the national team per se – this team included some foreign players – many Singapore football fans viewed the Malaysia Cup side as being the national team, the team's exploits in the Malaysian competitions drew much more attention than Singapore's participation in other international tournaments. They either won or were runners up in the event every year until 1941, after which it was suspended because of World War II. Overall, Singapore won two Malaysian League titles. After winning the Malaysia Cup and league double in 1994, the Football Association of Singapore withdrew from the Malaysian competitions following a dispute with the Football Association of Malaysia over gate receipts. Singapore subsequently launched its own professional league, the S. League, in 1996, began to put much more focus on the performance of its national team in international competitions. Singapore won the bronze medal in the 1995 Southeast Asian Games, after losing 0–1 in the semi-finals to the hosts and eventual gold medalists, Thailand.
Singapore were eliminated in the group stages. The national team again reached the semi-finals of the Southeast Asian Games in 1997, losing to Indonesia, lost to Vietnam 0–1 in the third-place match. However, in the 1998 edition of the AFF Championship, Singapore's team led by coach Barry Whitbread won the group stage with victories over Malaysia and the Philippines. In the semi-finals, they subsequently edged out hosts Vietnam 1 -- 0 in the final; this was the country's first international title. Jan B. Poulsen, part of Denmark's backroom staff at the 1998 World Cup, was appointed the Technical Director of the Football Association of Singapore in 1999. Due to poor results by Singapore in the 2000 AFF Championship, coach Vincent Subramaniam was sacked and Poulsen took over as coach in December 2000. Singapore hosted the 2002 AFF Championship, but lost 0–4 to arch-rivals Malaysia in their first game. Before the game, local newspaper The New Paper was encouraging fans to turn up in numbers. After the game, the Lions attributed their heavy defeat to the unexpected large crowd.
Singapore went on to win 2–1 over Laos, but a 1–1 draw in the final group game against Thailand was not enough for them to reach the knock-out stages. Poulsen was sacked after the tournament. Radojko Avramović took over as coach of the flailing and deflated Singapore national football team in July 2003. Singapore started the 2004 AFF Championship as underdogs but a 1–1 draw in their first game against hosts Vietnam, another draw against Indonesia, wins against Cambodia and Laos saw them qualify for the semi-finals. Singapore were drawn against Myanmar in the two-legged semi-finals. Singapore took a 4–3 away lead back home for the second leg. In the ill-tempered second leg, three Myanmar players were sent off and a reserve Myanmar goalkeeper threw a water bottle at defender S. Subramani. Singapore went on to win 4–2 after extra time for an 8–5 aggregate victory. Singapore won the first leg of the two-legged final against Indonesia 3–1 in Jakarta, before winning 2–1 in the second leg in front of a 55,000 home crowd.
In 2006, Avramovic led Singapore into the 2007 Asian Cup qualifiers with a 2–0 victory at home over Iraq, but Singapore failed to build on this victory and lost away to Palestine. The Singapore team took on China away in Tianjin and lost to an injury time penalty. China travelled to Singapore fo
Singapore national under-16 football team
The Singapore national youth football team, nicknamed the Cubs, can refer to either of the following teams: the Under-16 team that represented the nation in the inaugural Youth Olympic Games and the Lion City Cup, the Under-15s, which took part in the Lion City Cup, the AFF U16 Championship. The youth team's honours include bronze for second and third places for the Lion City Cup; the team is one of the favourites in Singapore sport as of 2011. For many, the 2010 YOG team of Singapore seemed to be one of the best youth sides in recent memory, but they lost the semi-final 2–0 to Haiti youth team, the eventual silver medallists, they beat Montenegro in the third-place playoffs to clinch the bronze medal. In 2011, when Singapore revived the Lion City Cup, another team emerged from the shadows – the Under-15 team; the YOG side, though skipper Lightfoot was absent, played under a new coach: Takuma Koga. They grabbed second and third places, beating the youth sides of Juventus and Newcastle United.
Jeffrey Lightfoot of the U16s was called up, but he injured himself and was ruled out for the whole campaign, leaving Dhukhilan Jeevamani to stand in as captain, Illyas Lee as vice-captain. 2010 marked the breakthrough for the Under-15 team as they went through the Youth Olympic Games, held in their own home, comfortably. They managed to get through the semi-finals before succumbing to a defeat against Haiti, who lost the final and got second. Singapore beat Montenegro 4–1 to grab third place, bronze; this match involved a lot of controversy, with a few Montenegro players accused of diving. Drawn 1–1, Singapore came back and won the match 4–1; as Under-16s, the ones who wholeheartedly fought for the bronze at the Youth Olympics, a lot was expected from them in the Lion City Cup. Though captain Jeffrey Lightfoot was absent with an injury, they managed to pull through to get first runners-up for the competition under temporary captain Dhukhilan Jeevamani, they went with new coach Takuma Koga. All attendances are referenced from -> All attendances are referenced from -> Singapore was first to shoot for penalties.
The semi-final between the youth team and Juventus U15 was an exciting match, with man of the match Hazim Hassan scoring 2 goals in the first half, Juventus coming back with another 2 in the second. The Singapore team managed to beat Juventus in the penalty shootout. Fashah Rosedin, or Fashah Iskandar was the most outstanding player that night against Flamengo. Sadly, Caio Rangel and his other Samba football fellows proved to be better, bringing the game to penalties where they won; the Under-15 team, led by coach Dejan Gluscevic grabbed third, losing to eventual winners Flamengo U15 in the semi-finals by toppling Juventus U15 4–0 in the third place play-off. Their first group game, up against Newcastle United's U15 batch, arguably one of the most exciting matches of the tournament. Down 3–1, Singapore used just nine minutes to score 3 back, win 4–3; the Singapore U15s navigated past the group stage, leaving Newcastle U15 behind, reaching to a clash with competition favourites Flamengo. They were outplayed and lost 3–0.
This match, along with the Singapore U16 semi-final with the same Italian opponents. The Italians were comprehensively beaten with the Under-15s clinching third place; the U15 team, captained by Adam Swandi, took part in the AFF U-16 Championship, got fourth place. The team was coached by Dejan Gluscevic, during their time there, they won 3 matches and lost 3 matches, losing both the semi-finals and the third place play-offs; the Championship brought out 5 goals from captain and midfielder Adam Swandi, who scored 5 goals, against Vietnam, the Philippines and Myanmar. *Denotes draws including knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. **Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil. 2017 FAS Under-15 International Challenge Cup 2013 AFF U-16 Youth Championship 2015 AFF U-16 Youth Championship 2016 AFC U-16 Championship qualification 2016 AFF U-16 Youth Championship 2017 AFF U-16 Youth Championship 2018 AFC U-16 Championship qualification JENESYS 2017 Japan-ASEAN U-16 Youth Football Tournament 2018 AFF U-16 Youth Championship 2019 AFF U-16 Youth Championship These players are called up for the 2018 AFF U-16 Youth Championship.
These players listed were called up in competitions / matches before the previous ones, but were not called up for the previous event. Singapore U16Takuma Koga Singapore U15Dejan Gluscevic Singapore U16Kadir Yahaya Singapore U16Abdullah Noor Singapore U15Shahrin Shari Roles:Captain – The team leader. Stand-in captain – Stood in when captain was absent The role of vice-captain does not apply here. Only caps and goals earned during captaincy are considered here. Note: Do note that all results are counted at the end of the final whistle, or a.e.t. if there is extra time. Matches with a penalty shoot-out outcome are still counted as a draw. Win PSO means the number of drawn games won via penalties, the Win PSO is the percentage of winning via penalties; the youth team uses the Jalan Besar Stadium, sharing it temporarily with the senior team before the senior team moves to Singapore Sports Hub when it has finished construction. Singapore national football team Football Association of Singapore Jalan Besar Stadium
Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K