Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club referred to as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or PSG, is a French professional football club based in Paris. Founded in 1970, the club has traditionally worn blue kits. PSG has played its home matches in the 47,929-capacity Parc des Princes in the 16th arrondissement of Paris since 1974; the club plays in the highest tier of French football, Ligue 1. The Parisian club established itself as a major force in France, one of the major forces of European football in the 2010s. PSG have won a total of 36 major trophies, making it the most successful French club in history by this measure. Paris SG is the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. Domestically, the Parisians have won seven Ligue 1 titles, a record twelve Coupe de France, a record eight Coupe de la Ligue, a joint record eight Trophée des Champions titles. In European football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; the capital club has won other minor official titles such as one Ligue 2 and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
PSG have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique; the State of Qatar, through its shareholding organization Qatar Sports Investments, has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and one of the wealthiest in the world; as of the 2017–18 season, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes. Paris Saint-Germain Football Club was founded on 12 August 1970 after the merger of Paris Football Club and Stade Saint-Germain. PSG made an immediate impact, winning promotion to Ligue 1 in their first season after claiming the Ligue 2 title, their momentum was soon checked and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in Ligue 1, while Paris Saint-Germain kept their name but were administratively demoted to Division 3.
Two seasons PSG returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, moving into the Parc des Princes that same year. The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1982, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau. Four years Paris Saint-Germain claimed its maiden league title, after which they went into decline, but a takeover by television giants Canal+ revitalised the club and PSG entered their golden era. Led by David Ginola, George Weah and Raí, the club won nine trophies during the 1990s. Most notably, the Parisians claimed a second league title in 1994 and their crowning glory, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996. At the start of the 21st century, PSG struggled to rescale the heights despite the magic of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta. Five more trophies arrived in the form of three French Cups, one League Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup, but the club became better known for lurching from one high-profile crisis to another.
Indeed, Paris Saint-Germain spent two seasons staving off relegations that were only narrowly avoided. This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new majority shareholders Qatar Sports Investments. Since the buyout, PSG have spent over €1b on player transfers like Zlatan Ibrahimović, Thiago Silva, Edinson Cavani and Kylian Mbappé, have dominated French football, winning 20 national titles. Despite this, the Champions League has proven to be a trophy beyond their reach. PSG have never made it beyond the Champions League quarterfinals since 2012, exiting the competition at the last-16 round in each of the last three seasons. Since its foundation, PSG have always represented both Saint-Germain-en-Laye; as a result, red and white are the traditional colours of Paris Saint-Germain. The red and blue represent the city of Paris, while the white stands for the nearby royal town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In the club's crest, the French capital is represented by the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background.
For its part, the white cradle with the white fleur de lys on top is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and to French royalty. In France, white is the colour of the fleur de lys is a royal symbol; the cradle and the fleur de lys recall that French King Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638. PSG's home shirt has always featured the three colours of the club; the three main home jerseys worn by Paris SG throughout its history have been predominantly red, blue or white. The club's first shirt was red, while the other two were predominantly white. However, all three have included the remaining two colours, as well as with further variations of the home jersey; the newly formed Paris Saint-Germain wore a red shirt during its first three seasons of existence. The jersey featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. During the 2010–11 season, PSG wore a red home shirt to commemorate its 40th anniversary.
The connection between Paris Saint-Germain and the city's fashion houses is a longstanding one. French fashion designer Daniel Hechter served as the club's president for five years in the 1970s, is regarded as one of the driving forces behind the team's foundation, he became club president in 1973 and designed PSG's traditional look — a red vertical strip
Director of football
A director of football is a senior management figure at an association football team most in Europe. The exact nature of the role is unclear and causes much debate in the sports media; the presence of a director of football acts as an intermediary between the manager and the board and may relieve pressure on a manager by handling aspects away from day-to-day coaching, allowing a manager to focus on on-pitch performance. The director may help to stabilise the club – many examples exist of director stepping in as a caretaker manager on the departure of the manager; the director – an experienced football figure – may positively advise a less experienced manager or the board of a less well developed club. In contrast, there are many examples of tensions arising between director and manager due to questions over the remit and powers of the two positions; this had led to many well publicised and highly damaging disputes within clubs. In general, directors of football hold a nominal stake; this is opposed to other members of the board with.
While most common in association football, professional gridiron football teams have a similar director of football operations or vice president of football operations position, who serves as the second in command to the general manager or team president. The level of power and influence in the day-to-day and transfer operations of the club held by a director of football may vary considerably. In some cases, the position may be as a figurehead or as a club ambassador, with transfer dealings, team affairs, squad selection and day-to-day operations handled by the manager and his staff; the position in this case is filled by a former famous player. Bobby Charlton at Manchester United is such an example. In such a case, the role of the director of football is more one of club promotion and marketing than that of actual control over footballing operations. Employing a well-known football personality in such a position may be used to enhance the perceived prestige of the club, improving the club's position in the transfer market.
Tension may arise in this role between manager and director if the director is a figurehead – should the role be filled by a former manager, the presence of that individual within the club may act to undermine the authority of the present manager and act to add pressure during periods of poor performance. The presence of Sir Matt Busby at Manchester United as general manager after retirement is considered to have undermined his immediate successors in the 1970s, despite his retirement from day-to-day club affairs (although he did return to the manager's seat on an interim basis 18 months after his original "retirement". Other well known managers have been promoted to director of football or similar roles, including Ron Greenwood at West Ham United in 1974, when first team duties were handed over to coach John Lyall. However, Greenwood returned to frontline management three years with the England national football team. In January 1994, Lawrie McMenemy returned to Southampton nearly a decade after resigning as manager to become the club's first director of football, a role which he held for more than three years, although the actual management of the team was left to Alan Ball, Dave Merrington and Graeme Souness.
In March 2002, Harry Redknapp stepped down as director of football at Portsmouth after a year in the role to succeed Graham Rix as manager. Appointments in this case are long-term due to the negative reaction of fans to the removal of a former club legend. On occasion, the role has been filled until the death of the director – such as the aforementioned Busby, who remained as a director of Manchester United until his death in January 1994 at the age of 84. Others remain in the role. A notable case is Bob Paisley at Liverpool, who after his retirement as manager in 1983 he was given a seat on the board of directors and held this role until 1992, when at the age of 73 he resigned from the club due to the onset of Alzheimer's disease, four years before his death. In this case, the director of football may be sought by a board – or manager – in order to provide advice or technical assistance on footballing or other aspects that are perceived as lacking or desired by the club; this may be the case where the manager is inexperienced or perceived as naive in a particular aspect, allowing the director to advise against costly errors.
This may be the case where a club in a lesser league or lower division with ambitions to develop further and improve their league position seeks an experienced former manager or director from a more prominent league or club in order to use their experience to further the club. Such an example is that of Giovanni Trapattoni at Red Bull Salzburg or Sven-Göran Eriksson at Notts County. In this case, the tag "director of football" may be dropped in order to prevent the "director" from undermining the present manager by his presence at the club with the person taking up a position such as with the youth academy perceived as subordinate to the manager. Appointments in this case are short term – for between 1/2 seasons – with the director imparting their advice and departing to another club. In other cases, the role of the director of football may include control over transfer dealings and targets and aspects outside coaching and squad selection, which are handled by the manager; the director may oversee all levels of the club – youth to first team – with the manager dedica
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Everton Football Club is a football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 116 seasons, missing the top division only four times since The Football League was created in 1888. Everton have won 15 major trophies: the League Championship nine times, the FA Cup five times and the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once. Formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. Following four League Championship and two FA Cup wins, Everton experienced a lull in the immediate post World War Two period, until a revival in the 1960s, which saw the club win two League Championships and an FA Cup; the mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, the 1985 European Cup Winners' Cup. The club's most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup; the club's supporters are known as Evertonians.
Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club has been based at Goodison Park in Walton, since 1892, after moving from Anfield following a row over its rent; the club's home colours are royal blue shirts with white socks. Everton were founded as St Domingo FC in 1878 so that members of the congregation of St Domingo Methodist New Connexion Chapel in Breckfield Road North, Everton could play sport year round – cricket was played in summer; the club's first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club. The club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the congregation wished to participate; the club was a founding member of the Football League in 1888–89 and won their first League Championship title in the 1890–91 season. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906 and the League Championship again in 1914–15; the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, something that would again occur in 1939.
It was not until 1927. In 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for top-flight league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games, a record that still stands, he helped. However, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years during internal turmoil at the club; the club rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, while scoring a record number of goals in the Second Division. On return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final; the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. The outbreak of the Second World War again saw the suspension of league football, when official competition resumed in 1946, the Everton team had been split up and paled in comparison to the pre-war team. Everton were relegated for the second time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54, when they finished as runners-up in their third season in the Second Division.
The club have been a top-flight presence since. Everton's second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his second season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday. Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley. Two seasons in 1969–70, Everton won the League Championship, finishing nine points clear of nearest rivals Leeds United. During this period, Everton were the first English club to achieve five consecutive years in European competitions – covering the seasons from 1961–62 to 1966–67. However, the success did not last. Harry Catterick retired, but his successors failed to win any silverware for the remainder of the 1970s despite finishing fourth in 1974–75 under manager Billy Bingham, third in 1977–78 and fourth the following season under manager Gordon Lee. Lee was sacked in 1981. Howard Kendall guided Everton to their most successful era.
Domestically, Everton won the FA Cup in 1984 and two League Championships in 1984–85 and 1986–87. In Europe, the club won its first, so far only, European trophy by securing the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1985; the European success came after first beating University College Dublin, Inter Bratislava and Fortuna Sittard. Everton defeated German giants Bayern Munich 3–1 in the semi-finals, despite trailing at half time, recorded the same scoreline over Austrian club Rapid Vienna in the final. Having won both the League and Cup Winners' Cup in 1985, Everton came close to winning a treble, but lost to Manchester United in the FA Cup final; the following season, 1985–86, Everton were runners-up to neighbours Liverpool in both the League and the FA Cup, but did recapture the League Championship in 1986–87. After the Heysel Stadium disaster and the subsequent ban of all English clubs from continental football, Everton lost the chance to compete for more European trophies. A large proportion of the title-winning side was broken up following the ban.
Kendall himself moved to Athletic Bilbao after the 1987 title triumph and was succeeded by assistant Colin Harvey. Harvey took Everton to the 1989 FA Cup Fi
Manager (association football)
In association football, a manager is an occupation of head coach in the United Kingdom responsible for running a football club or a national team. Outside the British Isles and across most of Europe, a title of head coach or coach is predominant; the manager's responsibilities in a professional football club include the following: Selecting the team of players for matches, their formation. Planning the strategy, instructing the players on the pitch. Motivating players before and during a match. Delegating duties to the first team coach and the coaching and medical staff. Scouting for young but talented players for eventual training in the youth academy or the reserves, encouraging their development and improvement. Buying and selling players in the transfer market, including loans. Facing the media in pre-match and post-match interviews; some of the above responsibilities are shared with the director of football or sporting director, are at times delegated to an assistant manager or club coach.
Additionally, depending on the club, some minor responsibilities include: Marketing the club, most for ticket admission and merchandising. Growing turnover and keeping the club profitable; these responsibilities are more common among managers of small clubs. The title of manager is exclusively used in British football. In the majority of European countries where professional football is played, the person responsible for the direction of a team is awarded the position of coach or "trainer". For instance, despite the general equivalence in responsibilities, Bobby Robson was referred to as the manager of England, while Joachim Löw was described as the head coach of Germany; the responsibilities of a European football manager or head coach tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams have a separate general manager and head coach, although a person may fill both these roles. While the first team coach in football is an assistant to the manager who holds the real power, the American-style general manager and head coach have distinct areas of responsibilities.
For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on in-game decisions, off-the-field and roster management decisions. In American sports, these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively. List of football managers with most games Caretaker manager Player-manager League Managers Association for managers in England List of managers and coaches who have qualified for the UEFA Pro Licence The unsackables: Europe's longest-serving coaches. UEFA. 21 May 2016
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou