Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b
San Martín de Tucumán
Club Atlético San Martín is an Argentine sports club founded in 1909 and based in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán Province. The club is notable for its football team, which plays in the Argentine Primera B Nacional, the second division of the Argentine football league system. Other sports practised at the club are field hockey, martial arts, rugby union, swimming and volleyball. San Martin played every season in the Nacional championship between 1968 and 1985. El Santo has played 3 seasons in the Argentine Primera División, in 1988–89, 1991–92 and in 2008–09; the club's most notable victory was a 6–1 win over Boca Juniors in La Bombonera on November 20, 1988. After playing the 2008–09 season in Argentina's First Division, San Martín was relegated to Primera B Nacional. In 2011, after losing the Promoción, San Martín was relegated again to a lower division, the Torneo Argentino A; as of 7 April 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Copa Gral. P. Ramírez: 1944 Primera B Nacional: 2007–08 Torneo Argentino B: 2005 Torneo Argentino C: 1: 1988 Federación Tucumana de Fútbol: 1919, 1923, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1949, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1976 Liga Tucumana de Fútbol: 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1987, 2004 Copa Competencia: 1921, 1922, 1936, 1940, 1947, 1948, 1964 Copa de Honor: 1922, 1943, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1965, 1973, 1974 Copa de Preparación: 1975 Official website Unofficial website Santo de la Ciudadela La Banda del General Dale Santo Los Cirujas
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports. Sports clubs range from organisations whose members play together and may play other similar clubs on occasion, watched by family and friends, to large commercial organisations with professional players which have teams which compete against those of other clubs and attract sometimes large crowds of paying spectators. Clubs may be dedicated to several; the term athletics club is sometimes used for a general sports club, rather than one dedicated to athletics proper. Larger sports clubs are characterized by having professional and amateur departments in various sports such as bike polo, basketball, cricket, handball, rink hockey, water polo, rugby and field athletics, baseball, tennis, rowing and others, including less traditional sports such as airsoft, orienteering, paintball or roller derby; the teams and athletes belonging to a sports club may compete in several different leagues and tournaments wearing the same club colors and using the same club name, sharing the same club fan base and facilities.
Many professional sports clubs have an associate system where the affiliated supporters pay an annuity fee. In those cases, supporters become eligible to attend the club's home matches and exhibitions across the entire season, have the right to practice every kind of sport at the club's facilities. Registered associate member fees, attendance receipts, sponsoring contracts, team merchandising, TV rights, athlete/player transfer fees, are the primary sources of sports club financing. In addition, there are sports clubs, or its teams, which are publicly traded and listed on a stock exchange - several professional European football clubs belonging to a larger multistports club are examples of this; some sports teams are owned and financed by a single non-sports company, for example the several sports teams owned by Red Bull GmbH and collectively known as Red Bulls. Other examples of this are the several sports teams owned by Bayer AG and Philips corporations through the TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen and PSV Eindhoven that were works teams, the teams owned by the Samsung Group, the teams owned by the Anschutz Entertainment Group.
They may compete in several different sports and leagues, being headquartered in some cases across several countries. In many regions of the world like Europe, North Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent or Latin America, sports clubs with several sports departments or branches, including competitive professional teams, are popular and have developed into some of the most powerful and representative sports institutions in those places. In general, student sports can be described as composed by multisports clubs, each one representing its educational institution and competing in several sport disciplines. In the United States major institutions like The New York Athletic Club and Los Angeles Athletic Club serve as athletic clubs that participate in multiple sports. Examples abound of sports clubs that are in effect one sports team; each team from the NFL, CFL, NBA, MLB, NHL or MLS North American sports leagues, can be called sports clubs, but in practice, they focus on a single sport. There are some exceptions when multiple such teams are under one ownership structure, in which case the club may be referred to as a "sports and entertainment" company.
On the other hand, American varsity teams are organized into a structure forming a true multi-sport club belonging to an educational institution, but varsity collegiate athletics are never referred to as clubs. In the United Kingdom all major sports organizations are dedicated to a single sport, with a few minor multisport clubs such as Catford Wanderers. In addition, like in several other countries, many universities and colleges develop a wide range of student sport activities including at a professional or semi-professional level. Fulham F. C. once ran a professional rugby league team and rowing club, which other football clubs have emulated since. Many football clubs originate from cricket teams. Today, most major cities have separate clubs for each sport. Many clubs internationally describe themselves as football clubs. British football clubs field only football teams, their counterparts in several other countr
San Juan, Argentina
San Juan is the capital city of the Argentine province of San Juan in the Cuyo region, located in the Tulúm Valley, west of the San Juan River, at 650 m above mean sea level, with a population of around 112,000 as per the 2001 census. It is a modern city with wide streets and well-drawn avenues with wide sidewalks and vegetation of different species of trees irrigated by canals, from which it derives its nickname oasis town, it has transportation. It highlights modern buildings and the surroundings, the reservoir and Ullum dam, museums, large plantations of vines, various types of agriculture, with wine being the most important. Before the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores, the Huarpe Indians inhabited this area. San Juan de la Frontera was founded on June 13, 1562, by Juan Jufré at the shore of the San Juan River. In 1593 flooding damaged the town, for which reason its setting was moved 2.5 kilometres south to its current location. San Juan was a sleepy, provincial town during colonial times and took no part in the internal wars that devastated Argentina in its so-called Organizational Period Two of the most prominent members of the 1816 Congress of Tucumán which declared Argentina's independence from Spain, came from San Juán: Francisco Narciso de Laprida, president of the congress, San Juan's bishop Friar Justo Santa María de Oro, a Dominican friar and an eloquent speaker whose persuasive oratory was responsible for Argentina becoming a republic and not a monarchy like Brazil.
The most important and famous city son was Fray Justo's nephew, president of Argentina between 1868 and 1874, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, whose birthplace was turned into a National Historical Monument in 1910, during the administration of president Roque Sáenz Peña. On January 15, 1944, a powerful earthquake devastated the city, killing around 10,000 people and leaving half of the provincial population homeless. Another quake, 7.4 in the Richter magnitude scale, struck 80 km northeast of the city on November 23, 1977, causing considerable damage and killing 65 people around the province. After the disaster of 1944, the city was reconstructed on concentric boulevards, with straight, well-lit, tree-lined avenues and modern housing, it has lost its colonial aspect, but retains an open, sunny Mediterranean look. The city of San Juan is located in a fertile valley within a rocky mountainous area. Winter temperatures are mild, averaging between 1 °C and 16 °C, but can drop below −9 °C. Summers are hot, with average temperatures between 19 °C and 35 °C, a record maximum of 46.7 °C on December 20, 1995.
The range of the mean monthly temperatures is 19.4°C the highest in all South America. Sunny weather is common in all months and San Juan averages about 3,361.3 hours of bright sunshine, or about 76% of possible sunshine, ranging from a low of 68% in June to a high of 81% possible sunshine in May. Under the Köppen climate classification, San Juan has a desert climate. Since little rain falls in the region, the San Juan River has been dammed to provide a regular source of water to the city; the resulting reservoir is located in Ullum, is known as the Quebrada de Ullum Dam. The dam provides electrical power to the region. Sixty-five percent of the surrounding area's agricultural production is related to wine production; the city of San Juan changed its appearance from a colonial one to one of the most modern in the country after the earthquake of 1944, with well-drawn and wide paved streets, ample sidewalks of tiles or mosaics, lined with acacias and paradise trees irrigated by quaint canals. The city is located within the Capital District, planned in the form of a checkerboard anchored by Las Heras Avenue, 25 de Mayo Av. 9 de Julio Av. and Guillermo Rawson Avenue.
These four avenues form a perfect rectangle of 16 blocks in width by 10 blocks long. This center of this rectangle is a square of 7 blocks in length by 6 blocks wide, delimited by Leandro N. Alem, Córdoba, Libertador San Martín and Rioja Avenues; this area is the city's downtown and, as such, is the most densely populated and concentrates most of the city's commercial and institutional activities. The most important perpendicular avenues are Mitre, José Ignacio de la Roza, commercial Santa Fe Avenue, Rivadavia street, San Martín Avenue; the more important parallel arteries are Mendoza Avenue, General Mariano Acha Av. and Rioja Avenue. Some of the city's most important landmarks are: CathedralDesigned by architect Daniel Ramos Correa, the cathedral was inaugurated on December 16, 1979; the bell tower is a steeple of 51 meters in height, features a British clock and a German carillon which sounds every 15 minutes. The interior is accessed through a bronze vestibule crafted Faenza, Italy with bas-reliefs of Saint Rose of Lima, Saint Louis of France, the Apostle Santiago, Saint Anne and several shields and emblems.
In the basement of the church is the crypt, the pantheon of the bishops and the chapel of Friar Justo Santa María de Oro. 25 May ParkThis is the city's principal urban park, providing a green space with a colorful variety of flora. The park
A third jersey, alternate jersey, third kit, third sweater or alternate uniform is a jersey or uniform that a sports team wear in games instead of its home outfit or its away outfit when the colors of two competing teams' other uniforms are too similar to play easily. Alternate jerseys are a means for professional sports organizations to generate revenue, by sales to fans. Of North American sports leagues, the NFL generates $1.2 billion annually in jersey sales, with the NBA second selling $900 million annually. Another use of the alternate uniform is for identifying with causes, like the Central Coast Mariners wear an alternate pink kit on pink ribbon day. Extra alternate uniforms or fourth/fifth kits are not used, but are sometimes required when teams' other uniforms cause color clashes, or the uniforms are unavailable to use. In cases where teams have worn more than three kits in the same season, the extra kits were recycled from previous seasons. Third-choice jerseys or uniforms are used in all four Major professional sports leagues in the United States sports leagues, with the exception being college sports.
Third kits are commonplace in professional European association football and in some professional European rugby union clubs. Alternate jerseys are common in Australia's two biggest domestic leagues, the Australian Football League and National Rugby League. For home and away jerseys in North America, historical convention has dictated the colors used by teams in a given league. Teams have one jersey, in a team color, another jersey, white and accented with a team color. "White at home" is the convention in baseball, minor league professional hockey, college hockey. "White while away" is the convention in football, major league professional hockey, professional lacrosse. Association football does not have a "white at a "white while away" convention; the NHL enforces the color/white rule strictly. In minor league hockey, the rules are set in both the AHL and ECHL where the team wears white jerseys at home during one half of the season wears the color jerseys during the other half at home, vice versa on the road.
In the NFL, the rules state that the home team has the first choice of color, with the visiting team forced to choose a contrasting color. Starting with their uniform contract with Nike that begins with the 2017-2018 season, the NBA has abolished the color/white rule. Instead, each team will designate whether their white uniform, now dubbed the "Association Edition," or their colored uniform, called the "Icon Edition," will be the home uniform, with the other becoming their designated away uniform. In American sports, throwback jerseys are only used for special team games and not for the "third" purpose. In American football a third jersey may be a throwback uniform based on designs the team used in the past. In association football, meanwhile, it is more a radically different design; the NFL was the last of the major professional sports leagues to adopt the third jersey rule in 2002, with the only exceptions being the 1994 season, when teams issued a throwback uniform in honor of the league's 75th Anniversary.
The NFL rule stated that a team may wear their third jersey only once a year, after one year this restriction was increased to twice a year. Some teams have exceeded the limit. There are no rules on wearing alternate pants. Teams are only permitted to wear alternate jerseys once in playoff games. In the past, rules allowed for teams to wear their third jersey two times in the regular season and once in the preseason until 2010. In 2011 teams were no longer allowed to wear their third jersey in the preseason. However, there have been some exceptions since 2011; some teams will use one of their third jersey allotments against a particular division opponent each year. For instance, the Los Angeles Chargers would wear their popular alternate powder blue jerseys at home against the Oakland Raiders, while the Houston Texans were known to wear their alternate "Battle Red" uniforms at home against the Jacksonville Jaguars, the Pittsburgh Steelers wore their throwbacks from 2007-2011 at home against the archrival Baltimore Ravens.
The New York Giants were known to wear their alternate red jerseys at home against the Dallas Cowboys until the red jerseys were retired in 2009. The Los Angeles Rams have worn their throwback uniform against the San Francisco 49ers in recent years; the Washington Redskins wear their alternative uniform on home games to commemorate their annual homecoming game once a year since 2012. When wearing their third jerseys if the team is wearing a throwback uniform, the team may theme the field around the uniforms; when the New York Jets, for instance, wore their 1960–1962 "Titans of New York" throwbacks at home, they painted the field in the Titans blue-and-gold color scheme. In addition, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers dressed the field up in Orange when they wore thei
FIFA eligibility rules
As the governing body of association football, FIFA is responsible for maintaining and implementing the rules that determine whether an association football player is eligible to represent a particular country in recognised international competitions and friendly matches. In the 20th century, FIFA allowed a player to represent any national team, as long as the player held citizenship of that country. In 2004, in reaction to the growing trend towards naturalisation of foreign players in some countries, FIFA implemented a significant new ruling that requires a player to demonstrate a "clear connection" to any country they wish to represent. FIFA has used its authority to overturn results of competitive international matches that feature ineligible players. FIFA's eligibility rules demand that in men's competitions, only men are eligible to play, that in women's competitions, only women are eligible to play, it was possible for players to play for different national teams. For example, Alfredo Di Stéfano played for Spain.
Di Stefano's Real Madrid teammate Ferenc Puskás played for Spain after amassing 85 caps for Hungary earlier in his career. A third high-profile instance of a player switching international football nationalities is Jose Altafini, who played for Brazil in the 1958 FIFA World Cup and for Italy in the subsequent 1962 FIFA World Cup. Other 20th-century examples of players representing two or three separate countries are: Joe Gaetjens – László Kubala – Raimundo Orsi – Luis Monti – Michel Platini – José Santamaría – Alberto Spencer – This does not include the hundreds of players whose teams were affected by changes to geopolitical borders e.g. East Germany/Germany, Soviet Union/Ukraine, Yugoslavia/Croatia. Furthermore, some international players have played for another FIFA-recognised country in unofficial international matches, i.e. fixtures not recognised by FIFA as full internationals. This category includes Daniel Brailovsky who played for Uruguay youth teams, was featured in camps for Argentina and years officially represented Israel.
These caps are not recognised due to a dispute between FIFA and the Colombian Football Federation at the time. In January 2004, a new ruling came into effect that permitted a player to represent one country at youth international level and another at senior international level, provided that the player applied before their 21st birthday; the first player to do so was Antar Yahia, who played for the France under-18s before representing Algeria in qualifiers for the 2004 Olympic Games. More recent examples include Sone Aluko, who has caps for the England under-19s and Nigeria, Andrew Driver, a former England under-21 representative, committed to the Scotland national team. In March 2004, FIFA amended its wider policy on international eligibility; this was reported to be in response to a growing trend in some countries, such as Qatar and Togo, to naturalise players born and raised in Brazil that have no apparent ancestral links to their new country of citizenship. An emergency FIFA committee ruling judged that players must be able to demonstrate a "clear connection" to a country that they had not been born in but wished to represent.
This ruling explicitly stated that, in such scenarios, the player must have at least one parent or grandparent, born in that country, or the player must have been resident in that country for at least two years. In November 2007, FIFA President Sepp Blatter told the BBC: "If we don't stop this farce, if we don't take care about the invaders from Brazil towards Europe and Africa in the 2014 or the 2018 World Cup, out of the 32 teams you will have 16 full of Brazilian players."The residency requirement for players lacking birth or ancestral connections with a specific country was extended from two to five years in May 2008 at FIFA's Congress as part of Blatter's efforts to preserve the integrity of competitions involving national teams. The relevant current FIFA statute, Article 7: Acquisition of a new nationality, states: Any player... who assumes a new nationality and who has not played international football shall be eligible to play for the new representative team only if he fulfils one of the following conditions: a) He was born on the territory of the relevant association.
Under the criteria it is possible for a player to have a choice of representing several national teams. It is not uncommon for national team managers and scouts to attempt to persuade players to change their FIFA nationality. Gareth Bale was asked about a possibility to play for England, being of English descent through his grandmother, but opted to represent Wales, his country of birth. In June 2009, FIFA Congress passed a motion that removed the age limit for players who had alre