Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
James Ronald Ryun is a former American politician and track and field athlete. He won a silver medal in the 1500 m at the 1968 Summer Olympics, was the first high school athlete to run a mile in under four minutes, he is the last American to hold the world record in the mile run. Ryun served in the United States House of Representatives from 1996 to 2007, representing Kansas' 2nd congressional district for the Republican Party. According to Ryun, he began running; when you're cut from the church baseball team, the junior high basketball team, you can't make the junior high track and field team... I'd go to bed at night and I'd say, "Dear God, if you've got a plan for my life, I'd appreciate it if you'd show up sooner or because it's not going well." I found myself trying out for the cross-country team and running two miles though I'd never run that distance before. All of a sudden, I made the team, I got a letter jacket, I started thinking there's a girlfriend behind the letter jacket, but that's.
In 1964, as a high school junior at Wichita East High School, Ryun became the first high school athlete to run a mile in under 4 minutes. His time was 3:59.0. His time of 3:55.3 in 1965 was a high school record. Ryun ran a sub-four minute mile five times while in high school, he is the only high school athlete to have run more than three sub-four minute miles. As a high school senior he was voted the fourth best miler in the world by Field News. ESPN.com named him the best high school athlete of all time, beating out people such as Tiger Woods and LeBron James. He was Track and Field News "High School Athlete of the Year" in 1965. In 1966, at age nineteen, Ryun set world records in the half-mile, he received numerous awards, including Sports Illustrated magazine's "Sportsman of the Year" award, the James E. Sullivan Award as the nation's top amateur athlete, the ABC's Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year award, the Track & Field News' Athlete of the Year award as the world's best track & field athlete.
In 1967, Ryun set a world record in the indoor half mile and the outdoor mile from, a record that stood for eight years. That same year he set the world record for the 1,500 meters. In NCAA competition, Ryun was the 1967 NCAA outdoor mile champion, he was the NCAA indoor mile champion in 1967, 1968, 1969. Ryun still holds the American junior records at 1,500 m, one mile, two miles, his American junior record in the 800 meters lasted 50 years. In all, he broke the American record for the mile four times: once as a high school senior, twice as a college freshman, once as a college sophomore. Ryun participated in the 1964, 1968, 1972 Summer Olympics. At age 17 years, 137 days in 1964, he remains the youngest American male track athlete to qualify for the Olympics. In 1968, he won the silver medal in the 1,500 meters in Mexico City, losing to Kip Keino from Kenya, whose remarkable race remained the Olympic 1,500-meter record for 16 years. Before the race, Ryun had thought that a time of 3:39 would be good enough to win in the high altitude of Mexico City.
He ended up running faster than that with a 3:37.8, but Keino's 3:34.9 was too tough to beat at that altitude. Keino moved into the first position with two laps to go at world record pace. Ryun continued to move up during the last two laps from eighth to second but was never closer than about 30 yards from Keino. Years in 1981, he told Tex Maule in an interview for The Runner magazine, "We had thought that 3:39 would win and I ran under that. I considered it like winning a gold medal. Ryun was attacked by some writers. "Some said I had let down the whole world. I didn't get any credit for running my best and no one seemed to realize that Keino had performed brilliantly." In the 1972 Munich, Games, he was tripped and fell down during a 1,500-meter qualifying heat. Although the International Olympic Committee acknowledged that a foul had occurred, U. S. appeals to have Ryun reinstated in the competition were denied by the IOC. Ryun's 1,500-meter world record, run in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum during the United States vs.
British Commonwealth meet in July 1967, was one of Ryun's greatest running performances. Track and Field News reported that "after 220 yards of dawdling, a record seemed out of the question." However, after 440 yards, which Ryun, in third, passed in 60.9 seconds, Kip Keino took the lead and ran the next lap in 56 seconds. Ryun, just behind, passed the 880-yard mark in 1:57.0. At 1,320 yards the two were side by side in 2:55.0. Ryun pulled away to finish in a record that stood for seven years. With last 440 yards of 53.9, a last 880 yards of 1:51.3, the final 1320 yards in 2:47.4, Cordner Nelson of Track and Field News called it "the mightiest finishing drive seen," and said of Ryun's performance, "This was most his greatest race."Ryun's final season as an amateur was in 1972, included the third-best mile of his career: a 5,000-meter career best, a win in the 1,500 meters at the U. S. Olympic Trials, he left amateur athletics after 1972 and for the next two years ran professionally on the International Track Association circuit.
Notes: Because 880 yards is longer than 800 meters, th
National Museum of American History
The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, cultural and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner; the museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D. C; the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim White. In 1980, the museum was renamed the National Museum of American History to represent its mission of the collection, care and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people. In May 2012, John Gray became the new director, he retired from the post in May 2018 and was succeeded by Anthea M. Hartig, chief executive of the California Historical Society; the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, during which time it was closed.
Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, led by Gary Haney. Major changes made during the renovation include: A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museum's collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museum's second floors. A new welcome center, the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention. An environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner flag. In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new exhibition spaces, public plazas and an education center; the renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new interactive features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1, 2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Each wing of the museum's three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, a one of a kind draft wheel. Landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, a car from Disneyland's Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls, 275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the second floor center core; the artifact walls are organized around themes including arts. The lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes; the museum's food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, ride simulators are located here. The first floor's East Wing has exhibits that feature technology; the John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact. The exhibits in the West Wing address innovation, they include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road and Bon Appétit!
Julia Child's Kitchen. Spark! Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation; the Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact. A café and the main museum store are located on the first floor; the first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the second floor, consider American ideals and include the Albert Small Documents Gallery featuring rotating exhibitions. From November 21, 2008 through January 4, 2009 an original copy of the Gettysburg Address, on loan from the White House, was on display; the Greensboro lunch counter is the signature artifact for this section of the museum. Located in the center of the second floor is the original Star Spangled Banner Flag which inspired Francis Scott Key's poem; the newly conserved flag, the centerpiece of the renovated museum, is displayed in a climate-controlled room at the heart of the museum. An interactive display by Potion Design, just across the room from the flag, features a full-size, digital reproduction of the flag that allows patrons to learn more about it by touching different areas on the flag.
The George Washington statue, created in 1840 for the centennial of Washington's birthday, is the signature artifact for 2 West, the west wing of the second floor of the museum. The second floor houses the museum's new welcome center and a store; the second floor lobby leads out to the National Mall. Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, are focused on the United States at war; the Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance is the signature artifact. The center of the third floor, 3 Center, presents The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden, which explores the personal and public lives of the men who have held that office, it features the popular permanent exhibit of First Ladies of America, which features their contributions, changing roles, displays dresses as a mark of changing times. The third-floor west wing, 3 West, has exhibits that feature entertainment and music; these include Thanks for the Memories: Music and Entertainment History, the Hall of Musical Instruments, The Dolls' House.
A car from Disneyland's Dumbo the Flying Elephant ride is t
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation. First published in August 1954, it has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week, including over 18 million men, it was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. It is known for its annual swimsuit issue, published since 1964, has spawned other complementary media works and products. There were two magazines named Sports Illustrated before the current magazine began on August 16, 1954. In 1936, Stuart Scheftel created Sports Illustrated with a target market for the sportsman, he published the magazine from 1936 to 1938 on a monthly basis. The magazine was a life magazine size and focused on golf and skiing with articles on the major sports, he sold the name to Dell Publications, which released Sports Illustrated in 1949 and this version lasted 6 issues before closing. Dell's version focused on major sports and competed on magazine racks against Sport and other monthly sports magazines.
During the 1940s these magazines were monthly and they did not cover the current events because of the production schedules. There was no large-base, weekly sports magazine with a national following on actual active events, it was that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap. At the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine during the winter. A number of advisers to Luce, including Life magazine's Ernest Havemann, tried to kill the idea, but Luce, not a sports fan, decided the time was right; the goal of the new magazine was to be a magazine, but with sports. Many at Time-Life scoffed at Luce's idea. Launched on August 16, 1954, it was not profitable and not well run at first, but Luce's timing was good; the popularity of spectator sports in the United States was about to explode, that popularity came to be driven by three things: economic prosperity and Sports Illustrated.
The early issues of the magazine seemed caught between two opposing views of its audience. Much of the subject matter was directed at upper-class activities such as yachting and safaris, but upscale would-be advertisers were unconvinced that sports fans were a significant part of their market. After more than a decade of steady losses, the magazine's fortunes turned around in the 1960s when Andre Laguerre became its managing editor. A European correspondent for Time, Inc. who became chief of the Time-Life news bureaux in Paris and London, Laguerre attracted Henry Luce's attention in 1956 with his singular coverage of the Winter Olympic Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, which became the core of SI's coverage of those games. In May 1956, Luce brought Laguerre to New York to become assistant managing editor of the magazine, he was named managing editor in 1960, he more than doubled the circulation by instituting a system of departmental editors, redesigning the internal format, inaugurating the unprecedented use in a news magazine of full-color photographic coverage of the week's sports events.
He was one of the first to sense the rise of national interest in professional football. Laguerre instituted the innovative concept of one long story at the end of every issue, which he called the "bonus piece"; these well-written, in-depth articles helped to distinguish Sports Illustrated from other sports publications, helped launch the careers of such legendary writers as Frank Deford, who in March 2010 wrote of Laguerre, "He smoked cigars and drank Scotch and made the sun move across the heavens... His genius as an editor was that he made you want to please him, but he wanted you to do that by writing in your own distinct way."Laguerre is credited with the conception and creation of the annual Swimsuit Issue, which became, remains, the most popular issue each year. In 1990, Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications to form the media conglomerate Time Warner. In 2014, Time Inc. was spun off from Time Warner. In November 2017, Meredith Corporation announced that it would acquire Time Inc. and the acquisition was completed in January 2018.
However, in March 2018, Meredith stated that it would explore selling Sports Illustrated and several other former Time properties, arguing that they did not properly align with the company's lifestyle brands and publications. From its start, Sports Illustrated introduced a number of innovations that are taken for granted today: Liberal use of color photos—though the six-week lead time meant they were unable to depict timely subject matter Scouting reports—including a World Series Preview and New Year's Day bowl game round-up that enhanced the viewing of games on television In-depth sports reporting from writers like Robert Creamer, Tex Maule and Dan Jenkins. Regular illustration features by artists like Robert Riger. High school football Player of the Month awards. Inserts of sports cards in the center of the magazine 1994 Launched Sports Illustrated Interactive CD-ROM with StarPress Multimedia, Incorporates player stats and highlights from the year in sports. In 2015 Sports Illustrated purchased a group of software companies and combined them to create Sports Illustrated Play, a platform that offers sports league management software as a service.
In 1965, offset printing bega
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Panathenaic amphorae were the amphorae, large ceramic vessels, that contained the olive oil given as prizes in the Panathenaic Games. Some were 60 -- 70 cm high; this oil came from the sacred grove of Athena at Akademia. The amphorae which held it had the distinctive form of tight handles, narrow neck and feet, they were decorated with consistent symbols, in a standard form using the black figure technique, continued to be so, long after the black figure style had fallen out of fashion; some Panathenaic amphorae depicted Athena Promachos, goddess of war, advancing between columns brandishing a spear and wearing the aegis, next to her the inscription τον αθενεθεν αθλον " of the prizes from Athens". On the back of the vase was a representation of the event for which it was an award. Sometimes roosters are depicted perched on top of the columns; the significance of the roosters remains a mystery. Amphorae had that year's archon's name written on it making finds of those vases archaeologically important.
The vases were commissioned by the state from the leading pottery workshops of the day in large numbers. Their canonical shape was set by 530 BCE, but the earliest known example is the Burgon amphora, which depicts Athena's owl nestling on the neck of the vase and on the reverse is a synoris team; this may mean that the vase predates the festival's reorganization in 566 since it is not an athletic event. The cock column is first seen on a panathenaic by Exekias. By the early fourth century the inclusion of the archon's name appears on these vases, the earliest intact one being Asteios 373/2 BCE.. There is a fragment that bears the name Hippodamas of 375/4 BCE, which may be a panathenaic, Beazley suggests there may be a preceding one, Pythokles of 392/1; as the century progressed the profile of the vases became elongated and the decoration more mannered. The last known dated vase is from 312/11, although production continues into the third and second centuries, the archons are no longer named, the treasurers and stewards of the games are recorded in their place.
Some vases were used as grave goods by the families of the victors, some were dedicated to sanctuaries, still others sold, hence their wide distribution in the Greek world. The survival rate of Greek pottery as a whole may be calculated from the remnant of panathenaic amphorae that exist. After 350 BCE at least 1450 vases were awarded every four years in the greater Panathenaia. Assuming the number of events was consistent throughout the history of the games and that all prizes were in the form of decorated amphora, dividing the number of unique vases known by the total production run, gives the figure of between 0.5% and 1% of all Greek vases awarded are still extant. John Boardman: Athenian Black Figure Vases, London 1974 Jenifer Neils:Goddess and Polis: The Panathenaic Festival in Ancient Athens, Hood Museum of Art, 1992 Martin Bentz: Panathenäische Preisamphoren: eine athenische Vasengattung und ihre Funktion vom 6. - 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Basel, Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst 1998 ISBN 3-909064-18-3 Martin Bentz.
- 29.11.1998. Mainz, Zabern 2001. ISBN 3-8053-2708-0 S. A. Callisen: The Iconography of the Cock on the Column, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 160-178