The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean and South America. Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship.
In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, had cash reserves of over US$930 million. Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively; these allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups; those among these officials who were indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.
On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed; the need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association was founded in the rear of the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym are used outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland; that same day, the German Football Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin. Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by a member of the association; the first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, the United States in 1914. During World War II, with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures limited, the organization's survival was in doubt. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann, it was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations resumed their membership; the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in England. The first World Cup was held in 1930 in Uruguay. FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, is an association established under the law of Switzerland. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association; each national football association has one vote, regardless of footballing strength.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes; the congress approves the annual report, decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its general secretary, the other members of the FIFA Council in the year following the FIFA World Cup. FIFA Council — called the FIFA Executive Committee and chaired by the president — is the main decision-making body of the organisation in the intervals of congress; the council is composed of 37 people: the president. The Executive Committee is the body that decides w
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
World Taekwondo, called the World Taekwondo Federation until June 2017, is the international federation governing the sport of taekwondo and is a member of the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations. The body was renamed in June 2017 to avoid the "negative connotations" of the used initials WTF. World Taekwondo was established on May 28, 1973 at its inaugural meeting held at the Kukkiwon with participation of 35 representatives from around the world. There are now 208 member nations. Since 2004, Choue Chung-won has been the president of World Taekwondo, succeeding the first president, Kim Un-yong. On July 17, 1980 the International Olympic Committee recognized World Taekwondo at its 83rd Session in Moscow, Soviet Union. First, Taekwondo was adopted as a demonstration sport of the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea. According to World Taekwondo, Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific Korean traditional martial arts, that teaches more than physical fighting skills.
It is a discipline that shows ways of enhancing our spirit and life through training our body and mind. Today, it has become a global sport that has gained an international reputation, stands among the official games in the Olympics; the main constituents of World Taekwondo are the following: The General Assembly. In addition to its main constituents World Taekwondo encompasses other organizations that have been duly authorized or recognized by the Council and the GA and that operate under the auspices of World Taekwondo. World Taekwondo-recognized or authorized organizations include but are not limited to the Continental Unions; the General Assembly is the general meeting of the Council and representatives of MNAs of World Taekwondo. The GA is World Taekwondo’s supreme decision making organ, its decisions are final, whereas the Council consists of the President, the Vice Presidents, the Secretary General, the Treasurer and the Council members. Responsibilities of the Council are for example planning and management of World Taekwondo organization and operations and the control over the financial budget and financial reports.
The President is elected by the GA from among its members for a term of four years. The President must represent World Taekwondo. Furthermore, the President appoints the members of World Taekwondo Committees. Lastly, the Secretariat of World Taekwondo is installed at the location of World Taekwondo headquarters for the execution of the secretarial affairs and duties of the President and the Secretary General. World Taekwondo was established on May 28, 1973 at the inaugural meeting held at the Kukkiwon with participation of 35 representatives from the world after it separated from the International Taekwon-Do Federation because of political reasons. At that time, Un Yong Kim was elected president for a four-year term. One of the main Constituents of World Taekwondo, the Secretariat was formed on June 3, 1973 and began operating. On October 8, 1974 World Taekwondo was affiliated to the General Association of International Sports Federations, now SportAccord; until the 1980s, the European, the Asian, the Pan American and the African Taekwondo Unions inaugural meetings were held, while Oceania’s Taekwondo Union was not recognized as the 5th Continental Union of World Taekwondo until July 16, 2005.
The recognition of the IOC towards World Taekwondo at its 83rd session in Moscow on July 17, 1980 was the cornerstone for their Cooperation. Thereupon Taekwondo participated in the 24th Olympic Games at Changchung Gymnasium in Seoul, Korea as well as the 25th Olympic Games at the Palau Blaugrana in Barcelona, Spain as a demonstration sport. In recognition of his contribution to the Olympic Movement Un Yong Kim was awarded the Order of Commander by Prince Rainier of Monaco on September 21, 1993. Moreover, Taekwondo was adopted as an official sport of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games at the 103rd IOC session in Paris, France on September 4, 1994. Half a year on February 15, 1995 World Taekwondo was affiliated to the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations as a provisional member. After the first appearance of Taekwondo as an Olympic Sport in the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, the IOC executive board confirms Taekwondo as an Olympic Sport for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games on December 11–13, 2000.
Furthermore, the inclusion of taekwondo in the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games was confirmed on November 29, 2002 at the 114th IOC session held in Mexico City. On February 15, 2004 the Vice President Sun Jae Park was elected as Acting President of World Taekwondo due to the resignation of the founding President Un Yong Kim from the presidency of World Taekwondo. Four month Chung Won Choue was elected as new President of World Taekwondo at the extraordinary General Assembly on June 11, 2004. Taekwondo was confirmed as program of the 2012 London Olympic Games on July 8, 2005; the mission of World Taekwondo is to provide effective international governance of Taekwondo as an Olympic sport and Paralympic sport. The envisioned objectives of World Taekwondo are to promote and improve worldwide the practice of taekwondo in light of its educational and sports values and to promote fair play, youth development, education
International Federation of Sport Climbing
The International Federation of Sport Climbing is the international governing body for the sport of competitive climbing, which consists of the disciplines lead climbing, speed climbing, bouldering. It was founded in Frankfurt on 27 January 2007 by 48 member federations, is a continuation of the International Council for Competition Climbing, in existence from 1997 to 2007 and was a part of the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme; the major competitions organized by the IFSC are: The IFSC Climbing World Cup is a series of competitions held annually. The athletes compete in three disciplines: lead and speed; the number of competitions and venues vary from year to year. The first World Cup was held under the auspices of UIAA in 1989, World Cups were held under the auspices of IFSC from 2007; the IFSC Climbing World Championship is a competition held biennially. This event determines the male and female world champions in the three disciplines of sport climbing lead and speed as well as in para-climbing.
The IFSC World Youth Championship is a competition held annually. This event determines the male and female world youth champions in three disciplines: lead and bouldering. For each discipline, the athletes are grouped in three age groups: Youth A and Juniors; the IFSC European Championship is a competition held biennially in years when World Championships are not held. This event determines the male and female European champions in the three disciplines of sport climbing lead and speed; the IFSC European Youth Cup is a series of competitions held annually. Athletes competes in three disciplines: lead and bouldering and are grouped in three age groups: Youth B, Youth A and Juniors. 2007-: Marco Maria Scolaris In the following tables are listed the national federations members: IFSC Climbing World Championships IFSC Climbing World Cup IFSC Climbing European Championships links of federetions Official website IFSC rules book 2013
FINA or Fédération internationale de natation is the international federation recognised by the International Olympic Committee for administering international competition in water sports. It is one of several international federations which administer a given sport or discipline for the IOC and international community, it is based in Switzerland. FINA oversees competition in six aquatics sports: swimming, high diving, artistic swimming,water polo, open water swimming. FINA oversees "Masters" competition in its disciplines. On 24 July 2009, Julio Maglione of Uruguay was elected FINA President. FINA was founded on 19 July 1908 in the Manchester Hotel in London, UK at the end of the 1908 Summer Olympics by the Belgian, Danish, French, German and Swedish Swimming Federations. Number of national federations by year: 1908: 8 1928: 38 1958: 75 1978: 106 1988: 109 2000: 174 2008: 197 2010: 202 2012: 203 2015: 208 2016: 207 2017: 209 At the June 2017, FINA Bureau meeting, Bhutan became the 208th national federation of FINA. and on November 30, 2017, Anguilla became the 209th national federation of FINA Members are grouped by continent, there are 5 continental associations of which they can choose to be a member: Africa: African Swimming Confederation Americas: Swimming Union of the Americas Asia: Asia Swimming Federation Europe: European Swimming League Oceania: Oceania Swimming Association Note: The number following each continental name is the number of FINA members which fall into the given geographical area.
It is not the number of members in the continental association. The FINA membership meets every four years coinciding with the World Championships. There are two types of normal or "ordinary" congress: Technical. FINA's highest authority is the General Congress. Any technical issues concerning FINA's five aquatic disciplines are decided by the Technical Congress; each Congress has two voting members from each Member federation, plus the following non-voting members: the 22 members of the Bureau, the Honorary Life President, all Honorary Members. The Technical Congress has the following additional non-voting members: all members from the respective Technical Committees. "Extraordinary" Congress are called from time to time, to deal with a specific topic or area of concern. All Congress meetings are chaired by FINA's president. Between Congress meetings of the entire membership, a smaller 22-member representative board, called the FINA Bureau, meets to act in a timely manner on items which cannot wait until the entire body can forthgather.
It is the Bureau. Various committees and commission help with the oversight of individual disciplines, or topic-related issues; each presidential term is four years and concluding with the year following the Summer Olympics. 1954 Honorary President Ing. Ladislav Hauptmann - Czech Republic - President LEN and FINA official. FINA organizes one championship involving each of the five disciplines it oversees, as well championships and circuits in each of the disciplines; the biggest FINA event is the biennial World Aquatics Championships held every odd year. It features competitions in all five aquatic disciplines. Prior to 2000, the event was held every 4 years, in the year between Olympic Games. Swimming: World Swimming Championships. Bi-annual event, swum in 25-meter length pool. Water Polo: Water Polo World Leagues. Diving: Diving World Series. High Diving: High Diving World Series. Open Water: World Open Water Swimming Championships. Years from 2000-2010. Artistic swimming: Synchro World Trophy. Masters: World Masters Championships.
Bi-annual, in years. "Masters" competition is for adults. This championships features all 5 disciplines. In addition to the championships events listed above, FINA organizes the following events: Swimming: Swimming World Cup. Water Polo: Men's and Women's Water Polo World Cup; every 4 years. Diving: Diving World Cup. High Diving: High Diving World Cup. Open Water: Marathon Swim World Series. Artistic Swimming: Synchro World Cup; every 4 years. A world-level championships restricted to a younger age, vary by discipline and gender: Swimming: World Junior Swimming Championships. Water Polo: Junior and Youth Water Polo World Championships. Diving: Junior Diving World Cup. Open Water: Junior Open Water Swimming World Championships. Artistic Swimming: World Junior Synchronised Swimming Championships. History of competitive swimwear#FINA rule changes FINA Athletes of the Year International Swimming Hall of Fame List of international sport federations Major achievements in swimming by nation www.fina.org FINA's website
International Gymnastics Federation
The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique is the governing body of competitive gymnastics. Its headquarters is in Switzerland, it was founded on July 23, 1881, in Liège, making it the world's oldest existing international sports organisation. Called the European Federation of Gymnastics, it had three member countries—Belgium and the Netherlands—until 1921, when non-European countries were admitted and it received its current name; the federation sets the rules, known as the Code of Points, that regulate how gymnasts' performances are evaluated. Seven gymnastics disciplines are governed by the FIG: artistic gymnastics, further classified as men's artistic gymnastics and women's artistic gymnastics. Additionally, the federation is responsible for determining gymnasts' age eligibility to participate in the Olympics; the main governing bodies of the federation are the president and vice presidents, the Congress held every two years, the Executive Committee, the Council, technical committees for each of the disciplines.
As of July 2018, there were 146 national federations affiliated with FIG, three of which have been suspended, as well as two associated federations and the following four continental unions: European Union of Gymnastics Pan-American Gymnastic Union Asian Gymnastic Union African Gymnastics Union Across all disciplines, participation in FIG sanctioned events exceeds 30,000 athletes, about 70% of whom are female. Morinari Watanabe was elected president of the organization in 2016. According to the technical regulations of the International Gymnastcs Federation, the competitions organized by FIG are: World Gymnastics Championships World Artistic Gymnastics Championships World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships Trampoline World Championships Aerobic Gymnastics World Championships World Acrobatic Gymnastics Championships World Cup series Artistic Gymnastics World Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics World Cup Trampoline World Cup Acrobatic Gymnastics World Cup Aerobic Gymnastics World Cup Parkour World Cup World Challenge Cup series Artistic Gymnastics World Challenge Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics World Challenge CupOther official FIG competitions include: Olympic Games Youth Olympic Games World GamesDefunct events organized of sanctioned by FIG: Four Continents Gymnastics Championships Olympic Games Test Events The FIG regulates the age at which gymnasts are allowed to participate in senior-level competitions.
The purpose is to protect young gymnasts, but it has caused some controversy, there have been cases of age falsification. Major achievements in gymnastics by nation Official website
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr