The Sonot Kkaazoot is the premier long-distance cross-country ski race in Fairbanks, Alaska. The race includes a 50 km and 20 km course. Both events end on the Chena River in downtown Fairbanks. Both events are freestyle, mass are raced simultaneously; the race was founded in 1988 by noted Fairbanks skier Bob Baker. The name of the race is based on a Koyukon word which translates as'sliding around in early spring' and was used by Native people to describe the motion of cross-country skiers. Both the 20 km and 50 km events begin and end on the Chena River above the Cushman Street bridge in downtown Fairbanks; the course proceeds up the Chena River, entering Fort Wainwright army post and continuing as far as the Birch Hill Ski & Snowboard Area. At that point the 20 km race turns around and returns via the same course back to the start/finish area; the 50 km course proceeds up the Birch Hill alpine ski hill to connect with the trails system at the Birch Hill Recreation Area. From there the course follows all of the trails in the Birch Hill system in a counter-clockwise direction.
After 27 km the course again returns to the top of the alpine ski hill and proceeds back to the river and to the start/finish area by the same route. In 2012 the 50 km race will make use of a new trail constructed to gain access to the Birch Hill Recreation Area. Rather than climbing directly up the alpine ski hill, the Sonot Connector trail climbs through the forest to the east of the ski hill, starting from the top of the rope tow and making two long switchbacks. Adjustments to the course are sometimes made due to snow conditions; when it is not possible to hold the race on river, either due to ice conditions or cold temperatures, the race may be held on the trail system at the Birch Hill Recreation Area and ending in the stadium area. In these cases the race is shortened to compensate for the addition of steeper terrain. In years of low snowfall when it is not possible to connect between the river and the alpine ski area, the race may be held on the river. In this the 20 km course remains unchanged, but the 50 km course proceeds further up the river before turning around at 12.5 km, returning to the start, doing another lap of the same course along the river.
Sonot KKaazoot website Nordic Ski Club Fairbanks Sonot Kk'o'eelzoot, Talking Alaska blog post, March 15, 2009. Birch Hill Recreation Area Birch Hill Ski & Snowboard Area SportAlaska timing services
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is an annual long-distance sled dog race run in early March from Anchorage to Nome within the US state of Alaska. Mushers and a team of 14 dogs, of which at least 5 must be on the towline at the finish line, cover the distance in 8–15 days or more; the Iditarod began in 1973 as an event to test the best sled dog mushers and teams but evolved into today's competitive race. A record, the second fastest winning time was recorded in 2016 by Dallas Seavey with a time of 8 days, 11 hours, 20 minutes, 16 seconds; as of 2012, Dallas Seavey was the youngest musher to win the race at the age of 25. In 2017, at the age of 57, Dallas's father, Mitch Seavey, is the oldest and fastest person to win the race, crossing the line in Nome in 8 days, 3 hours, 40 minutes and 13 seconds. Dallas finished two hours and 44 minutes behind. Teams race through blizzards causing whiteout conditions, sub-zero temperatures and gale-force winds which can cause the wind chill to reach −100 °F.
A ceremonial start occurs in the city of Anchorage and is followed by the official restart in Willow, a city 80 mi north of Anchorage. The restart was in Wasilla through 2007, but due to little snow, the restart has been at Willow since 2008; the trail runs from Willow up the Rainy Pass of the Alaska Range into the sparsely populated interior, along the shore of the Bering Sea reaching Nome in western Alaska. The trail is through a harsh landscape of tundra and spruce forests, over hills and mountain passes, across rivers. While the start in Anchorage is in the middle of a large urban center, most of the route passes through separated towns and villages, small Athabaskan and Iñupiat settlements; the Iditarod is regarded as a symbolic link to the early history of the state and is connected to many traditions commemorating the legacy of dog mushing. The race is a important and popular sporting event in Alaska, the top mushers and their teams of dogs are local celebrities. While the yearly field of more than fifty mushers and about a thousand dogs is still Alaskan, competitors from fourteen countries have completed the event including the Swiss Martin Buser, who became the first foreign winner in 1992.
The Iditarod received more attention outside of the state after the 1985 victory of Libby Riddles, a long-shot who became the first woman to win the race. The next year, Susan Butcher became the second woman to win the race and went on to win three more years. Print and television journalists and crowds of spectators attend the ceremonial start at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and D Street in Anchorage and in smaller numbers at the checkpoints along the trail; the race's namesake is the Iditarod Trail, designated as one of the first four US National Historic Trails in 1978. The trail in turn is named for the town of Iditarod, an Athabaskan village before becoming the center of the Inland Empire's Iditarod Mining District in 1910, becoming a ghost town at the end of the local gold rush; the name Iditarod may be derived from the Athabaskan iditarod, meaning "far distant place". Portions of the Iditarod Trail were used by the Native Alaskan Eskimo Inupiaq and Athabaskan peoples hundreds of years before the arrival of Russian fur traders in the 1800s, but the trail reached its peak between the late 1880s and the mid-1920s as miners arrived to dig coal and gold after the Alaska gold rushes at Nome in 1898, at the "Inland Empire" along the Kuskokwim Mountains between Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, in 1908.
The primary communication and transportation link to the rest of the world during the summer was the steamship. Roadhouses where travelers could spend the night sprang up every 14 to 30 miles until the end of the 1920s, when the mail carriers were replaced by bush pilots flying small aircraft and the roadhouses vanished. Dog sledding persisted in the rural parts of Alaska, but was driven into extinction by the spread of snowmobiles in the 1960s. During its heyday, mushing was a popular sport during the winter, when mining towns shut down; the first major competition was the tremendously popular 1908 All-Alaska Sweepstakes, started by Allan "Scotty" Alexander Allan, ran 408 miles from Nome to Candle and back. The event introduced the first Siberian huskies to Alaska in 1910, where they became the favored racing dog, replacing the Alaskan malamute and mongrels bred from imported huskies and other large breeds, like setters and pointers. In 1914, the Norwegian immigrant Leonhard Seppala first appeared, went on to win the race in 1915, 1916, 1917, before the race was discontinued in 1918 during World War I The most famous event in the history of Alaskan mushing is the 1925 serum run to Nome known as the "Great Race of Mercy."
It occurred. Because Nome's supply of antitoxin had expired, Dr. Curtis Welch refused to use it and instead sent out telegrams seeking a fresh supply of antitoxin; the nearest antitoxin was found to be in Anchorage, nearly one thousand miles away. The only way to get the antitoxin to Nome was by sled dog as planes could not be used and ships would be too slow. Governor Scott Bone approved a safe route and the 20-pound cylinder of serum was sent by train 298 miles from the southern port of Sewa
Alaska Mountain Wilderness Classic
The Alaska Mountain Wilderness Classic is an adventure challenge that espouses purity of style and zero impact. Started in 1982 as a 150-mile wilderness traverse, the Classic has crossed various mountain ranges throughout Alaska with some routes covering nearly 250 miles. Traditionally, the same route has been used for three years in a row, with each year being a different month; the rules are simple: start to finish with no outside support, requiring that racers carry all food and equipment. The most common form of transportation is by foot and packraft, although bicycles and paragliders have been used by intrepid participants. Beginning in 2004, participants have been required to carry satellite phones or Satellite emergency notification device like the DeLorme inReach to facilitate emergency rescues; the organization of the challenge is grass-roots, having no affiliation to any organization or group, while fewer than 30 people enter in any one year. The Classic is perceived as a race, but most not a race.
It has had an influence on American adventure racing, backcountry use of the packraft, ultralight hiking is significant. In addition to the summer challenge, there is an more low-key unaffiliated winter event, the Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic, which has taken place every year since 1987 with races through the Chugach Mountains, Alaska Range, Brooks Range, Wrangell-St. Elias. Hope to Homer, 150 miles 1982 – Roman Dial 1983 – Roman Dial and Jim Lokken 1984 – David Manzer Mentasta to Denali National Park, 235 miles 1985 – Hank Timm 1986 – Hank Timm 1987 – Hank Timm and Randy Pitney Nabesna to McCarthy, 150 miles 1988 – Roman Dial 1989 – David Manzer, Adrian Crane and Tom Possert 1990 – Brant McGee and Jeff Gedney Gates of the Arctic Wilderness, 130 miles 1991 – Brant McGee and Adrian Crane 1992 – Brant McGee and Dave Dixon 1993 – Gordy Vernon Donnelly to McKinley Village, 140 miles 1994 – Frazier Miller 1995 – Clark Saunders 1996 – Steve Reifenstuhl and Rocky Reifenstuhl Hope to Homer, 150 miles 1997 – Gordy Vernon and Thai Verzone 1998 – Gordy Vernon 1999 – Jim Jaegar and Laura McDonough Nabesna to McCarthy, 150 miles 2000 – Steve Reifenstuhl and Rocky Reifenstuhl 2001 – Steve Reifenstuhl and Rocky Reifenstuhl 2002 – Roman Dial Eureka to Talkeetna, 160 miles 2003 – Hans Neidig, Chris Robertson and Paul Hanis 2004 – Gordy Vernon and Thai Verzone 2005 – Robert Schnell, Jason Geck, Tyler Johnson and Rory Stark Chicken to Central, 180 miles 2006 – Robert Schnell and Chris Robertson 2007 – Robert Schnell and Chris Robertson 2008 – Butch Allen, Jim McDonough, Tyler Johnson and Craig "Chunk" Barnard Gerstle River/Donnelly to McKinley Village, 180 miles 2009 – Robert Schnell, Chris Robertson and Andrew Skurka 2010 – Robert Schnell, Chris Robertson, Todd Kasteler and Danny Powers 2011 – Tyler Johnson, Todd Kasteler, Luc Mehl and John Sykes Thompson Pass to Lakina River Bridge, 120 miles - 180 miles 2012 – Luc Mehl, Josh Mumm 2013 – Lee Helzer, Steve Duby, Len Jenkins 2014 – Gerard Ganey, Todd Tumolo Peters Hills to Red Shirt Lake via Rohn, 280 miles 2015 - Josh Mumm Galbraith Lake to Wiseman, 115 miles 2016 - Todd Tumolo and Luc Mehl 2017 - Tobias Schwoerer and Harlow Robinson 2018 - Tom Moran and Jay Cable Most entrants: 1984 Hope to Homer Lowest Completion:Entrants Ratio: 1:7.5 -- 2015 Peters Hills to Red Shirt Lake via Rohn Highest Completion:Entrants Ratio: 1:1 -- 1995 Donnelly to McKinley Village Fastest Completion: Todd Tumolo and Luc Mehl -- 2016:1 day, 10 hours Slowest Top Completion: Lee Helzer, Steve Duby, Len Jenkins: 7 days, 8 hours, 44 minutes -- 2013 Thompson Pass to Lakina River Bridge Fastest Solo Completion: Bjorn Flora: 2 days, 1 hour, 20 minutes -- 2005 Eureka to Talkeetna Fastest Female Completion: Lindsay Cameron and Ellen Martin: 2 days, 9 hours, 3 minutes -- 2017 Galbraith to Wiseman Oldest Completion: Dick Griffith -- 81 years old -- 2008 Chicken to Central Youngest Completion: Eric Cramer: 17 years one month old -- 1992 Gates of the Arctic.
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Alyeska Resort is a ski resort in Girdwood, Alaska 27 miles from the city of Anchorage. Mount Alyeska is part of the Chugach mountain range and the Alyeska Resort is the largest ski area in the state, it includes the mountaintop Mt. Alyeska Roundhouse, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Alyeska Ski Corporation was founded in 1954, the first chairlift and day lodge were opened in 1959. The Roundhouse ski lodge and ski patrol station at the top of the mountain began construction in 1960, it is an octagonal building. Still standing, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as "Mt. Alyeska Roundhouse" in 2003, now houses a museum to local ski history. Alyeska has six chairlifts, one high-speed tram, two Magic Carpets. Of the 5 chairlifts, one is co-owned by the Tanaka Foundation. Chairs 6 and 4 are high-speed detachable quads, while 3 are normal quads. Chair 4 was updated to a high speed quad in 2012. Chair 1 was removed from service in the summer of 2017. Chair 4 ends halfway up the mountain.
The tram ends three-quarters of the way up the mountain. The interconnected buildings contain the Roundhouse, a much newer facility housing the upper tram terminal, a quick-service cafeteria, the Seven Glaciers 4-star restaurant and bar. At the base of the tram is the modern 300-room Hotel Alyeska. Chair 6 goes to the highest lift served point on the mountain at 2,750 feet. Several areas above Chair 6 are opened, but require hiking to access. Plans to build a new chair lift higher up the mountain have been announced. Mount Alyeska is a challenging mountain, has a much higher percentage of advanced and expert runs, as compared to most other mountains in North America, it has a small section for the novice, but the rest of the mountain is entirely for the intermediate and the advanced skiers. North: 35% West: 40% East: 0% South: 25% Alyeska hosted World Cup giant slalom ski races in 1973 for both men and women. Alyeska first hosted the U. S. Alpine Championships in 1963. American Olympic gold medalist Tommy Moe sharpened his racing skills at Alyeska as a teenager in the 1980s.
Alyeska was bought in December 2006 by John Byrne III, known for harassing and threatening guests that leave negative remarks on social media, who says he plans to make many improvements to the resort, concentrating on people who come to ski for the day. Some of the improvements were installing rfid gates at all of the lifts, taking the bubbles off chair 6, because they were vandalized, repainting the tram, building the only superpipe in Alaska. According to a statement issued October 9, 2018 by the resort's director of marketing, Eric Fullerton, Alyeska Resort has entered into a contract to sell "substantially all of its resort assets" to Pomeroy Lodging. Alyeska National Register of Historic Places listings in Anchorage, Alaska Official website Powder Tour Social Community - Member submitted Alyeska images
Hunting and fishing in Alaska
Hunting and fishing in Alaska are common both for recreation and subsistence. Alaska is a popular hunting destination. Hunters come from all over the world to hunt big game animals such as the brown bear, black bear and caribou. Mountain goat hunts are quickly becoming a rising interest to hunters; the reason as to why Alaska is such a popular hunting destination is because it is home to some of the world’s largest big game animals. Alaska’s species of brown bear and moose are the largest in the world. According to the Boone and Crockett Club, Alaska has a rich history of world record brown bear and caribou, taken by various hunters. Hunters are able to partake in an Alaskan hunt by obtaining hunting licenses and game tags, following the areas laws and regulations; the most common weapons among hunters are rifles, large handguns, bows. With a land area of 586,412 square miles, not counting the Aleutian islands, Alaska is one-fifth the size of lower 48 states, as Ken Schultz notes in his chapter on Alaska "Alaska is a bounty of more than 3,000 rivers, more than 3 million lakes, some 34,000 miles of coastal shoreline — numbers that stagger the imagination, underscore the wealth of opportunities for anglers, translate into some of North America’s premier fishing."
A greater percentage of Alaskans fish than residents of any other state. Alaska features several different types of fishing; the two most popular are halibut fishing. Homer claims the title of “halibut fishing capital of the world.” Other common types of fishing are deep sea fishing, fly fishing, ice fishing. Fishermen have a variety of fish that they can catch including: salmon, various species of trout, northern pike, arctic char, dolly varden, grayling. Alaska Fishing Licenses are required by law in Alaska for both non-residents. List of lakes in Alaska List of rivers in Alaska Aquaculture in Alaska