The Coosa River is a tributary of the Alabama River in the U. S. states of Georgia. The river is about 280 miles long; the Coosa River begins at the confluence of the Oostanaula and Etowah rivers in Rome and ends just northeast of the Alabama state capital, where it joins the Tallapoosa River to form the Alabama River just south of Wetumpka. Around 90% of the Coosa River's length is located in Alabama. Coosa County, Alabama, is located on the Coosa River; the Coosa is one of Alabama's most developed rivers. Most of the river has been impounded, with Alabama Power, a unit of the Southern Company, owning seven dams and powerhouses on the Coosa River; the dams produce hydroelectric power, but they are costly to some species endemic to the Coosa River. Native Americans had been living on the Coosa Valley for millennia before Hernando de Soto and his men became the first Europeans to visit it in 1540; the Coosa chiefdom was one of the most powerful chiefdoms in the southeast at the time. Over a century after the Spanish left the Coosa Valley, the British established strong trading ties with the Creek bands of the area around the late 17th century, much to the dismay of France.
With a base in Mobile, the French believed that the Coosa River was a key gateway to the entire South and they wanted to control the valley. The main transportation of the day was by boat; the convergence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers near present-day Montgomery forms the Alabama River, which has its mouth at Mobile Bay, the port used by the French for travel around the Caribbean and to France. They wanted to retain control of both the the Alabama rivers. In the early 18th century all European and Indian trade in the southeast ceased during the tribal uprisings brought on by the Yamasee War against the Carolinas. After a few years, the Indian trade system was resumed under somewhat reformed policies; the conflict between the French and English over the Coosa Valley, much of the southeast in general, continued. It was not after Britain had defeated France in the Seven Years' War that France relinquished its holdings east of the Mississippi River to Britain; this was stated in the Treaty of Paris signed by both nations in 1763.
By the end of the American Revolutionary War, the Coosa Valley was occupied in its lower portion by the Creek and in the upper portion by the Cherokee peoples, who had a settlement near its start in northwest Georgia. After the Fort Mims massacre near Mobile, General Andrew Jackson led American troops, along with Cherokee allies, against the Lower Creek in the Creek War; this culminated in the Creek defeat at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Afterward, the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814 forced the Creek to cede a large amount of land to the United States, but left them a reserve between the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers in northern Alabama. There the Creeks were encroached on by European-American settlers who had begun moving into their territory from the United States. During the 1820s and 1830s the Creek and all the southeastern Indians were removed to Indian Territory; the Cherokee removal is remembered as the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee capital city of New Echota was located on the headwater tributaries of the Coosa River, in Georgia, until the tribe's removal.
The Creek and Choctaw removals were similar to the Cherokee Trail of Tears. After the removals, the Coosa River valley and the southeast in general was wide open for American settlers; the cotton gin made short-staple cotton profitable to process, it was a new cotton hybrid that could be grown in the upland regions. The first river town to form in the Coosa Basin was at the foot of the last waterfall on the Coosa River, the "Devil's Staircase." Settlers soon adopted the native name Wetumpka for this new community. The Coosa River was an important transportation route into the early 20th century as a commercial waterway for riverboats along the upper section of the river for 200 miles south of Rome; however and waterfalls such the Devil's Staircase along the river's lowest 65 miles blocked the upper Coosa's riverboats from access to the Alabama River and the Gulf of Mexico. The building of the dams on the Coosa - Lay and Jordan — allowed Alabama Power to pioneer new methods of controlling and eliminating malaria, a major health issue in rural Alabama in the early 1900s.
So successful were their pioneering efforts in this area, that the Medical Division of the League of Nations visited Alabama to study the new methods during the construction of Mitchell Dam. For a time, the Popeye the Sailorman cartoons were inspired by Tom Sims, a Coosa River resident in Rome, Georgia, familiar with riverboat life and characters of the early 1900s; the following table describes the seven impoundments on the Coosa River from the south to north built by the Alabama Power Company as well as the tailwater section below Jordan Dam. Harvey H. Jackson III in a book Putting Loafing Streams To Work characterized the importance of the first Coosa River dams as follows: In the Middle Coosa River Watershed, 281 occurrences of rare plant and animal species and natural communities have been documented, including 73 occurrences of 23 species that are federal or state protected. Ten conservation targets were chosen: the riverine system, matrix forest communities, gray bat, riparian vegetation, mountain longleaf pine forest communities, red-cockaded woodpecker, critically imperiled aquatic species, southern hognose snake
The Satilla River rises in Ben Hill County, near the town of Fitzgerald, flows in a easterly direction to the Atlantic Ocean. Along its 235-mile course are the cities of Waycross and Woodbine; the Satilla drains 4,000 square miles of land, all of it in the coastal plain of southeastern Georgia. It has white sandbars and is the largest blackwater river situated within Georgia; the river derives its name from a Spanish officer named Saint Illa, over a period of time the name was merged to form the word Satilla. The name St. Illa River was in use alongside the name Satilla River in the early nineteenth century; the Satilla enters the Atlantic Ocean about 10 miles south of Brunswick, at the 31st parallel north. Satilla River Marsh Island is one of the few places in Georgia for observing nesting sites of brown pelicans. In May 2010, the city of Waycross purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States by Storm Water Systems.
Although the city has maintained a good standing with the Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Satilla River http://www.satillariver.com http://www.satillariverkeeper.org/ Georgia's Coast in photographs and more Bandalong Litter Trap Installed Waycross, Georgia Takes Bold Step in Pollution Control for Satilla River
Lake Sinclair is a man-made lake in central Georgia near Milledgeville. It is operated by Georgia Power. Located in the central region of Georgia, on the Oconee River, Lake Sinclair stretches through the counties of Baldwin and Putnam. Lake Sinclair was created in 1953. With 417 miles of scenic shoreline, winding coves and inlets as well as several vast stretches of open water, Lake Sinclair offers recreational boating pleasure; the lake provides both electricity and recreation. Milledgeville, Georgia, is the largest city on Lake Sinclair, though most of the lake is located in Putnam County. Lake Sinclair is used by lake residents and people who live and house their boats, watercraft and RVs on the lake. There is easy access to the water with two public boat ramps provided by Georgia Power. There are marinas and boat storage areas located on the lake. Other areas of access to the lake includes Oconee Springs Park. Lake Sinclair is the site of several fishing tournaments—both local and national—and attracts fishermen of various skill levels and interest.
Visitors find fall and winter fishing at Lake Sinclair a special treat due to the mild climate and activity. There is a popular fishing area below the dam near Milledgeville. Several recreation areas, such as Oconee Springs Park and Rocky Creek Park, provide day-use facilities that include picnic tables, boat ramp and a small beach. There is camping and cabin rentals provided at Oconee Springs Park, but not Rocky Creek Park. Lake Sinclair was created in 1953 when the waters of the Oconee river were dammed to create a 45,000-kilowatt hydroelectric generating station. Development of this lake as a recreational area began through a planned cooperative program. Participants included the Oconee Area Planning and Development Commission, the U. S. Forest Service, The Georgia Game and Fish Commission, Georgia Power Company and several independent businesses. Lake Sinclair is fed by several creeks and rivers, including Beaver Dam, Rooty, Sandy Run, Shoulder Bone, Island, Nancy Branch, Reedy Branch, Little River.
The lake has 417 miles of shoreline with a maximum depth of 86 feet. The Sinclair dam is 100 feet high and 2,800 feet long
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Clay County, Georgia
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,183, making it the fifth-least populous county in Georgia; the county seat is Fort Gaines. This area was occupied by the Creek Indians until Indian Removal in the 1830s. European Americans pushed them out and developed the land for cotton, bringing in thousands of African slaves to work the land; the county is named in honor of Henry Clay, famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky and United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Part of what became the Black Belt of Georgia, prior to the American Civil War the county's chief commodity crop was cotton and processed by farmers and African-American slaves. After the war, the economy continued to be agricultural, but timber was harvested. Clay was created by a February 16, 1854, act of the Georgia General Assembly, organized from portions of Early and Randolph counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 217 square miles, of which 195 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water.
The central and southwestern portions of Clay County, from west of Bluffton to northwest of Coleman, are located in the Lower Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. The county's northwestern corner, bisected by State Route 39 running north from Fort Gaines, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. Just the southeastern corner of Clay County is located in the Spring Creek sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. U. S. Route 27 State Route 1 State Route 37 State Route 39 State Route 266 Quitman County - north Randolph County - northeast Calhoun County - east Early County - south Henry County, Alabama - west Barbour County, Alabama - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,183 people, 1,331 households, 869 families residing in the county; the population density was 16.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,102 housing units at an average density of 10.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.4% black or African American, 37.6% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 3.3% were American. Of the 1,331 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 22.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $26,250 and the median income for a family was $31,354. Males had a median income of $29,440 versus $23,816 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,353. About 25.5% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 56.7% of those under age 18 and 16.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,357 people, 1,347 households, 928 families residing in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile.
There were 1,925 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.47% Black or African American, 38.43% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,347 households out of which 25.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.70% were married couples living together, 23.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 21.00% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 83.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $21,448, the median income for a family was $27,837. Males had a median income of $26,557 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,819. About 28.10% of families and 31.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.40% of those under age 18 and 23.90% of those age 65 or over. Bluffton Fort Gaines Oketeyeconne National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Georgia Georgia Snapshots - Clay County GeorgiaInfo Clay County Courthouse history Official Website of Clay County Georgia Clay County historical marker New Lowell United Methodist Church historical marker