Trione-Annadel State Park
Trione-Annadel State Park is a state park of California in the United States. It is situated at the northern edge of Sonoma Valley and is adjacent to Spring Lake Regional Park in Santa Rosa, it offers many recreational activities within its 5,092-acre property. The rock formations of Trione-Annadel have played central role in its history: its volcanic origins, the Native American use of obsidian, the early 1900s mining of cobblestones, modern hikers' appreciation of its volcanic rock outcrops; these lands were occupied by the Wappo and Pomo people in prehistoric times, who would have inhabited the riparian zones and the marsh perimeter. Annadel includes what some biologists consider the best example of undisturbed northern oak woodlands in existence. Visitors can enjoy the park's diverse wildlife and scenery during any time of the year but are most rewarded from April through June when most wildflowers are in bloom. Plant communities include California oak woodland, riparian woodland, Douglas fir forest, chaparral and marsh.
The dominant plant community is the oak woodland, which has a canopy of coast live oak, Garry oak, black oak, Pacific madrone, bigleaf maple, California laurel. Canyon live oak occurs in creeks. In the oak woodlands, the dominant understory plants are native bunchgrasses, wild blackberry, coyote brush, western poison-oak; the latter covers nearly one quarter of the understory in the park. Douglas fir occurs on north-facing slopes. Common animals in Annadel include black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, raccoon and opossum. Bobcat and mountain lion are observed. There are many bird species, including the California scrub jay, Steller's jay, acorn woodpecker, black phoebe, dark-eyed junco. In moist areas, amphibians such as the rough-skinned newt can be found; the southern reaches of Annadel are drained by Yulupa Creek and other tributaries of Sonoma Creek, while the northern flanks are part of the Santa Rosa Creek watershed. Eastern slopes are drained by Yulupa and Sonoma Creeks, while the western slopes are part of the Spring Creek watershed.
Many of Annadel's streams are dry in the summer, because rainfall is seasonal, with most of the 30 inches of annual precipitation occurring between October and April. Ledson Marsh, which drains into Yulupa Creek, retains some smaller pools of water throughout most of the year; the highest elevation in the park is the top of 1,887 feet. The entirety of Annadel was below the ocean floor as as twelve million years ago, around which time massive uplift and volcanic action formed the massif which comprises the park of today. Elevations in Annadel range from about 360 to 1,880 feet above sea level. Slopes within Annadel range from 15 to 30 percent, but it is not uncommon to encounter slopes up to 70 percent on steep slopes above drainages which are covered in douglas fir forest. One of the major soil associations within the park is Goulding cobbly clay loam, which contains 25 percent cobblestones with some basaltic exposures, evidence of the volcanic origins of the Sonoma Mountains. Typical soil depths are 35 to 50 centimetres.
Much of the soil type in the Yulupa Creek riparian zone consists of Laniger loam, with rhyolite outcrops, another relic of the igneous history. The Southern Pomo and Southern Wappo peoples inhabited these lands in prehistoric times. No full-scale villages have been discovered within the park boundaries; this site was valuable to the Native American tribes as a source of obsidian, which they used to make scrapers, knives and spearheads. Archaeological evidence suggests. Human use and settlement of this area changed markedly in the late 18th century when the Spanish came to this region. Cattle ranching and farming replaced the prehistoric tribal hunting and gathering. In 1837, Annadel was part of the Rancho Los Guilicos Mexican land grant. In 1848 the lands of Annadel were purchased by Scottish immigrant William Hood, for whom nearby Hood Mountain was named. In the late 19th century and cattle grazing was superseded by quarry uses. There was considerable demand for cobblestone material when many west coast cities were being developed, in the reconstruction of San Francisco after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
Cobblestone quarry operations were a major source of revenue to the Wymores and the Hutchinsons who were the principal land owners in this area around the year 1900. The park derives its name from Annie Hutchinson, since this locale was once termed "Annie's Dell". In the early 1900s, author Jack London settled nearby in these same Sonoma Mountains, he based much of his writings on these mountains that he loved. Demand for cobblestone subsided around the year 1920, since owners of the newly invented automobile expected a smoother ride than that derived from cobblestone streets. Joe Coney began to accumulate land holdings in this area during the 1930s, he used the land for agricultural purposes until the late 1960s, though he mined perlite, an obsidian product used in the manufacture of certain insulation products. Annadel became part of the California State Park system in the year 1971; the site of what became Trione-Annadel was being eyed for residential development when Henry Trione and hunting buddy Joe Long of Long’s Drugs put together a $5 million package that led to the site’s protection as a park.
Trione built his home on the hillside adjacent to Annadel. In 2012, he pitched in another $100,000 to keep the park running under county administration at a time when Annadel and dozens of other parks statewide were thre
Santa Rosa Creek Reservoir
Santa Rosa Creek Reservoir is a reservoir in Spring Lake Regional Park in the city of Santa Rosa, California, USA. It is impounded by an earthen dam owned by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Lake Ralphine List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area List of reservoirs and dams in California List of Sonoma County Regional Parks facilities
Santa Rosa, California
Santa Rosa is a city in and the county seat of Sonoma County, in California's Wine Country. Its estimated 2016 population was 175,155. Santa Rosa is Wine Country and the North Bay. Santa Rosa was named after Saint Rose of Lima. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Santa Rosa Plain was home to a strong and populous tribe of Pomo natives known as the Bitakomtara; the Bitakomtara controlled the area barring passage to others until permission was arranged. Those who entered without permission were subject to harsh penalties; the tribe gathered at ceremonial times on Santa Rosa Creek near present-day Spring Lake Regional Park. Upon the arrival of Europeans, the Pomos were decimated by smallpox brought from Europe, by the eradication efforts of Anglo settlers. By 1900 the Pomo population had decreased by 95%; the first known permanent European settlement of Santa Rosa was the homestead of the Carrillo family, in-laws to Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who settled the Sonoma pueblo and Petaluma area. In the 1830s, during the Mexican period, the family of María López de Carrillo built an adobe house on their Rancho Cabeza de Santa Rosa land grant, just east of what became downtown Santa Rosa.
However, by the 1820s, before the Carrillos built their adobe in the 1830s, Spanish and Mexican settlers from nearby Sonoma and other settlements to the south raised livestock in the area and slaughtered animals at the fork of the Santa Rosa Creek and Matanzas Creek, near the intersection of modern-day Santa Rosa Avenue and Sonoma Avenue. This is the origin of the name of Matanzas Creek as, because of its use as a slaughtering place, the confluence came to be called La Matanza. By the 1850s, a Wells Fargo post and general store were established in what is now downtown Santa Rosa. In the mid-1850s, several prominent locals, including Julio Carrillo, son of Maria Carrillo, laid out the grid street pattern for Santa Rosa with a public square in the center, a pattern which remains as the street pattern for downtown Santa Rosa to this day, despite changes to the central square, now called Old Courthouse Square. In 1867, the county recognized Santa Rosa as an incorporated city and in 1868 the state confirmed the incorporation, making it the third incorporated city in Sonoma County, after Petaluma, incorporated in 1858, Healdsburg, incorporated in 1867.
The U. S. Census records, among others, show that after California became a state, Santa Rosa grew early on, despite lagging behind nearby Petaluma in the 1850s and early 1860s. According to the U. S. Census, in 1870 Santa Rosa was the eighth largest city in California, county seat of one of the most populous counties in the state. Growth and development after, steady but never rapid; the city continued to grow when other early population centers declined or stagnated, but by 1900 it was being overtaken by many other newer population centers in the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. According to a 1905 article in the Press Democrat newspaper reporting on the "Battle of the Trains", the city had just over 10,000 people at the time; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed the entire downtown, but the city's population did not suffer. However, after that period the population growth of Santa Rosa, as with most of the area, was slow. Famed director Alfred Hitchcock filmed his thriller Shadow of a Doubt in Santa Rosa in 1943.
Many of the downtown buildings seen in the film no longer exist due to major reconstruction following the strong earthquakes in October 1969. However, like the rough-stone Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot and the prominent Empire Building, still survive. A scene at the bank was filmed at the corner of Fourth Mendocino Avenue. However, the courthouse and bank are now gone; the Coen brothers' 2001 film The Man Who Wasn't There is set in Santa Rosa c. 1949. Santa Rosa grew following World War II because it was the location for Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Santa Rosa, the remnants of which are now located in southwest Santa Rosa; the city was a convenient location for San Francisco travelers bound for the Russian River. The population increased by 2/3 between 1950 and 1970, an average of 1,000 new residents a year over the 20 years; some of the increase was from immigration, some from annexation of portions of the surrounding area. In 1958 the United States Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization designated Santa Rosa as one of its eight regional headquarters, with jurisdiction over Region 7, which included American Samoa, California, Hawaii and Utah.
Santa Rosa continued as a major center for civil defense activity until 1979 when the Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in its place, ending the civil defense's 69-year history. When the City Council adopted the city's first modern General Plan in 1991, the population was about 113,000. In the 21 years following 1970, Santa Rosa grew by about 3,000 residents a year—triple the average growth during the previous twenty years. Santa Rosa 2010, the 1991 General Plan, called for a population of 175,000 in 2010; the Council expanded the city's urban boundary to include all the land planned for future annexation, declared it would be Santa Rosa's "ultimate" boundary. Th
Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering and honoring persons who have died while serving in the United States Armed Forces. The holiday, observed every year on the last Monday of May, was most held on May 28, 2018. Memorial Day was observed on May 30 from 1868 to 1970. Memorial Day is considered the unofficial start of the summer vacation season in the United States, while Labor Day marks its end on the first Monday of September. In Canada, Victoria Day is a public holiday observed on a Monday one week before Memorial Day and indicates the start of summer. Many people visit cemeteries and memorials on Memorial Day to honor those who died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries. Two other days celebrate those who serve or have served in the U. S. military: Veterans Day, which celebrates the service of all U. S. military veterans. S. remembrance celebrated earlier in May honoring those serving in the U. S. military.
The history of Memorial Day in the United States is so controversial that it constitutes an area of research. At Columbus State University there is a Center for Memorial Day Research. It, together with the University of Mississippi's Center for Civil War Research, are excellent starting points for investigating the topic; the practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U. S. before and during the American Civil War. Some believe that an annual cemetery decoration practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the "memorial day" idea. Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are still held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors, as well as those who died more are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles.
People gather, put flowers on graves, renew contacts with relatives and others. There is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds", the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church. On June 3, 1861, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906. In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers' graves according to the Savannah Republican; the 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, was a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. Some have therefore claimed. On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers' graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, yet the principal grave they claim to have decorated was of a man, not dead yet. Nonetheless, Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day. In April 1865, following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination, commemorations were widespread; the more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance.
Under the leadership of women during the war, an formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead. On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp. Historian David W. Blight cites contemporary news reports of this incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Although Blight claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina", in 2012, Blight stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, investigators for Time Magazine, LiveScience, RealClearLife and Snopes have called this conclusion into question. In 1868, copying the Southern annual observance of the previous three years, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, established Decoration Day as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers.
By the 20th century, various Union and Confederate memorial traditions, celebrated on different days and Memorial Day extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service. On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an "official" birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title; this action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York. The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined. Snopes and Live Science discredit the Waterloo account. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide. With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.
The first Northern Memorial Day was observed on May 30, 1868. One author claims that the date wa
Spring Creek (Sonoma County, California)
Spring Creek, in Sonoma County, California, is a 6.0-mile-long stream that rises in the northern part of the Sonoma Mountains within Annadel State Park, draining the western slopes of Taylor Mountain and feeding into Matanzas Creek below the Matanzas Creek Reservoir. The waters of Spring Creek reach the Pacific Ocean just south of Jenner, California, by way of Matanzas Creek, Santa Rosa Creek, the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Mark West Creek, the Russian River. Lake Ralphine List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Pomo people Spring Lake Regional Park
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878, its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the south of Mendocino County, it is west of Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is the northwesternmost county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa and Lake counties, it possesses thirteen approved over 250 wineries. In 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production; as early as 1920, Sonoma County was ranked as the eighth most agriculturally productive US county and a leading producer of hops, prunes and dairy and poultry products due to the extent of available, fertile agricultural land in addition to the abundance of high quality irrigation water.
More than 7.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Santa Rosa Junior College. Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use and resource management of this region. Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007: grapes and pasturage; the voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, between 8000 and 5000 BC living within the natural carrying capacity of the land. Archaeological evidence of these First people includes a number of occurrences of rock carvings in southern Sonoma County. Spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland.
The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County, with the Russian-American Company establishing Fort Ross on the Sonoma Coast in 1812. This settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento; the Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, at the northern end of El Camino Real. El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, his duties included keeping an eye on the Russian traders at Fort Ross, secularizing the Mission, maintaining cooperation with the Native Americans of the entire region, doling out the lands for large estates and ranches. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846.
Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, Sonoma had declined in importance in both commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, it was remote; as a result, elements in the newer growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Healdsburg began vying to move the county seat to their towns. The dispute was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa; the fate was decided following an election for the state legislature in which James Bennett of Santa Rosa defeated Joseph Hooker of Sonoma and introduced a bill that resulted in Santa Rosa being confirmed as county seat in 1854. Several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, brought them to Santa Rosa; some of the county's land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860.
Early post-1847 settlement and development focused on the city of Sonoma the region's sole town and a common transit and resting point in overland travel between the region and Sacramento and the gold fields to the east. However, after 1850, a settlement that soon became the city of Petaluma began to grow near the farthest navigable point inland up the Petaluma River. A hunting camp used to obtain game to sell in other markets, by 1854 Petaluma had grown into a bustling center of trade, taking advantage of its position in the river near a region of productive agricultural land, being settled. Soon, other inland towns, notably Santa Rosa and Healdsburg began to develop due to their locations along riparian areas in prime agricultural flatland. However, their development lagged behind Petaluma which, until the arrival of railroads in the 1860s, remained the primary commercial and break-of-bulk point for people and goods in the region. After the arrival of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad in 1870, Santa Rosa began to boom, soon equalling and surpassing Petaluma as the region's population and commercial center.
The railroad bypassed Petaluma for southern connections to ferries of San Francisco Bay. Six nations have claimed Sonoma County fro