National Bison Range
The National Bison Range is a National Wildlife Refuge located in western Montana established in 1908 to provide a sanctuary for the American bison. The NBR is one of the oldest National Wildlife Refuges in the United States; the size of the bison herd at the NBR is small, numbering between 350 and 500 individuals. The initial herd of American bison was provided by organizations such as the American Bison Society, today the refuge serves as the central point for bison research in the United States; the NBR consists of 18,800 acres and is managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Other nearby National Wildlife Refuges are managed as parts of the National Bison Range Complex and include the Lost Trail, Ninepipe and the Swan River National Wildlife Refuges. Affiliated is the Northwest Montana Wetland Management District; the NBR has a visitor center, two scenic roads that allow vehicular access to prime viewing areas. The refuge is one hour north of Missoula, Montana with signs off of U. S. Highway 93 directing visitors to the entrance at Moiese and the refuge headquarters.
The National Bison Range was established in 1908. The Civilian Conservation Corps built many of its buildings. Ernie Kraft, who began work at the Bison Range in 1955, published a history of the Bison Range and its people in 2006. A well-known white buffalo, "Whitey", spent his life at the Bison Range; the Refuge is a small, low-rolling mountain connected to the Mission Mountain Range by a descending spur. Range elevation varies from 2,585 feet at headquarters to 4,885 feet at High Point on Red Sleep Mountain, the highest point on the Range. Much of the National Bison Range was once under prehistoric Glacial Lake Missoula, formed by a glacial ice dam on the Clark Fork River about 13,000 to 18,000 years ago; the lake attained a maximum elevation of 4,200 feet, so the upper part of the Refuge was above water. Old beach lines are still evident on north-facing slopes. Topsoil on the Range is shallow and underlain with rock, exposed in many areas, forming ledges and talus slopes. Soils over the major portion of the Range were developed from materials weathered from folded pre-Cambrian quartzite and argillite bedrock.
Once believed to number in the tens of millions, bison once were found in all the current U. S. states, except Hawaii, throughout Canada. Bison were nearly extinct by 1890, having been part of a Federal government sponsored program of eradication during the Indian Wars, thereby removing a vital food source from the Plains Indians diet, ensuring easier relocation onto Indian reservations. Bison were considered to be a less desirable food source than domesticated cattle because of their wild nature, they were viewed as competition for prime grazing lands that could be used by cattle. By the beginning of the 20th century efforts were being made to preserve the remaining bison and protect areas in which they could reconstitute. 250,000 bison can be found on federal and state lands, in owned herds. Bison have an average of 60 % of the fat content per pound of more protein. Most of the private herds are used as a food source. Bison meat is gaining in popularity and found in grocery stores and restaurants.
In addition to the 350 to 500 bison on the National Bison Range, many other mammal species may be seen on the refuge, including coyote, black bear, mule deer, bighorn sheep, white-tailed deer, mountain cottontail, Columbian ground squirrel, yellow-pine chipmunk and cougar. Over two hundred bird species have been seen on the refuge; the National Bison Range contains many plant species, including the bitterroot, ponderosa pine, buffalo grass
Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site
The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, created in 1972, commemorates the Western cattle industry from its 1850s inception through recent times. The original ranch was established in 1862 by a Canadian fur trader, Johnny Grant, at Cottonwood Creek, along the banks of the Clark Fork river; the ranch was expanded by a cattle baron, Conrad Kohrs. The 1,618 acres historic site is maintained today as a working ranch by the National Park Service. Johnny Francis Grant was born at Fort Edmonton, Canada, his mother died when he was only three years old, so he was sent to Trois-Rivières, Quebec, to be raised by his grandmother. His father, Captain Richard Grant, was a Hudson's Bay Company employee, therefore, in his mid-teens, he left for Fort Hall, Idaho, to meet up with his father. There he learned the trading business. However, in the 1840s the fur trade was dying out, so Johnny Grant and his brother James turned to trading with emigrants traveling west along the Oregon Trail, he made a considerable profit by trading travelers one healthy cow or horse for two trail-wearied ones.
He fed and rested the tired animals and the following season traded them again. This is. Grant started using the Deer Lodge Valley in 1857 to graze his cattle during the winter along the banks of the Clark Fork river near Cottonwood creek. In 1859 he decided to permanently locate a ranch and constructed a permanent residence in 1862, he convinced traders to settle around him. Johnny was successful, but found that when gold miners arrived in the area, he was at a disadvantage, because he spoke French and the newcomers spoke English, he felt that he could no longer be successful in the area. In August 1866, he sold his ranch to a cattle baron, Conrad Kohrs, for $19,200 and returned to Canada. Conrad Kohrs was born on August 5, 1835, in Wewelsfleth, in Holstein province, a part of the German Confederation. At the age of 22, he became a citizen of the United States, he went to California during the gold rush days. He moved on to Canada and arrived at the gold camps of Montana in 1862, he never struck gold.
Kohrs built his cattle operation until he owned 50,000 head of cattle and had grazing pasture of 10 million acres. However, he had a setback when the severe winter of 1886–1887 left over half the cattle population in the northwest dead. Most cattlemen went bankrupt, but Kohrs managed to receive a 100,000 dollar loan from his banker, A. J. Davis. While the open range era was ending, Kohrs adapted and was able to pay off the loan in only four years. Kohrs and his half-brother, John Bielenberg, turned to more modern methods of ranching, including buying purebred breeding stock, fencing his rangeland and raising and storing fodder, his became known as "Montana's Cattle King." Bielenberg helped Kohrs to run the Grant-Kohrs ranch. He came to Montana at age 18 in 1864 to help with the butcher shop that served the mining camps. Bielenberg had a lot to do with the horse side of the Grant-Kohrs ranch, he bred what were called the "Big Circle" horses, reputed to be able to cover twenty miles of country in a half a day.
Together and Kohrs made a most successful team for over half a century. The winter of 1886–1887 was one of the harshest on record in Montana. Ranchers using the open range for their herds lost upwards of 90% of their cattle to brutal cold and lack of feed. In Eastern Montana, temperatures hovered at 30–40 degrees below zero for weeks on end; the summer of 1887 witnesses a great many ranchers in Montana go out of business. In the 1960s, the National Park Service, under the leadership of Director Conrad Wirth, reenergized the search for historic properties under the auspices of the Historic Sites Act of 1935 and Mission 66; the original Grant-Kohrs ranch was among several other ranches which were recommended for National Historic Landmark status. Con Warren wanted to sell the Grant-Kohrs portion of his ranch to the National Park Service as a historic landmark. In 1970 an agreement to sell the property to the park service was achieved with the proviso that it would be managed as a living ranch by the National Park Service.
The original purchase involved 130 acres of the active Warren Hereford Ranch. In December 1970, the National Park Foundation acquired an additional 1,180 acres of the ranch allowing the National Park Service to take administrative control of the site. In August 1972, the U. S. Congress authorized the establishment of Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site to provide an understanding of the frontier cattle era of the Nation’s history, to preserve the Grant-Kohrs Ranch, to interpret the nationally significant values thereof for the benefit and inspiration of future generations. In 1972 the National Park Foundation transferred ownership of its portions of the site to the National Park Service; the site was administered under the jurisdiction of Yellowstone National Park. In 1972 the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Throughout the 1970s, the National Park Service continued to acquire acreage from Conrad Warren, rehabilitate elements of the ranch and provide improvements for visitation to include a visitor center, interpretive trails and access for the public.
In 1974 the site became an independently operating unit of the National Park Service with its own superintendent and budget
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
War Horse National Wildlife Refuge
War Horse National Wildlife Refuge, located in the center of the U. S. state of Montana, is divided into three separate sections, with each centered on a small body of water. It is an integral part of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge Complex, although the refuge is unstaffed and has few visitor improvements. One reservoir is stocked with rainbow trout; when the lakes and reservoir are filled, the refuge provides excellent habitat for migratory bird species. The region is surrounded by sagebrush plains and Ponderosa pine groves that flourish in the region due to its acid-shale soils. Along with over 100 bird species, regular inhabitants include Sage Grouse and mule deer. War Horse National Wildlife Refuge
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
The yellow perch referred to as perch, is a freshwater perciform fish native to much of North America. The yellow perch was described in 1814 by Samuel Latham Mitchill from New York, it is related, morphologically similar to the European perch. Other common names for yellow perch include American perch, lake perch, raccoon perch, ring-tail perch, ringed perch, striped perch. Another nickname for the perch is the Dodd fish. Latitudinal variability in age, growth rates, size have been observed among populations of yellow perch resulting from differences in day length and annual water temperatures. In many populations, yellow perch live 9 to 10 years, with adults ranging from 4 to 10 in in length; the world record yellow perch was caught in 1865 in New Jersey, is the longest-standing record for freshwater fish in North America. The yellow perch has a yellow and brass-colored body and distinct pattern, consisting of five to nine olive-green, vertical bars, triangular in shape, on each side, its fins are lighter with an orange hue on the margins.
The body is laterally compressed. The anterior portion of the body is deep tapering into a slender caudal peduncle; the opercle is scaled, a single spine is present on the posterior margin. As with all percid fishes, yellow perch have two dorsal fins; the anterior consists of 11 -- 15 spines. The posterior dorsal fin has a straight margin, consisting of 12 -- 16 rays; the nape and belly of yellow perch are all scaled. A complete lateral line is present; the anal fin consists of six to nine rays. A single spine and five rays make up the pelvic fins, the pectoral fins consist of 13–15 rays; the caudal fin of the yellow perch is forked. Yellow perch are only found in North America. In Canada, its native range extends throughout Nova Quebec north to the Mackenzie River, it is common in the northwest to Great Slave Lake and west into Alberta. It is not native to any other areas of Canada. In the United States, the native range extends south into Ohio and Illinois, throughout most of the northeastern United States.
It is considered native to the Atlantic Slope basin, extending south to the Savannah River. The yellow perch has been introduced for sport and commercial fishing purposes, it has been introduced to establish a forage base for bass and walleye. These introductions were predominantly performed by the U. S. Fish Commission in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, unauthorized introductions have occurred from illegal introductions, dispersal through connected waterways, use as live bait. Isolated populations now occur in southwest portions of the United States; the yellow perch has not been introduced outside of North America. Introductions in Canada have been less intense than in the United States. Yellow perch reach sexual maturity in 2–3 years for males and 3–4 years for females, they are iteroparous, spawning annually in the spring when water temperatures are between 2.0 and 18.6 °C. Spawning is communal and occurs at night. Yellow perch are oviparous. Eggs are laid in a gelatinous strand, a characteristic unique among North American freshwater fishes.
Egg strands are draped over weeds, the branches of submerged trees or shrubs, or some other structure. Eggs hatch in 11–27 days, depending on temperature and other abiotic factors, they are found in the littoral zones of both large and small lakes, but they inhabit slow-moving rivers and streams, brackish waters, ponds. Yellow perch reside in shallow water, but are found deeper than 15 m or on the bottom. In the northern waters, perch tend to grow at a slower rate. Females in general are larger, grow faster, live longer, mature in 3-4 years compared to males, which mature in 2-3 years at a smaller size. Most research has showed the maximum age to be about 9–10 years, with a few living past 11 years; the preferred temperature range for the yellow perch is 17 to 25 °C, with an optimum range of 21 to 24 °C and a lethal limit in upwards of 33 °C and a stress limit over 26 °C. Yellow perch spawn once a year in spring using large schools and shallow areas of a lake or low-current tributary streams, they do not build a nest.
Spawning takes place at night or in the early morning. Females have the potential to spawn up to eight times in their lifetimes. A small aquaculture industry in the US Midwest contributes about 90,800 kg of yellow perch annually, but the aquaculture is not expanding rapidly; the yellow perch is crucial to the survival of the walleye and largemouth bass in its range. Cormorants feed on yellow perch in early spring, but over the entire season, only 10% of their diets is perch. Cormorants and anglers combined harvest 40% of 1- and 2-year-old yellow perch and 25% of the adult yellow perch population in Lake Michigan. Total annual mortality of adult yellow perch has not changed since cormorant colonization. Yellow perch is recognized by its dark vertical stripes and gold or yellow body color. Perca is derived from early Greek for "perch" and flavescens is Latin for "becoming gold" or "yellow colored". Adult sizes range from 3.9–11.4 in (10–30