Berkeley County, West Virginia
Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. The county is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population was 104,169, making it the second-most populous of West Virginia's 55 counties, behind Kanawha. The City of Martinsburg is the county seat. Created on May 15, 1772 by an act of House of Burgesses from the northern third of Frederick County when it was part of Virginia, Berkeley County became West Virginia's second oldest county after the Mountain State was admitted to the Union in 1863 during the American Civil War. At the time of the county's formation, Berkeley County comprised areas that now are part of present-day Jefferson and Morgan counties in West Virginia. Most historians believe the county was named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, Colonial Governor of Virginia from 1768 to 1770. West Virginia's Blue Book, for example, indicates, he served as a colonel in England's North Gloucestershire militia in 1761, represented that division of the county in parliament until he was made a peer in 1764.
Having incurred heavy gambling debts, he solicited a government appointment and in July 1768, was made governor of Virginia. In 1769, he reluctantly dissolved the House of Burgesses after it adopted resolutions opposing parliament's replacement of requisitions with parliamentary taxes as a means of generating revenue and a requirement the colonists send accused criminals to England for trial. Despite his differences with the House of Burgesses, Berkeley was well respected by the colonists after he sent Parliament letters encouraging it to repeal the taxes; when Parliament refused to rescind them, Governor Berkeley requested to be recalled. In appreciation of his efforts, the colonists erected a monument to his memory which stands in Williamsburg, two counties were named in his honor: Berkeley in present-day West Virginia and Botetourt in Virginia. Other historians claim Berkeley County may have been named in honor of Sir William Berkeley, born near London, graduated from Oxford University in 1629 and was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642.
He served as Governor until 1652 and was reappointed Governor in 1660. Berkeley presided over the colony during Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, was called back to England the following year. According to missionary reports, several thousand Hurons occupied present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle region, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. During the 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Hurons from the state; the Iroquois Confederacy was headquartered in New York and was not interested in occupying present-day West Virginia. Instead, they used it as a hunting ground during the summer months. During the early 18th century, West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region was inhabited by the Tuscarora, they migrated northward into New York and, in 1712, became the sixth nation to be formally admitted into the Iroquois Confederacy. The Eastern Panhandle region was used as a hunting ground by several other Indian tribes, including the Shawnee who resided near present-day Winchester and Moorefield, West Virginia until 1754 when they migrated into Ohio.
The Mingo, who resided in the Tygart Valley and along the Ohio River in present-day West Virginia's Northern Panhandle region, the Delaware, who lived in present-day eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, but had several autonomous settlements as far south as present-day Braxton County used the area as a hunting ground. Following the French and Indian War, the Mingo retreated to their homes along the banks of the Ohio River and were seen in the Eastern Panhandle region. Although the French and Indian War was over, many Indians continued to view the British as a threat to their sovereignty and continued to fight them. In the summer of 1763, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led raids on key British forts in the Great Lakes region. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua known as Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements, starting with attacks in present-day Greenbrier County and extending northward to Berkeley Springs, into the northern Shenandoah Valley. By the end of July, Indians had destroyed or captured all British forts west of the Alleghenies except Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, Fort Niagara.
The uprisings were ended on August 6, 1763 when British forces, under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet, defeated Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania. During the American Revolutionary War, the Mingo and Shawnee, headquartered at Chillicothe, allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry, near present-day Wheeling. Nearly half of the soldiers manning the fort were killed in the three-day assault; the Indians left the area celebrating their victory. For the remainder of the war, smaller raiding parties of Mingo and other Indian tribes terrorized settlers throughout northern and eastern West Virginia; as a result, European settlement throughout present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle, came to a virtual standstill until the war's conclusion. Following the war, the Mingo and Shawnee, once again allied with the losing side, returned to their homes; as the number of settlers in present-day West Virginia began to grow, both the Mingo and Shawnee moved further inland, leaving their traditional hunting ground to the white settlers.
In 1670, John Lederer, a German physician and explorer employed by S
Tomahawk, West Virginia
Tomahawk is an unincorporated community on Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia. The community is named for a nearby series of springs in the shape of a tomahawk; the community includes the historic Tomahawk Presbyterian Church, established c. 1745, its adjacent community cemetery, which has gravestones dating to the late 18th century. Tomahawk Spring and the Park's Gap Bridge were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994. Brief History of the Tomahawk Presbyterian Church
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Shanghai, West Virginia
Shanghai is an unincorporated community in Berkeley County, West Virginia. The town is nestled in Back Creek Valley between Leading North Mountain. Shanghai lies at the junction of West Virginia Secondary Route 7 and Secondary Route 18; the community was named after the Shanghai Manufacturing Association. The Baldwin-Grantham House in Shanghai is a historic home listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Hedgesville, West Virginia
Hedgesville is a town in Berkeley County, West Virginia, in the state's Eastern Panhandle region. The population was 318 at the 2010 census. In addition to its legal definition, Hedgesville has come to be the common name for the large and sparsely inhabited area of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle bordered by the Potomac River to the North and East, a southern border defined by an imaginary line from the city of Martinsburg to the tip of Virginia, Berkeley Springs to the West. Established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on February 11, 1836, the Town of Hedgesville was laid out in 1832 along the old Warm Springs Road and named for the prominent local Hedges family. In 1854, Hedgesville was incorporated by the General Assembly; the act of incorporation provided for a town council consisting of seven trustees, but the act was amended in 1858 so that a mayor could be added to the council. Hedgesville is a National Register Historic District. Prior to that, in the 18th Century, it was home to the Tuscarora people.
On August 17, 2004, President George W. Bush made a re-election campaign stop and photo-op at Hedgesville High School. Hedgesville is located at 39°33′15″N 77°59′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.13 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 318 people, 119 households, 82 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,446.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 1,038.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.3% White, 5.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.6% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 119 households, of which 46.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 21.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families. 16.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the town was 31.2 years. 29.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 240 people, 88 households, 65 families residing in the town; the population density was 772.2/km². There were 99 housing units at an average density of 816.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.08% White, 3.75% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.42% Pacific Islander, 3.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 88 households, of which 43.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 20.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the town, the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 75.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,375, the median income for a family was $46,563. Males had a median income of $31,042 versus $21,985 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,772. About 2.8% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 9.7% of those sixty five or over. Gale Catlett, American basketball player and coach David O'Brien Martin, former US Congressman Andy Boarman and Folk musician 4. Https://www.gutenberg.org/files/15263/15263-h/15263-h.htm The Underground Railroad, by William Still, digitized online. Corporation of Hedgesville Website
Darkesville, West Virginia
Darkesville is an unincorporated community in Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States. Established in 1791, Darkesville has been nationally recognized as a historic district. A post office and school once operated in Darkesville. Darkesville lies between Inwood and Martinsburg along U. S. Route 11; the community's elevation is 531 feet, it is located at about 39°22′25″N 78°1′30″W. Middle Creek flows through the center of Darkesville. Established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on December 7, 1791 on the property of James Buckells, Darkesville is named for William Darke, a Virginia military officer who had his headquarters in the community. Darkesville has been known by various names and a wide variety of spellings. An 1895 atlas showed the community as "Buckletown", variants included "Buckellstown", "Buckels Town", "Buckelstown", "Buckle Town" and "Bucklestown", all referring to the entrepreneurial James Buckles who contributed land and laid out the town in 1790. "James Town" and "Locke" have been applied to the community.
Its current name has been spelled "Darkes" and "Darkville". In 1980, the community was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. Darkesville was recognized for its historic architecture, which includes twenty-five buildings constructed as log cabins in 1810 or earlier
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However