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Spring Valley High School (South Carolina)

Spring Valley High School is located in unincorporated Northeast Columbia, South Carolina, United States, is operated by Richland County School District Two. Opened in the fall of 1970, it was for a long time the sole high school operating in Richland School District Two, replacing Dentsville High School; the school had an unusual design. The main building was divided into each containing eight chevron-shaped classrooms; this design was borne out of the open classroom concept, popular during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In the school's early days, classrooms within each pod had no walls, allowing students to participate in any one of several classes occurring at one time; this did not prove successful, walls were added to separate the classroom pods by the early 1980s. In 2008, a new three story building replaced the pods as the new school building, integrating the original gymnasium and fine arts buildings as the only remaining pieces of the original campus. On October 26, 2015, a Richland County sheriff's deputy, serving as Spring Valley's school resource officer was called to a classroom to remove a female student from her classroom.

The female student was arrested on a charge called "disturbing schools" for refusing to give up her cell phone and leave the room. She was pulled from the desk by the officer, thrown to the floor and handcuffed. Another female student in the classroom was charged with disturbing schools after she yelled and cursed at the officer; the officer was fired after an internal review found that his actions ran counter to sheriff's department policy. The FBI and the US Department of Justice are investigating to determine if the deputy violated the student's civil rights. In response to the incident, South Carolina lawmakers, led by Rep. Mia McLeod, have proposed limitations to the state statute that defines when students can be arrested for disrupting schools. School district administrators promised to conduct additional staff training about when to involve school resource officers in future incidents; the discovery magnet program is designed for talented students and focuses on science and math, first founded in 1995.

These courses are honors level and required for all members of the Discovery program. All discovery members are required to complete two college-level research projects during their sophomore and junior year; the completion of at least four AP courses is required for graduation from the discovery program. The explorations program is the sister program to discovery; the program focuses on math and science, is a college-preparatory program, as opposed to an honors program. Boys soccer: 2007 Christian Miller - NFL Linebacker Victor Volious-Singer/songwriter

Shintaro Ito

Shintaro Ito is a Japanese politician of the Liberal Democratic Party, a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet. A native of Tokyo and graduate of Keio University, he received his master's degrees from Keio University and Harvard University and completed a program at the American Film Institute, he was elected to the House of Representatives for the first time in 2001. 政治家情報 〜伊藤 信太郎〜. ザ・選挙. JANJAN. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2007-10-16. Official website in Japanese

Topkapı—Ulubatlı (Istanbul Metro)

Topkapı—Ulubatlı is an underground station on the M1 line of the Istanbul Metro. It is located in eastern Fatih between the neighborhoods of Topkapı in Istanbul. An out-of-system transfer to Vatan station on the T4 light-rail line is available as well as connections to İETT city buses. Topkapı—Ulubatlı was opened on 3 September 1989 as part of the first rapid transit line in Istanbul as well as Turkey and is one of the six original stations of the M1 line; the station is right next to the Byzantine-era Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. The station gets part of its name from the 15th century soldier, Ulubatlı Hasan, one of the first Ottoman soldiers to scale the walls during the Fall of Constantinople

Weinreb ketone synthesis

The Weinreb–Nahm ketone synthesis is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry to make carbon–carbon bonds. It was discovered in 1981 by Steven M. Steven Nahm as a method to synthesize ketones; the original reaction involved two subsequent nucleophilic acyl substitutions: the conversion of an acid chloride with N,O-Dimethylhydroxylamine, to form a Weinreb–Nahm amide, subsequent treatment of this species with an organometallic reagent such as a Grignard reagent or organolithium reagent. Nahm and Weinreb reported the synthesis of aldehydes by reduction of the amide with an excess of lithium aluminum hydride; the major advantage of this method over addition of organometallic reagents to more typical acyl compounds is that it avoids the common problem of over-addition. For these latter reactions, two equivalents of the incoming group add to form an alcohol rather than a ketone or aldehyde; this occurs if the equivalents of nucleophile are controlled. The Weinreb–Nahm amide has since been adopted into regular use by organic chemists as a dependable method for the synthesis of ketones.

These functional groups are present in a large number of natural products and can be reliably reacted to form new carbon–carbon bonds or converted into other functional groups. This method has been used in a number of syntheses, including Macrosphelides A and B, Amphidinolide J, Spirofungins A and B. Weinreb and Nahm proposed the following reaction mechanism to explain the selectivity shown in reactions of the Weinreb–Nahm amide, their suggestion was that the tetrahedral intermediate formed as a result of nucleophilic addition by the organometallic reagent is stabilized by chelation from the methoxy group as shown. This intermediate is stable only at low temperatures, requiring a low-temperature quench; this chelation is in contrast to the mechanism for formation of the over-addition product wherein collapse of the tetrahedral intermediate allows a second addition. The mechanistic conjecture on the part of Weinreb was accepted by the academic community, but it was not until 2006 that it was confirmed by spectroscopic and kinetic analyses.

In addition to the original procedure shown above, Weinreb amides can be synthesized from a variety of acyl compounds. The vast majority of these procedures utilize the commercially available salt N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride, easier to handle than the free amine. Treatment of an ester or lactone with AlMe3 or AlMe2Cl affords the corresponding Weinreb amide in good yields. Alternatively, non-nucleophilic Grignard reagents such as isopropyl magnesium chloride can be used to activate the amine before addition of the ester. A variety of peptide coupling reagents can be used to prepare Weinreb–Nahm amides from carboxylic acids. Various carbodiimide-, hydroxybenzotriazole-, triphenylphosphine-based couplings have been reported for this purpose. An aminocarbonylation reaction reported by Stephen Buchwald allows conversion of aryl halides directly into aryl Weinreb–Nahm amides; the standard conditions for the Weinreb–Nahm ketone synthesis are known to tolerate a wide variety of functional groups elsewhere in the molecule, including alpha-halogen substitution, N-protected amino acids, α-β unsaturation, silyl ethers, various lactams and lactones, sulfonates and phosphonate esters.

A wide variety of nucleophiles can be used in conjunction with the amide. Lithiates and Grignard reagents are most employed. However, with basic or sterically hindered nucleophiles, elimination of the methoxide moiety to release formaldehyde can occur as a significant side reaction. Nonetheless, the Weinreb–Nahm amide figures prominently into many syntheses, serving as an important coupling partner for various fragments. Shown below are key steps involving Weinreb amides in the synthesis of several natural products, including members of the immunosuppressant family of Macrosphelides, the antibiotic family of Spirofungins. Reaction of Weinreb–Nahm amides with Wittig reagents has been performed to avoid the sometimes harsh conditions required for addition of hydride reagents or organometallic compounds; this yields an N-methyl-N-methoxy-enamine that converts to the corresponding ketone or aldehyde upon hydrolytic workup. Additionally, a one-pot magnesium–halogen exchange with subsequent arylation has been developed, showcasing the stability of the Weinreb–Nahm amide and providing an operationally simple method for the synthesis of aryl ketones.

More unusual reagents with multiple Weinreb–Nahm amide functional groups have been synthesized, serving as CO2 and α-diketone synthons. Stephen G. Davies of Oxford has designed a chiral auxiliary that combines the functionality of the Weinreb amide with that of the Myers’ pseudoephedrine auxiliary, allowing diastereoselective enolate alkylation followed by facile cleavage to the corresponding enantioenriched aldehyde or ketone. N,O-Dimethylhydroxylamine Ketone Synthesis

Flatey, Breiðafjörður

Flatey is an island of the western islands, a cluster of about forty large and small islands and islets located in Breiðafjörður on the northwestern part of Iceland. Flatey and its surrounding islands are, as a creation, believed to have forged from under the weight of a great glacier during the previous Ice age. In terms of size, Flatey is some two kilometers long and about one kilometer wide, of which most is flat land, with scarcely any hills to be found; the island has a seasonal habitation. In winter, the island's total population is five people. In spite of this, Flatey used to be one of the main cultural centres of Iceland, with its no-longer existing monastery standing on the highest point of the island as its beacon of knowledge. In the middle of the 19th century, Flatey was still a cultural and artistic centre but doubled as a hub of commerce for the northwest, having received its town charter from the Danish crown in 1777. From 1777 and on until around the latter part of the last century, Flatey enjoyed a healthy growth of its population and was for a long time, relative to size, massively populated.

Due to social change and changes of production and ensuing change of values and demands in the work place, its steady population has dwindled down to the minimum needed to support the community on a regular basis, a community which, during summer and holidays, multiplies in size due to a massive influx of second home owners, regular domestic visitors and foreign tourists. The island has only a single road, which leads from the ferry dock to the so-called "old village", which consists of some restored and traditionally-painted old houses of the island's original inhabitants. There is, of course the old harbour, from where besides visitors and inhabitants travelling to and fro, the island's sheep are taken over to the mainland for slaughter. Besides sheep, most of Flatey's natural life consists of various kinds of migratory birds the puffin. Flatey has a church, built in 1926; the church's interior is painted with scenes of the island life, made by a Spanish painter, Baltasar Samper, in the 1960s in return for free accommodation when he was visiting the island.

The island inhabits the oldest and smallest library in Iceland, established in 1864. This library was once home to the Flatey Book, the largest of medieval Icelandic manuscripts. Þorsteinn Jósepsson, Steindór Steindórsson og Páll Líndal: Landið þitt Ísland, A-G, Örn og Örlygur, 1982. Björn Hróarsson: Á ferð um landið, Borgarfjörður og Mýrar, Mál og menning, 1994. ISBN 9979-3-0657-2 Flatey information Flatey information on the Internet Archive

Marshallton United Methodist Church

Marshallton United Methodist Church is a historic United Methodist church located at 1105 Stanton Road in Marshallton, New Castle County, Delaware. The original portion was built in 1886 as a one-room, 30-foot by 50-foot center-aisle plan frame structure with a gable roof, it sits on a foundation of "Brandywine Granite", a found local building stone. In 1922, a 30-foot by 45-foot gabled frame addition was added on the east side of the original building. At the same time, Gothic arched commemorative stained glass windows and a bell tower were added. A three-story brick educational building and fellowship hall were added between 1949 and 1957, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. As of 2019, the pastor is Jacqueline Ford. Visit MarshalltonUMC.com for more information. Marshallton United Methodist Church website