Rose Tree Media School District
Rose Tree Media School District is a school district headquartered in Media, United States. Rose Tree Media School District is serviced by the Delaware County Intermediate Unit, it has 3,700 students in its six schools. The acting-superintendent is Eleanor DiMarino-Linnen. Penncrest High School Springton Lake Middle School Glenwood Elementary School Indian Lane Elementary School Media Elementary School Rose Tree Elementary School Current Board Members: Bill O'Donnell Sue Nolen Jeff Koenig Tracy Barusevicius Nancy Mackrides - President Jim Cunningham Jackie Clancy Harry Postles Liz Schneider - Vice President RTM District Website PA Department of Education
The muskellunge known as muskelunge, milliganong, or maskinonge, is a species of large uncommon freshwater fish native to North America. The muskellunge is the largest member of Esocidae; the common name comes from the Ojibwa word maashkinoozhe, meaning "ugly pike", by way of French masque allongé, "elongated face." The French common name is masquinongé or maskinongé. Muskellunge resemble other esocids such as the northern pike and American pickerel in both appearance and behavior. Like the northern pike and other aggressive pikes, the body plan is typical of ambush predators with an elongated body, flat head, dorsal and anal fins set far back on the body. Muskellunge are 28–48 in long and weigh 15–36 lb, though some have reached up to 6 ft and 70 lb. According to past references the muskellunge attains 8 feet in length. A fish with a weight of 61.25 lb was caught in November 2000 in Ontario. The fish are a light silver, brown, or green, with dark vertical stripes on the flank, which may tend to break up into spots.
In some cases, markings may be absent altogether in fish from turbid waters. This is in contrast to northern pike. A reliable method to distinguish the two similar species is by counting the sensory pores on the underside of the mandible. A muskie will have seven or more per side; the lobes of the caudal fin in muskellunge come to a sharper point, while those of northern pike are more rounded. In addition, unlike pike, muskies have no scales on the lower half of their opercula; the muskellunge is known by a wide variety of common names, including Ohio muskellunge, Great Lakes muskellunge, barred muskellunge, Ohio River pike, Allegheny River pike, jack pike, unspotted muskellunge, the Wisconsin muskellunge. Anglers seek large muskies for sport. In places where muskie are not native, such as in Maine, anglers are encouraged not to release the fish back into the water because of their alleged negative impact on the populations of trout and other smaller fish species. Muskellunge are found in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes and large rivers from northern Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota through the Great Lakes region, north into Canada, throughout most of the St Lawrence River drainage, northward throughout the upper Mississippi valley, although the species extends as far south as Chattanooga in the Tennessee River valley.
A small population is found in the Broad River in South Carolina. Several North Georgia reservoirs have healthy stocked populations of muskie, they are found in the Red River drainage of the Hudson Bay basin. Muskie were introduced to western Saint John River in the late 1960s and have now spread to many connecting waterways in northern Maine, they prefer clear waters where they lurk along weed edges, rock outcrops, or other structures to rest. A fish forms two distinct home ranges in summer: a deeper one; the shallow range is much smaller than the deeper range due to shallow water heating up. A muskie continually patrols the ranges in search of available food in the appropriate conditions of water temperature. Muskies are ambush predators who will swiftly bite their prey and swallow it head first, they eat all varieties of fish present in their ecosystem, along with the occasional muskrat, frog, or duck. They are capable of taking prey up to two-thirds of their body length due to their large stomachs.
In the spring, they tend to prefer smaller bait since their metabolism is slower, while large bait are preferred in fall as preparation for winter. As muskellunge grow longer they increase in weight, but the relationship between length and weight is not linear; the relationship between them can be expressed by a power-law equation: W = c L b The exponent b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant for each species. For muskellunge, b = 3.325, higher than for many common species, c = 0.000089 pounds/inch³. According to the International Game Fish Association the largest muskellunge on record was caught by Cal Johnson in Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin, United States on July 24, 1949; the fish weighed 67 lbs 8 oz and was 60.25 in in length, 33-33.5 in in girth. Muskellunge are sometimes gregarious, they spawn in mid to late spring, somewhat than northern pike, over shallow, vegetated areas. A rock or sand bottom is preferred for spawning so the eggs do not sink into the suffocate; the males attempt to establish dominance over a territory.
Spawning may last from five to 10 days and occurs at night. The eggs are negatively buoyant and adhesive. Soon afterward, they are abandoned by the adults; those embryos which are not eaten by insects, or crayfish hatch within two weeks. The larvae live on yolk until the mouth is developed, when they begin to feed on copepods and other zooplankton, they soon begin to prey upon fish. Juveniles attain a length of 12 in by November of their first year. Adult muskellunge are apex predators. Only humans pose a threat to an adul
Upper Providence Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Upper Providence Township is a township in Delaware County, United States, located around and north of the borough of Media, about 15 miles west of center city Philadelphia. The population was 10,142 at the 2010 census. Ridley Creek State Park is inside the township towards the northern edge, the township contains Ridley Creek and Crum Creek; the township is zoned 98% residential, 1% commercial and 1% industrial, with minimal space zoned to commercial business. The area was formed into Providence Township. On October 17, 1683, the residents of Providence Township petitioned the Court of Chester County, of which they were a part, to establish a road from Providence to Chester; the court approved the creation of Providence Great Road. Upper Providence Township and Nether Providence Township, Pennsylvania split in 1687; the borough of Media was formed in 1850 from pieces of both townships. Water power was used extensively in the township's early history, with local mills including Sycamore Mills or Bishop's Mills built on Ridley Creek in 1718, Robinett Grist Mill, Malin's Grist Mill, Register's Nail Factory, Palmer's Mills.
Formal education began when local Quaker James Turner left money in his 1787 will to establish Blue Hill School near Chapel and Providence roads. The Union Library on Sycamore Mill Road opened in 1813 and had over 800 volumes by 1843. Sandy Bank School opened in 1836, was rebuilt 1905 and enlarged in 1926. Lower Banks School opened in 1872; the Rose Tree Union School District was established in 1947. The Rose Tree Tavern, built in 1739, was a well-known inn in the late 19th century as a summer resort for Philadelphians. Steeplechase races and fox hunts were held there by the Rose Tree Hunt Club, it still stands after having been moved to Rose Tree Park and was renovated, reopening its doors in 2011 as a tourism office. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 5.8 square miles, of which 5.6 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 3.57%, is water. The noted Rose Tree Park is located in Upper Providence Township, but is owned and managed by Delaware County.
The township's road system is made up of many local roads and a few major roads that are maintained by PennDOT, such as US 1, PA 252, Rose Tree Road, Baltimore Pike, Bishop Hollow Road, Ridley Creek Road, Kirk Lane and others, with most traffic volume occurring at the interchange between PA 252 and US 1, where Kirk Lane and Rose Tree Road are both within a tenth of a mile of the interchange and contribute to the traffic volume of the interchange area. As of Census 2010, the racial makeup of the township was 89.8% White, 3.9% African American, 0.0% Native American, 4.3% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,509 people, 4,075 households, 2,828 families residing in the township; the population density was 1,879.6 people per square mile. There were 4,299 housing units at an average density of 768.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 91.83% White, 3.90% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 3.05% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 4,075 households, out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.13. In the township the population was spread out, with 24.7% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $107,166, the median income for a family was $130,450. Males had a median income of $99,848 versus $75,491 for females; the per capita income for the township was $55,532.
About 1.3% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. Upper Providence Township lies within the Rose Tree Media School District, created between a merger with the Rose Tree Union and Media Borough School Districts in 1966. Public school students residing within the township attend either Media Elementary School or Rose Tree Elementary School for grades K-5, depending on where they live. Springton Lake Middle School serves students in grades 6-8, Penncrest High School serves students in grades 9-12; the Walden School and Benchmark School are the only two private schools in the township. St. Mary Magdalen School is the township's only parochial school; the township is serviced by the Media-Upper Providence Free Library. US Route 1 PA Route 252 Upper Providence Township official website
Marple Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Marple Township is a township in Delaware County, United States. It contains the census designated place of Broomall; the population was 23,743 at 2015. ZIP codes include 19008, but partially 19064 and 19063. Township is run by Marple Township board of commissioners. President Joseph Rufo, Vice President Daniel Leefson; the Delaware County area was first settled by Quakers who came to Pennsylvania by the Delaware River on September 29, 1683. The ship they used was called the Endeavor. Marple Township was settled in 1684 and was recognized as a township in the same year; the original spelling of the township was Marpool, however the spelling was changed to Marple in the Thomas Holme map of 1687. The Marpool spelling may have been an error. One of the settlers that arrived on the Endeavor was Thomas Massey, he obtained a 300-acre plantation in the township from William Penn. The house he built on the land is still preserved today, as well as some of its surrounding gardens. In 1948 Marple Township got its first police station.
Before, there was no patrols of the police and only a county sheriff. Crimes were settled between victims and perpetrators themselves. Marple became a first class township in 1961. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 10.5 square miles, of which, 10.2 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. The community of Broomall is located in, but is not coterminous with, Marple Township—the township includes part of the ZIP codes of Springfield and Media. Other villages include Lawrence Park. Waterways in Marple Township include Crum Creek, Darby Creek, Hotland Run, Springton Lake and Trout Run. Radnor Township - north Haverford Township - east Nether Providence Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania - south Springfield Township - southeast Upper Providence Township - southwest Newtown Township - northwest As of the census of 2010, there were 23,428 people, down from 23,737 people in 2000; the racial makeup of the township was 89.6% White, 2.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 7.0% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. The 2000 census showed 8,623 households, 6,415 families residing in the township; the population density was 2,326.1 people per square mile. There were 8,797 housing units at an average density of 862.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 92.60% White, 1.10% African American, 0.09% Native American, 5.51% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.66% of the population. There were 8,623 households, out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.1% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.6% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.12. In the township the population was spread out, with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $59,577, the median income for a family was $71,829. Males had a median income of $47,062 versus $32,304 for females; the per capita income for the township was $28,494. About 2.1% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over. Marple Township is governed by a Board of Commissioners made up of representatives from each of the township's wards which meets for regular sessions; the current commissioners, by ward, are Joseph Rufo, Jan Ceton, Robert Fortebouno, John Lucas, John Longacre, Michael Molinaro, Daniel Leefson. Joseph Rufo serves as the board's president. Marple leans to the right on the political spectrum. In the 2008 general elections, the township voted Republican for every office except for the General Assembly representative from the 166th district.
Along with Aston, Chadds Ford, Edgmont, Newtown and Tinicum, Marple was one of the ten Delaware County municipalities to vote Republican in the 2008 presidential election. The county as a whole voted Democratic. Marple Township lies within the Marple Newtown School District; the district has four elementary schools, one middle school, one high school. In terms of higher education, Delaware County Community College, a public, two-year community college, is located in Marple Township; the township is served by the Marple Public Library. Roads serving Marple Township include U. S. Route 1, which passes north-south through the southern part of the township along a freeway. SEPTA provides Suburban Bus service to Marple Township along Route 104, which follows West Chester Pike through the township on its route between West Chester and 69th Street Transportation Center in Uppe
Pennsylvania Route 252
Pennsylvania Route 252 is a north–south route that connects PA 320 in Nether Providence Township at its southern terminus to PA 23 in Valley Forge at its northern terminus. The route runs through various townships and boroughs in Delaware and Chester, Montgomery counties, including Nether Providence Township, Upper Providence Township, Marple Township, Newtown Township, Easttown Township, Tredyffrin Township, Upper Merion Township; the route intersects many roads including U. S. Route 1 north of Media, PA 3 in Newtown Square, US 30 in Paoli, US 202 in Tredyffrin Township; the southernmost part of PA 252 was built as part of the Providence Road in 1684. PA 252 was designated by 1928 to run from PA 320 north of Chester north to US 122/PA 52 in King of Prussia. By 1960, the northern terminus was moved to PA 23 in King of Prussia. PA 252 was realigned to head to its current northern terminus at Valley Forge by 1970, running along a concurrency with US 202 for a distance north of Paoli and replacing a part of PA 83 in the Valley Forge area.
PA 252 begins at an intersection with PA 320 north of the city of Chester in Nether Providence Township, Delaware County, heading north-northwest on two-lane undivided Providence Road. The road passes through wooded suburban residential neighborhoods, running to the west of Springhaven Country Club; the route heads into the community of Wallingford, where it passes to the east of Strath Haven High School and comes to a bridge over SEPTA's Media/Elwyn Line west of Wallingford station. PA 252 continues north and enters the borough of Media, where it heads into commercial areas and intersects Baltimore Avenue. A block further north, the route intersects State Street at the point SEPTA's Route 101 trolley line crosses the road at the Providence Road station; the road continues through residential areas in the eastern part of Media. PA 252 continues past homes with some businesses; the route widens to a four-lane divided highway as it comes to an interchange with the US 1 freeway bypass of Media. Past this interchange, PA 252 becomes a four-lane undivided road with two northbound and southbound lanes, passing to the west of Rose Tree Park.
The route splits from Providence Road by curving north onto two-lane Palmers Mill Road, running through wooded residential areas. The road crosses Crum Creek on the dam that forms Springton Reservoir to the west, at which point it enters Marple Township. Past the reservoir, Palmers Mill Road turns to the east and PA 252 continues north on Newtown Street Road, running past more homes; the road passes to the west of Delaware County Community College before it heads into Newtown Township at the Media Line Road intersection. The route continues north through wooded suburban development. PA 252 turns northwest and heads through commercial areas as it comes to an intersection with PA 3 in the community of Newtown Square. Past this intersection, the road widens into a four-lane divided highway and passes more businesses before heading between a business campus to the west and residential areas to the east; the route curves north before heading northwest past housing developments. PA 252 passes to the southwest of Aronimink Golf Club before coming to an interchange with St. Davids Road and Newtown Street Road.
Here, the name of the route changes to Darby Paoli Road and narrows into a two-lane undivided road as it passes between wooded residential neighborhoods to the northeast and the Episcopal Academy to the southwest. At the intersection with White Horse Road, PA 252 enters Easttown Township in Chester County and continues northwest through wooded areas of homes; the road passes to the east of Waynesborough Country Club before it comes to an intersection with Darby Road/Sugartown Road. At this intersection, the name of the route becomes Leopard Road and it passes more wooded development, crossing into Tredyffrin Township. PA 252 curves north and becomes a four-lane road, heading into commercial areas and coming to an intersection with US 30 in the community of Paoli. Past this intersection, the road becomes Bear Hill Road and passes under Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line; the route narrows back to two lanes before heading into forested areas. PA 252 widens back into a four-lane divided highway and comes to a bridge over Norfolk Southern's Dale Secondary, curving northeast.
The road passes southeast of a residential neighborhood before it comes to an intersection with Swedesford Road/Howellville Road. At this point, the name of the route becomes Swedesford Road and it heads past business parks as a four-lane undivided road; the lanes of PA 252 split as it passes over the Chester Valley Trail and comes to a partial interchange with the US 202 freeway to the north, with access between northbound PA 252 and northbound US 202 and southbound US 202 and southbound PA 252. Following this, the route heads east-northeast as a two-lane undivided road, passing between the US 202 freeway to the north and businesses to the south. PA 252 curves east and turns northwest onto Valley Forge Road interchanging with US 202; the route continues through suburban neighborhoods in Chesterbrook before coming to a bridge over the Pennsylvania Turnpike. At this point, the road enters Valley Forge National Historical Park. PA 252 passes through fields within the park, turning west onto Valley Creek Road at the Baptist Road intersection.
Upon intersecting Yellow Springs Road just east of the Knox Covered Bridge over the Valley Creek, the route turns north and enters Upper Merion Township in Montgomery County and winds north through forested areas along the east bank of the creek. PA 252 comes to its northern terminus at an intersection with PA 23 near the community of Valley Forge
Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Delaware County, colloquially referred to as Delco, is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. With a population of 562,960, it is the fifth most populous county in Pennsylvania, the third smallest in area; the county was created on September 26, 1789, from part of Chester County, named for the Delaware River. Its county seat is Media; until 1850, Chester was the county seat of Delaware County and, before that, of Chester County. Delaware County is adjacent to the city-county of Philadelphia and is included in the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Delaware County is the only county covered in its entirety by area codes 610 and 484. Delaware County lies in the river and bay drainage area named "Delaware" in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, Governor of the nearby English colony of Virginia; the land was explored by Henry Hudson in 1609, over the next several decades it was variously claimed and settled by the Swedes, the Dutch, the English.
Its original human inhabitants were the Lenni-Lenape tribe of American Indians. Once the Dutch were defeated and the extent of New York was determined, King Charles II of England made his grant to William Penn in order to found the colony which came to be named Pennsylvania. Penn divided his colony into three counties: Bucks and Chester; the riverfront land south of Philadelphia, being the most accessible, was granted and settled. In 1789, the southeastern portion of Chester County was divided from the rest and named Delaware County for the Delaware River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 191 square miles, of which 184 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Pennsylvania by area. Delaware County is diamond- or kite-shaped, with the four sides formed by the Chester County boundary to the northwest, the boundary with the state of Delaware to the southwest, the Delaware River (forming the border with the state of New Jersey to the southeast, the city of Philadelphia and Montgomery County to the east and northeast.
The lowest point in the state of Pennsylvania is located on the Delaware River in Marcus Hook in Delaware County, where it flows out of Pennsylvania and into Delaware. The highest point in Delaware County is 500 feet at two points southeast of Wyola in Newtown Township. Waterways in Delaware County flow in a southward direction and drain into the Delaware River; the waterways are, from west to east: the Brandywine River, Naaman's Creek, Stoney Creek, Chester Creek, Ridley Creek, Crum Creek, Muckinipates Creek, Darby Creek and Cobbs Creek. Crum Creek was dammed in 1931 near Pennsylvania Route 252 to fill Springton Lake, an 391-acre drinking water reservoir maintained by Aqua America, the county's largest lake; the Trainer Refinery and the Port of Chester along located along the shores of the Delaware River. Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Gloucester County, New Jersey New Castle County, Delaware Chester County, Pennsylvania Delaware County is one of four counties in the United States to border a state with which it shares the same name.
John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge 2,600 acres of the county are occupied by the Ridley Creek State Park. Delaware County is divided by the boundary between the humid subtropical and the hot-summer humid continental climate; the hardiness zones are 7b. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.1% White non-Hispanic, 19.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American or Alaskan Native, 4.7% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.0% were two or more races, 0.9% were some other race. 3.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 550,864 people, 206,320 households, 139,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,990 people per square mile. There were 216,978 housing units at an average density of 1,178 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.32% White, 14.52% African American, 0.11% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
24.6 % were of Irish, 10.1 % German and 6.7 % English ancestry. There were 206,320 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.80% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,092, the median income for a family was $61,590. Males had a median income of $44,155 versus $31,831 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,040.
About 5.80% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of
Crappies are a genus, Pomoxis, of North American fresh water fish in the sunfish family Centrarchidae. Both species in this genus are popular pan fish; the genus name Pomoxis derives from the Greek πώμα and οξύς. The common name, derives from the Canadian French crapet, which refers to many different fishes of the sunfish family. Other names for crappie are papermouths, strawberry bass, speckled bass or specks, speckled perch, white perch, crappie bass, calico bass, sac-a-lait and Oswego bass; the recognized species in this genus are: White crappie – P. annularis Rafinesque, 1818 Black crappie – P. nigromaculatus Both species of crappie as adults feed predominantly on smaller fish species, including the young of their own predators. They have diverse diets, including zooplankton and crustaceans. By day, crappie tend to be less active and will concentrate around weed beds or submerged objects, such as logs and boulders, they feed by moving into open water or approaching the shore. The Pomoxis species are regarded pan fish and are considered to be among the best-tasting freshwater fish.
Because of their diverse diets, crappie may be caught in many ways, including casting light jigs, trolling with minnows or artificial lures, using small spinnerbaits, or using bobbers. Crappies are popular with ice-anglers, as they are active in winter; the current all-tackle fishing world record for a black crappie is 2.25 kg and for a white crappie is 2.35 kg. Angling for crappie is popular throughout much of North America. Methods vary, but among the most popular is called "spider rigging", a method characterized by a fisherman in a boat with many long fishing rods pointing away from the angler at various angles like spokes from a wheel. Anglers who employ the spider rigging method may choose from among many popular baits; some of the most popular are plastic jigs with crankbaits or live minnows. Many anglers chum or dump live bait into the water to attract the fish to bite their bait. Crappies are regularly targeted and caught during the spawning period by fly fishermen, can be taken from frozen ponds and lakes in winter by ice fishing.
Before state fisheries departments began to implement more restrictive, conservation-minded regulations, a great number of crappies in the Mississippi River states, were harvested commercially in the 19th and early 20th centuries. At one point the annual crappie catch sold at fish markets in the United States was reported to be three million pounds. A commercial fishery for crappies existed at Reelfoot Lake in Tennessee until 2003, it was one of the few commercial fisheries for crappies in recent decades. By information from International Game Fish Association IGFA the most outstanding records: Black crappie: a 2.26 kg fish caught on 21 April 2005 by John R. Horstman from a private lake in Missouri, US White crappie: a 2.35 kg fish caught on 31 July 1957 by Fred Brigh in Water Valley, Mississippi, US Ellis, Jack. The Sunfishes-A Fly Fishing Journey of Discovery. Bennington, VT: Abenaki Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936644-17-6. Rice, F. Philip. America's Favorite Fishing: A Complete Guide to Angling for Panfish.
New York: Harper Row. Rice, F. Philip. Panfishing. New York: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-943822-25-4. Malo, John. Fly-Fishing for Panfish. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Dillon Press Inc. ISBN 0-87518-208-9. Nelson, Gary. Panfishing. Minneapolis, MN: North American Fishing Club. ISBN 0-914697-37-4