The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the goat—antelope subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".
To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.
It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.
They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.
Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility
Get Smart is an American comedy television series that satirizes the secret agent genre, popular in the United States in the late 1960s. The program was created by Mel Brooks and Buck Henry, had its television premiere on NBC on September 18, 1965; the show stars Don Adams as agent Maxwell "Max" Smart, a.k.a. Agent 86, Barbara Feldon as Agent 99, Edward Platt as Thaddeus, the Chief. Henry said that they created the show at the request of Daniel Melnick to capitalize on "the two biggest things in the entertainment world today": James Bond and Inspector Clouseau. Brooks said: "It's an insane combination of James Bond and Mel Brooks comedy."The show generated a number of popular catchphrases during its run, including "Would you believe...", "Good thinking, 99", "Missed it by that much!", "Sorry about that, Chief", "The old trick", "And loving it", "I asked you not to tell me that". The show was followed by the films The Nude Bomb and Get Smart, Again!, as well as a 1995 revival series, a 2008 film remake.
In 2010, TV Guide ranked Get Smart's opening title sequence at No. 2 on its list of TV's Top 10 Credits Sequences as selected by readers. After switching networks in 1969, to CBS, the show ended its five-season run on May 15, 1970, with a production roster at both networks of 138 episodes; the Museum of Broadcast Communications finds the show notable for "broadening the parameters for the presentation of comedy on television." The series centers on bumbling secret agent Maxwell "Max" Smart known as Agent 86, his more sensible female partner, Agent 99. Agents 86 and 99 work for CONTROL, a secret U. S. government counter-intelligence agency based in Washington, D. C; the pair investigates and thwarts various threats to the world, though Smart's incompetent nature and demands to do things by-the-book invariably cause complications. However, Smart never fails to save the day. Looking on is the long-suffering head of CONTROL, addressed as "Chief"; the nemesis of CONTROL is KAOS, described as "an international organization of evil".
In the series, KAOS was formed in Bucharest, Romania, in 1904. Neither CONTROL nor KAOS is an acronym. Many guest actors appeared including William Schallert. Conrad Siegfried, played by Bernie Kopell, is Smart's KAOS archenemy. King Moody portrayed Siegfried's assistant; the enemies, world-takeover plots and gadgets seen in Get Smart were a parody of the James Bond movie franchise. "Do what they did except just stretch it half an inch", Mel Brooks said of the methods of this TV series. Max and 99 marry in season four, have twins in season five. Agent 99 became the first woman in an American hit sitcom to keep her job after marriage and motherhood. Talent Associates commissioned Mel Brooks and Buck Henry to write a script about a bungling James Bond–like hero. Brooks described the premise for the show which they created in an October 1965 Time magazine article: I was sick of looking at all those nice sensible situation comedies, they were such distortions of life. If a maid took over my house like Hazel, I'd set her hair on fire.
I wanted to do a unreal comic-strip kind of thing about something besides a family. No one had done a show about an idiot before. I decided to be the first. Brooks and Henry proposed the show to ABC, where network executives called it "un-American" and demanded a "lovable dog to give the show more heart", as well as scenes showing Maxwell Smart's mother. Brooks objected to the second suggestion: They wanted to put a print housecoat on the show. Max was to explain everything. I hate mothers on shows. Max has no mother, he never had one. The cast and crew contributed joke and gadget ideas Don Adams, but dialogue was ad-libbed. An exception is the third-season episode "The Little Black Book". Don Rickles encouraged Adams to misbehave, he ad-libbed; the result was so successful. The first four seasons were filmed at Sunset Bronson Studios, while the final season, shown on CBS, was filmed at CBS Studio Center. Brooks had little involvement with the series after the first season, but Henry served as story editor through 1967.
The crew of the show included: Leonard B. Stern – Executive producer for the entire run of the series Irving Szathmary – Music and theme composer and conductor for the entire run Don Adams – Director of 13 episodes and writer of 2 episodes David Davis – Associate producer Gary Nelson – Director of the most episodes Bruce Bilson – Director of the second most episodes Gerald C. Gardner and Dee Caruso – Head writers for the series Reza Badiyi – Occasional director Allan Burns and Chris Hayward – Frequent writers and producers Stan Burns and Mike Marmer – Frequent writers Richard Donner – Occasional director James Komack – Writer and director Arne Sultan – Frequent writer and producer Lloyd Turner and Whitey Mitchell – Frequent writers and producers of season five CONTROL is a spy agency founded at the beginning of the 20th century by Harold Harmon Hargrade, a career officer in the United States Navy's N-2 Branch. Hargrade served as the first Chief of CONTROL. "CONTROL" is not an acronym. Maxwell "Max" Smart, code number Agent 86 is the central character.
Despite being a top secret government agent, he is absurdly clumsy naive and has occasional lapses of attention. Due to his fr
Quick time event
In video games, a quick time event is a method of context-sensitive gameplay in which the player performs actions on the control device shortly after the appearance of an on-screen instruction/prompt. It allows for limited control of the game character during cut scenes or cinematic sequences in the game. Performing the wrong prompt or not at all results in the character's failure at their task and in an immediate game over, or a life being lost and being shown a death/failure animation; the term "quick time event" is attributed to Yu Suzuki, director of the game Shenmue which used the QTE feature to a great degree. They allow for the game designer to create sequences of actions that cannot be expressed through the game's standard control scheme, or to constrain the player into taking only one specific action at a critical moment. While some uses of QTE have been considered as favorable additions to gameplay, the general use of QTE has been panned by journalists and players alike, as these events can break the flow of the game and force the player to repeat sections until they master the event.
QTEs involve the player following onscreen prompts to press buttons or manipulate joysticks within a limited amount of time. More recent games on consoles with motion-sensitive controls feature QTEs requiring specific movements from the player; the prompts are displayed as a graphical image of the physical controller button. Such actions are either atypical of the normal controls during the game, or in a different context from their assigned functions. Whilst most prompts require the player to push the appropriate button in time, some may require different types of actions, such as pressing a button a certain number of times within the time limit, or hitting the button with precise timing. In the 1980s, Dragon's Lair, Cliff Hanger and Road Blaster were interactive movie laserdisc video games that showed video clips stored on a laserdisc; this gave them graphics on par with an animated cartoon at a time when video games were composed of simple, pixelated characters, but left little room for more advanced gameplay elements.
Gameplay consisted of watching an animated video and pressing the correct button every few seconds to avoid seeing a loss scene and losing a life. Compared to modern titles, games like Dragon's Lair would require the player to memorize the proper sequence and timing of their input making the entire game one continuous QTE; such uses were seen as giving the player only the illusion of control, as outside of responding to QTE, there were no other commands the player could enter. An improvement to the QTE mechanic was flashing the buttons that need to be pressed on the screen, which appeared in the laserdisc games Super Don Quix-ote, Ninja Hayate, Time Gal and Road Blaster. Die Hard Arcade, Sword of the Berserk: Guts' Rage and most notably Shenmue for the Dreamcast introduced QTEs in the modern form of cut scene interludes in an otherwise more interactive game. Shenmue's director Yu Suzuki is credited with coining the phrase "Quick Time Event", which were included in the game as to provide "a fusion of gameplay and movie" and create cinematic experience to the player.
The game's manual called them "quick timer events", but the phrase became popularized as "quick time events" since its release. Since this period, several other games on modern console and game systems have included QTEs or similar mechanics. Quick-time events have appeared in some sports games, such as the Wii version of 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa, where they are used to save penalty shots and free kicks aimed towards the goal, or win possession of the ball after it is punted or corner-kicked. Failure to execute the quick-time event in time would result in the opposing team scoring a goal or claiming possession of the ball. To improve game accessibility, action games contain options to individually disable quick-time events and other design elements that contribute to a game's difficulty. QTEs have received mixed reactions from journalists, they can be used to enhance cutscenes and other actions. The use of QTEs within Shenmue is praised, as "they seamlessly flow from cinema to the QTE sequence without any loading pauses at all", sections which utilized the QTE were considered "some of the most thrilling in the whole game".
At the same time, they are considered to be a weak addition to gameplay, force the player to repeat such sections until they complete the QTE to move on. They are considered a "bane of action games", as their presence breaks the standard flow of the game and reduce the control of the game for the player to a few buttons and turning interactivity into a job. QTEs may frustrate the player due to the fact that they might not have any sign that they are about to happen. QTEs are used during dramatic cutscenes. Resident Evil 4 uses QTEs to "facilitate a seamless transition between gameplay and the in-game movies" and prevent players from losing interest during cutscenes. One example in Resident Evil 4 is a knife fight; the fight occurs during a late-game cutscene where the protagonist meets a major villain, who explains missing links in the game's story while periodically
A piranha or piraña, a member of family Characidae in order Characiformes, is a freshwater fish that inhabits South American rivers, floodplains and reservoirs. Although described as predatory and feeding on fish, their dietary habits vary extensively, they will take plant material, leading to their classification as omnivorous. In Venezuela, they are called caribes, they are known for powerful jaws. Piranhas belong to the subfamily Serrasalminae, which includes related omnivorous fish such as pacus. Traditionally, only the four genera Pristobrycon, Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus are considered to be true piranhas, due to their specialized teeth. However, a recent analysis showed, if the piranha group is to be monophyletic, it should be restricted to Serrasalmus and part of Pristobrycon, or expanded to include these taxa plus Pygopristis and Pristobrycon striolatus. Pygopristis was found to be more related to Catoprion than the other three piranha genera; the total number of piranha species is unknown and contested, new species continue to be described.
Estimates range from fewer than 30 to more than 60. Piranhas are indigenous to the Amazon basin, in the Orinoco, in rivers of the Guianas, in the Paraguay–Paraná, the São Francisco River systems, but there are major differences in the species richness. In a review where 38–39 piranha species were recognized, 25 were from the Amazon and 16 from Orinoco, while only 3 were present in Paraguay–Paraná and 2 in São Francisco. Most species are restricted to a single river system. Many species can occur together. Aquarium piranhas have been unsuccessfully introduced into parts of the United States. In many cases, reported captures of piranhas are misidentifications of pacu. Piranhas have been discovered in the Kaptai Lake in southeast Bangladesh. Research is being carried out to establish how piranhas have moved to such distant corners of the world from their original habitat; some rogue exotic fish traders are thought to have released them in the lake to avoid being caught by antipoaching forces. Piranhas were spotted in the Lijiang River in China.
Depending on the exact species, most piranhas grow to between 35 cm long. A few can grow larger, with the red-bellied, reaching up to 50 cm. There are claims of São Francisco piranhas at up to 60 cm, but the largest confirmed specimens are smaller; the extinct Megapiranha which lived 8–10 million years ago reached about 71 cm long, even 100 cm. Serrasalmus, Pristobrycon and Pygopristis are most recognized by their unique dentition. All piranhas have a single row of sharp teeth in both jaws; the teeth are packed and interlocking and are used for rapid puncture and shearing. Individual teeth are broadly triangular and blade-like; the variation in the number of cusps is minor. In most species, the teeth are tricuspid with a larger middle cusp which makes the individual teeth appear markedly triangular; the exception is Pygopristis, which has pentacuspid teeth and a middle cusp only larger than the other cusps. Piranhas have one of the strongest bites found in bony fishes. Relative to body mass, the black piranha produces one of the most forceful bites measured in vertebrates.
This powerful and dangerous bite is generated by large jaw muscles that are attached to the tip of the jaw, conferring the piranha with a mechanical advantage that favors force production over bite speed. Strong jaws combined with finely serrated teeth make them adept at tearing flesh. Piranhas vary extensively in behavior depending on exact species. Piranhas the red-bellied, have a reputation as ferocious predators that hunt their prey in schools. Recent research, which "started off with the premise that they school as a means of cooperative hunting", discovered they are timid fish that schooled for protection from their own predators, such as cormorants and dolphins. Piranhas are "basically like regular fish with large teeth". A few other species may occur in large groups, while the remaining are solitary or found in small groups. Although described as predatory and feeding on fish, piranha diets vary extensively, leading to their classification as omnivorous. In addition to fish, documented food items for piranhas include other vertebrates, fruits, seeds and detritus.
The diet shifts with age and size. Research on the species Serrasalmus aff. brandtii and Pygocentrus nattereri in Viana Lake in Maranhão, formed during the wet season when the Pindaré River floods, has shown that they feed on fish, but eat vegetable matter. In another study of more than 250 Serrasalmus rhombeus at Ji-Paraná River, 75% to 81% of the stomach content was fish, but about 10% was fruits or seeds. In a few species such as Serrasalmus serrulatus, the dietary split may be more equal, but this is less certain as based on smaller samples: Among 24 S. serrulatus from flooded forests of Ji-Paraná River, there were several with fish remains in their stoma
Hugh Marston Hefner was an American magazine publisher and life-stylist. He was the founder and editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine, a publication with revealing glamour photographs and sensational articles that provoked charges of obscenity; the first issue of Playboy, published in 1953, featured Marilyn Monroe in a nude calendar shoot and sold over 50,000 copies. Hefner extended the Playboy brand into a world network of Playboy Clubs, he resided in luxury mansions where Playboy ‘playmates’ shared his wild partying life, fueling keen media interest. An advocate of sexual liberation and freedom of expression, Hefner was a political activist in other causes. Hefner was born in Chicago on April 9, 1926, the first child of Glenn Lucius Hefner, an accountant, his wife Grace Caroline Hefner who worked as a teacher, his parents were from Nebraska. He had Keith, his mother was of Swedish ancestry, his father was German and English. Through his father's line, Hefner was a descendant of Plymouth governor William Bradford.
He described his family as "conservative, Methodist". His mother had wanted him to become a missionary, he attended Sayre Elementary School and Steinmetz High School served from 1944 to 1946 as a U. S. Army writer for a military newspaper. Hefner graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1949 with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and a double minor in Creative Writing and Art, having earned his degree in two and a half years. After graduation, he took a semester of graduate courses in Sociology at Northwestern University, but dropped out soon after. In January 1952, Hefner left his job as a copywriter for Esquire. In 1953, he took out a mortgage loan of $600 and raised $8,000 from 45 investors to launch Playboy, going to be called Stag Party; the first issue, published in December 1953, featured Marilyn Monroe from her 1949 nude calendar shoot and sold over 50,000 copies. After the Charles Beaumont science fiction short story "The Crooked Man" was rejected by Esquire magazine in 1955, Hefner agreed to publish the story in Playboy.
The story highlighted straight men being persecuted in a world. After the magazine received angry letters, Hefner wrote a response to criticism where he said, "If it was wrong to persecute heterosexuals in a homosexual society the reverse was wrong, too." In 1961, Hefner watched. Based on that performance, Hefner hired Gregory to work at the Chicago Playboy Club. Hefner promoted a bon vivant lifestyle in his magazine and in two TV shows he hosted, Playboy's Penthouse and Playboy After Dark, he was the chief creative officer of Playboy Enterprises, the publishing group that operates the magazine. On June 4, 1963, Hefner was arrested for promoting obscene literature after he published an issue of Playboy that featured nude shots of Jayne Mansfield in bed with a man present; the case resulted in a hung jury. In the 1960s, "private key" clubs would be created by Hefner, these clubs would be racially diverse, in a time where the scent of segregation was still lingering heavy in the air. During the civil rights movement in 1966, Hefner sent Alex Haley to interview George Lincoln Rockwell, much to Rockwell's surprise because Haley was black.
Rockwell had founded the American Nazi Party and would be described by some as the "American Hitler". Rockwell agreed to meet with Haley only after gaining assurance from the Playboy writer that he was not Jewish, although Rockwell kept a handgun on the table throughout the interview; the interview was recreated in Roots: The Next Generations in 1979, with James Earl Jones as Haley and Marlon Brando as Rockwell. Haley had interviewed Malcolm X in 1963 and Martin Luther King Jr. in 1966 for the newly established 1962 "playboy interview". In 1970, Hugh Hefner stated that "militant feminists" are "unalterably opposed to the romantic boy-girl society that Playboy promotes" and ordered a hit piece in his magazine against them. In the 1993 The Simpsons episode "Krusty Gets Kancelled", Hefner guest-voiced himself. In 1999, Hefner financed the Clara Bow documentary. "Nobody has. She defined an era and made her mark on the nation," he stated. Hefner guest-starred as himself in the 2000 Sex and the City episode "Sex and Another City".
In 2005, Hefner guest-starred on the HBO TV shows Entourage. Hefner guest-starred as himself in a 2006 episode of Seth Green's Robot Chicken on the late-night programming block Adult Swim. In the 2007 Family Guy episode "Airport'07", Hefner guest-voiced himself, he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for television and made several movie appearances as himself on the small screen. In 2009, he received a "worst supporting actor" nomination for a Razzie award for his performance as himself in Miss March. On his official Twitter account he joked about this nomination: "Maybe I didn't understand the character."A documentary by Brigitte Berman, Hugh Hefner: Playboy and Rebel, was released
Tango is a popular partner dance and social dance that originated in the 1880s along the River Plate, the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay. It was born in the impoverished port areas of these countries, where natives mixed with slave and European immigrant populations; the tango is the result of a combination of the German Waltz, Czech Polka, Polish Mazurka, Bohemian Schottische with the Spanish-Cuban Habanera, African Candombe, Argentinian Milonga. The tango was practiced in the brothels and bars of ports, where business owners employed bands to entertain their patrons with music; the tango spread to the rest of the world. Many variations of this dance exist around the world. On August 31, 2009, UNESCO approved a joint proposal by Argentina and Uruguay to include the tango in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Tango is a dance that has influences from Native American and European culture. Dances from the candombe ceremonies of former slave peoples helped shape the modern day tango.
The dance originated in lower-class districts of Buenos Montevideo. The music derived from the fusion of various forms of music from Europe; the words "tango" and "tambo" around the River Plate basin were used to refer to musical gatherings of slaves, with written records of colonial authorities attempting to ban such gatherings as early as 1789. It was just one of the many dances, but it soon became popular throughout society, as theatres and street barrel organs spread it from the suburbs to the working-class slums, which were packed with hundreds of thousands of European immigrants. Many Buenos Aires city neighbourhoods have their particular tango history like for example La Boca, San Telmo or Boedo. At Boedo Avenue Cátulo Castillo, Homero Manzi and other singers and composers used to meet at the Japanese Cafe with the Boedo Group. In the early years of the 20th century and orchestras from Buenos Aires travelled to Europe, the first European tango craze took place in Paris, soon followed by London and other capitals.
Towards the end of 1913, it hit New York City in the U. S. and Finland. In the U. S. around 1911, the word "tango" was applied to dances in a 24 or 44 rhythm such as the one-step. The term was fashionable and did not indicate that tango steps would be used in the dance, although they might be. Tango music was sometimes played but at a rather fast tempo. Instructors of the period would sometimes refer to this as a "North American tango", versus the so-called "Argentine Tango"; the Tango was controversial because of its perceived sexual overtones and, by the end of 1913, the dance teachers who had introduced the dance to Paris were banished from the city. By 1914, more authentic tango stylings were soon developed, along with some variations like Albert Newman's "Minuet" tango. In Argentina, the onset in 1929 of the Great Depression, restrictions introduced after the overthrow of the Hipólito Yrigoyen government in 1930, caused tango to decline, its fortunes were reversed as tango became fashionable and a matter of national pride under the government of Juan Perón.
Taquito Militar, by Mariano Mores played a monumental part in the rise of the tango and a major effect on Argentinian culture as a whole. This song was premiered in 1952 during a governmental speech of President Juan D. Perón, which generated a strong political and cultural controversy between different views of the concepts of "cultured" music and "popular" music, as well as the links between both "cultures". Tango declined again in the 1950s, as a result of economic depression and the banning of public gatherings by the military dictatorships. That, boosted the popularity of rock and roll because, unlike tango, it did not require such gatherings. In 2009, the tango was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. There are two predominant theories regarding the origin of the word "tango." The African culture is credited by some scholars as the creator of this word. It is theorized that the word evolved from the Yoruba word, "shangó," which refers to the Nigerian God of Thunder; this theory suggests that the word “shangó” was morphed through the dilution of the Nigerian language once it reached South America via slave trade.
This theory is paralleled by another theory which believes that “tango” is derived from the Spanish word for drum, “tambor." This word was mispronounced by Buenos Aires’ impoverished and uneducated inhabitants to become "tambo," ultimately resulting in the common "tango." It is theorized that the word "'tango" is derived from the Portuguese word "tanger," which means "to play a musical instrument." Another Portuguese word, "tangomão," is a possible predecessor of the word "tango." The word is the combination of the verb "tanger" with the noun "mão", resulted in the verb "to play a musical instrument with one's hands.2" The tango consists of a variety of styles that developed in different regions and eras of Argentina as well as in other locations around the world. The dance developed in response to many cultural elements, such as the crowding of the venue and the fashions in clothing; the styles are danced in either open embrace, where lead and follow have space between their bodies, or close embrace, where the lead and follow connect either chest-to-chest or in the upper thigh, hip area.
Different styles of tango are: Tango vals Tango argentino Tango canyengue Tango Oriental Uruguayan tango Tango liso Tango salon Tango orillero Tango camacupense Tango milonguero Tango nuevo Contact tango Tango Valparaísino (from Valparaíso
An adventure game is a video game in which the player assumes the role of a protagonist in an interactive story driven by exploration and puzzle-solving. The genre's focus on story allows it to draw from other narrative-based media and film, encompassing a wide variety of literary genres. Many adventure games are designed for a single player, since this emphasis on story and character makes multi-player design difficult. Colossal Cave Adventure is identified as the first such adventure game, first released in 1976, while other notable adventure game series include Zork, King's Quest, The Secret of Monkey Island, Myst. Initial adventure games developed in the 1970s and early 1980s were text-based, using text parsers to translate the player's input into commands; as personal computers became more powerful with the ability to show graphics, the graphic adventure game format became popular by augmenting player's text commands with graphics, but soon moving towards point and click interfaces. Further computer advancements led to adventure games with more immersive graphics using real-time or pre-rendered three-dimensional scenes or full-motion video taken from the first- or third-person perspective.
For markets in the Western hemisphere, the genre's popularity peaked during the late 1980s to mid-1990s when many considered it to be among the most technically advanced genres, but had become a niche genre in the early 2000s due to the popularity of first-person shooters and became difficult to find publishers to support such ventures. Since a resurgence in the genre has occurred spurred on by success of independent video game development from crowdfunding efforts, the wide availability of digital distribution enabling episodic approaches, the proliferation of new gaming platforms including portable consoles and mobile devices. Within the Asian markets, adventure games continue to be popular in the form of visual novels, which make up nearly 70% of PC games released in Japan; the Asian markets have found markets for adventure games for portable and mobile gaming devices. Japanese adventure games tend to be distinct from Western adventure games and have their own separate development history.
The term "Adventure game" originated from the 1970s text computer game Colossal Cave Adventure referred to as Adventure, which pioneered a style of gameplay, imitated and became a genre in its own right. The video game genre is therefore defined by its gameplay, unlike the literary genre, defined by the subject it addresses, the activity of adventure. Essential elements of the genre include storytelling and puzzle solving. Adventure games have been described as puzzles embedded in a narrative framework, where games involve narrative content that a player unlocks piece by piece over time. While the puzzles that players encounter through the story can be arbitrary, those that do not pull the player out of the narrative are considered examples of good design. Combat and action challenges are limited or absent in adventure games, thus distinguishing them from action games. In the book Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design, the authors state that "this doesn't mean that there is no conflict in adventure games... only that combat is not the primary activity."
Some adventure games will include a minigame from another video game genre, which are not always appreciated by adventure game purists. Hybrid action-adventure games blend action and adventure games throughout the game experience, incorporating more physical challenges than pure adventure games and at a faster pace; this definition is hard to apply, with some debate among designers about which games are action games and which involve enough non-physical challenges to be considered action-adventures. Adventure games are distinct from role-playing video games that involve action, team-building, points management. Adventure games lack the numeric rules or relationships seen in role-playing games, have an internal economy; these games lack any skill system, combat, or "an opponent to be defeated through strategy and tactics." However, some hybrid games exist here, where role-playing games with strong narrative and puzzle elements are considered RPG-adventures. Adventure games are classified separately from puzzle video games.
Although an adventure game may involve puzzle-solving, adventure games involve a player-controlled avatar in an interactive story. Adventure games contain a variety of puzzles, decoding messages and using items, opening locked doors, or finding and exploring new locations. Solving a puzzle will unlock access to new areas in the game world, reveal more of the game story. Logic puzzles, where mechanical devices are designed with abstract interfaces to test a player's deductive reasoning skills, are common; some puzzles are criticized for the obscurity of their solutions, for example, the combination of a clothes line and deflated rubber duck used to gather a key stuck between the subway tracks in The Longest Journey, which exists outside of the game's narrative and serves only as an obstacle to the player. Others have been criticized for requiring players to blindly guess, either by clicking on the right pixel, or by guessing the right verb in games that use a text interface. Games that require players to navigate mazes have become less popular, although the earliest text-adventure games required players to draw a map if they wanted to navigate the abstract space.
Many adventure games make use of an inventory management screen as a distinct gameplay mode. Players are only able to pick up some objects in the game, so the