George Tuska, who early in his career used a variety of pen names including Carl Larson, was an American comic book and newspaper comic strip artist best known for his 1940s work on various Captain Marvel titles and the crime fiction series Crime Does Not Pay and his 1960s work illustrating Iron Man and other Marvel Comics characters. As well, he drew the DC Comics newspaper comic strip The World's Greatest Superheroes from 1978–1982. George Tuska was born in Hartford, the youngest of three children of Russian immigrants Harry and Anna Onisko Tuska, who had met in New York City. George's siblings Peter, the eldest, Mary, the middle child, were born in New York City. Years Mary died while giving birth to her second child, stillborn. Harry, a foreman at a Hartford auto-tire company, died when George was 14. Anna opened a restaurant in Paterson, New Jersey, where she had relatives, remarried. At 17, Tuska moved to New York City, rooming with his cousin Annie, a year began attending the National Academy of Design.
His artistic influences included illustrators Harold von Schmidt, Dean Cornwell, Thomas Lovell, comic strip artists Lou Fine, Hal Foster, Alex Raymond. At some early point, he took his first job in art. Tuska began working for comic book packager Eisner & Iger, one of a handful of companies at the time that supplied comics on demand for publishers entering the new medium, his first known published comic-book work appeared in Fox Comics' Mystery Men Comics #1 and Wonderworld Comics #4, both cover-dated August 1939. Tuska in the mid-2000s recalled: I went to art school at the same I was doing costume jewelry design. I put in an application with a professional agency in New York City. I told them I could do drawing. A week I got a call from Eisner-Iger, asking me to submit some samples.... Said,'That's pretty good, but we don't do that stuff', he showed me a comic book and said,'This is what we want'.... I made a page -- a whole story in one page; when I brought it back, he bought it for $5. He said,'We'd like to have you work for us'.
That's how I got started.... I gave up school.... I made $10 per week. At Eisner & Iger, Tuska said in 2001, "I worked alongside Bob Powell, Lou Fine, Mike Sekowsky", his studio colleagues grew to include artists Charles Sultan, John Celardo, Nick Cardy, writer Toni Blum. Writer-artist and company co-founder Will Eisner recalled of the period, "It was a friendly shop, I guess I was the same age as the youngest guys there. We all got along; the only ones who got into a hassle were George Tuska and Bob Powell. Powell made remarks about other people in the shop. One day, George had enough of it, got up, punched out Bob Powell"; the otherwise mild-mannered Tuska, thinking comic books "would last two or three years — a fad" left to seek non-comics work. After two weeks, however, he came across colleagues Sultan and Dave Glaser, on their way to meet with comics packager Harry "A" Chesler. Tuska, invited along, joined Chesler's studio, working there in 1939 and 1940, earning $22 a week, increased to $42 a week within six months.
Alongside colleagues that included Sultan, Ruben Moreira, Mac Raboy, Ralph Astarita, to Tuska helped to supply content for such Fawcett Comics publications as Captain Marvel Adventures. When Eisner-Iger client Fiction House formed its own bullpen to produce work on staff, Tuska left Chesler to join Cardy, Jim Mooney, Graham Ingels and other artists there. Tuska produced a prodigious amount of work that included, for Fiction House, the South Sea adventure feature "Shark Brodie" and the investigative feature "Hooks Devlin", both for Fight Comics. Before and during his six years at Fiction House, Tuska freelanced such features as the North Atlantic seafaring adventure "Spike Marlin" in Harvey Comics' Speed Comics. At some point, Tuska again worked for Will Eisner, now split from Jerry Iger, with a group of artists that included Alex Kotzky and Tex Blaisdell. "While with Eisner, I penciled some Spirit and Uncle Sam stories". Independently, he was assigned by Fawcett art director Al Allard to draw "a few more Captain Marvel stories.
Allard had asked me to draw as close as possible to the way Captain Marvel had first appeared in Whiz Comics.... After those freelance jobs, I never worked for Fawcett again". Tuska's earliest Captain Marvel work appeared in Captain Marvel Adventures #2-4. Drafted into the U. S. Army circa 1942, Tuska was stationed at the 100th Division at Fort Jackson in Columbia, South Carolina, where he drew military plans and was honorably discharged after a year for reasons the artist did not specify. Returning home, he took up again with Fiction House, drawing a host of stories featuring Reef Ryan, Rip Carson, Lady Satan, the Western hero Golden Arrow, Camilla, Queen of the Jungle. Following the huge popularity of superheroes during the World War II years, those characters' appeal began to dwindle in the post-war era. Comic-book publishers, casting about for new subjects and genres, found a hit in crime fiction, the most prominent comic of, Lev Gleason Publications' Crime Does Not Pay. Tuska would soon make a nam
Richard Bache "Dick" Ayers was an American comic book artist and cartoonist best known for his work as one of Jack Kirby's inkers during the late-1950s and 1960s period known as the Silver Age of Comics, including on some of the earliest issues of Marvel Comics' The Fantastic Four. He is the signature penciler of Marvel's World War II comic Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos, drawing it for a 10-year run, he co-created Magazine Enterprises' 1950s Western-horror character the Ghost Rider, a version of which he would draw for Marvel in the 1960s. Ayers was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2007. Richard Bache Ayers was born April 28, 1924 in Ossining, New York, the son of John Bache Ayers and Gladys Minnerly Ayers, he had a sister, 10 years older. The siblings were in the 13th generation, he said, of the Ayers family that had settled in Newbury, Massachusetts in 1635. At 18, during World War II, he enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps, stationed in Florida, where after failing radar training he was sent for a month's art training at McTomb University and began working as an artist in the Air Corps' Operations division.
He published his first comic strip, Radio Ray, in the military newspaper Radio Post in 1942. Ayers broke into comics with unpublished work done for Western Publishing's Dell Comics imprint. "I approached them," Ayers said in a 1996 interview. "I had a story drawn. They wanted to wrap a book around it.... I got into it, but Dell decided to scrap the project.... It was an adventure thing and girl; the girl kept feeding the jukebox and he'd played along to Harry James or whatever sort of thing.... It didn't make it, but it got me started where I wanted to be in the business." Following this, in 1947, Ayers studied under Burne Hogarth in the first class of Hogarth's new institution, New York City's Cartoonists and Illustrators School. Joe Shuster, co-creator of Superman, would visit the class, Ayers ventured to his nearby studio. "Next thing I knew," Ayers said in the same interview, "I was penciling a bit here and there." In a 2005 interview, Ayers elaborated that, "Joe had me pencil some of his Funnyman stories after seeing my drawings at Hogarth's evening class" and "sent me to Vin Sullivan of Magazine Enterprises."
There, Sullivan "let me try the Jimmy Durante strip. I submitted my work and got the job."Ayers went on to pencil and ink Western stories in the late 1940s for Magazine Enterprises' A-1 Comics and Trail Colt, for Prize Comics' Prize Comics Western. With writer Ray Krank, Ayers created the horror-themed Western character Ghost Rider in Tim Holt #11; the character appeared in stories through the run of Tim Holt, Red Mask, A-1 Comics, Bobby Benson's B-Bar-B Riders, the 14-issue solo series The Ghost Rider, up through the introduction of the Comics Code. The character's genesis came, Ayers recalled in 2003, when Sullivan "describe what he wanted in the Ghost Rider" and told Ayers to see the 1949 Disney animated feature The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, one segment of which adapted Washington Irving's story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", featuring the Headless Horseman. "nd he told me to play the Vaughn Monroe record " Riders in the Sky". And he started talking about what he wanted the guy wearing."After the trademark to the character's name and motif lapsed, Marvel Comics debuted its own near-identical, non-horror version of the character in Ghost Rider #1, by writers Roy Thomas and Gary Friedrich and original Ghost Rider artist Ayers.
Ayers' hands appear onscreen as those of a cartoonist played by actor Don Briggs in "The Comic Strip Murders", a 1949 episode of the CBS television series Suspense. In 1952, while continuing to freelance for Magazine Enterprises, Ayers began a long freelance run at Atlas Comics, the 1950s forerunner of Marvel Comics, he drew horror stories in such titles as Adventures into Terror, Journey into Mystery, Journey into Unknown Worlds, Mystery Tales, Strange Tales, Uncanny Tales. As well, he drew the brief revival of the 1940s Golden Age of Comics superhero the Human Torch, from Marvel's 1940s predecessor Timely Comics, in Young Men # 21-24. An additional, unpublished Human Torch story drawn by Ayers belatedly appeared in Marvel Super-Heroes #16. During the 1950s, Ayers drew freelance for Charlton Comics, including for the horror comic The Thing and the satirical series Eh!. Ayers first teamed with the influential and important penciler Jack Kirby at Atlas shortly before Atlas transitioned to become Marvel Comics.
As Kirby's second regular Marvel inker, following Christopher Rule, Ayers would ink countless covers and stories, including on such landmark comics as most early issues of The Fantastic Four, in addition to a slew of Western and "pre-superhero Marvel" monster stories in Amazing Adventures, Journey into Mystery, Strange Tales, Tales of Suspense, Tales to Astonish. Because creator credits were not given at the time, two standard databases disagree over the duo's first published collaboration. Ayers revealed in 1996, however: The first work I did with Jack was the cover of Wyatt Earp #25. Stan Lee liked it and sent me another job, "The Martian Who Stole My Body," for Journey into Mystery #57. I began Sky Masters, the newspaper strip. There is a lot of confusion on this. But, Dave Wood, the writer. I began Sky Masters with the 36th Sunday page.
Harvey Comics was an American comic book publisher, founded in New York City by Alfred Harvey in 1941, after buying out the small publisher Brookwood Publications. His brothers, Robert B. and Leon Harvey, joined shortly after. The company soon got into licensed characters; the artist Warren Kremer is associated with the publisher. Harvey's signature mascot is a harlequin jack-in-the-box character. Harvey Comics was founded by the Harvey brothers; the title's headliners were a patriotic hero like The Shield. Harvey added more anthologies, including Pocket Comics. From the new titles only one would stay around for a while: The Black Cat, a Hollywood starlet-superhero, published into the 1950s. Harvey began a shift to licensed characters when in 1942 took over as the radio hero Green Hornet's publisher from Holyoke after six issues. Harvey added additional titles such. Licensed characters included Joe Palooka, Dick Tracy, other newspaper strip characters; the company became best known for characters it published in comics from 1950s onward those it licensed from the animation company Famous Studios, a unit of Paramount Pictures, starting in 1951.
These include Little Audrey, Casper the Friendly Ghost, Baby Huey, Herman and Katnip. Harvey licensed popular characters from newspaper comic strips, such as Mutt and Jeff and Sad Sack. In addition, Harvey developed such original properties as Little Dot and Little Lotta. While the company tried to diversify the comics it published, with brief forays in the 1950s and 1960s into superhero, horror and other forms in such imprints as Harvey Thriller and Thrill Adventure, children's comics were the bulk of its output. On July 27, 1958, Harvey purchased the October 1950–March 1962 Famous Studio cartoons; the Famous cartoons were repackaged and distributed to television as Harveytoons, Harvey continued production on new comics and a handful of new cartoons produced for television. Casper the Friendly Ghost, Famous' most popular original character, now became Harvey's top draw. Associated characters such as Spooky the Tuff Little Ghost, The Ghostly Trio, Casper's horse Nightmare, Hot Stuff the Little Devil, Wendy the Good Little Witch were added to the Harvey line.
By the early 1980s, Marvel Comics was in negotiations with Harvey Comics to assume publication of some of their characters. Harvey editor Sid Jacobson, along with the other Harvey staff, were interviewed by Mike Hobson, Marvel's group vice-president of publishing; as part of the process, Jacobson created several new characters which were well received by Hobson and sealed the deal. Marvel Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter appointed editor Tom DeFalco as executive editor to coordinate with the Harvey staff, who were hired by Marvel. On the day Marvel was set to take over the Harvey publications, Harvey Comics pulled out of the deal due to an internal disagreement among the two remaining Harvey brothers and Leon. Harvey would cease publishing their comics in 1982. In summer 1984, Steve Geppi paid $50,000 for, among other properties, Harvey's entire archive of original art from the Harvey comic Sad Sack. Geppi made this agreement with Steve Harvey, who at the time was president of Harvey Publications, Inc. as well as president of Sad Sack, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvey Publications, Inc.
In 1985 the Marvel imprint Star Comics published. Harvey sued Star for copyright infringement; the Royal Roy comic ended after the lawsuit was dropped. In 1986, Harvey resumed publication under the leadership of Alan Harvey, focusing on a few core titles and reprints. In 1987, Harvey sued Columbia Pictures, for $50 million, claiming that the Ghostbusters logo used in the 1984 film was too reminiscent of Fatso from the Casper series; the court ruled in Columbia's favor, due to Harvey's failure to renew the copyrights on early Casper stories and the "limited ways to draw a figure of a cartoon ghost". In 1989, Harvey was sold to Jeffrey Montgomery's HMH Communications, located in Santa Monica, California, it was renamed Harvey Comics Entertainment, publishing reprints in the early 1990s as Harvey Classics. In 1993 the company created two imprints, Nemesis Comics and Ultracomics, to publish Ultraman comics, as well as a couple of other titles. In 1994 Marvel took over publishing and distribution for HCE.
In addition, Montgomery himself began selling a package of older cartoons featuring the characters Harvey had purchased from Paramount. To local stations. With Claster Television serving as his distributor, Montgomery launched Casper & Friends in 1990. After the rerun package was pulled in 1994, Carbunkle Cartoons and Film Roman conceived two new animated series for Baby Huey and Richie Rich, with Montgomery as executive producer. During this period, Montgomery sold 20% of the compan
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
Joseph Henry "Joe" Simon was an American comic book writer, artist and publisher. Simon created or co-created many important characters like Captain America in the 1930s–1940s Golden Age of Comic Books and served as the first editor of Timely Comics, the company that would evolve into Marvel Comics. With his partner, artist Jack Kirby, he co-created Captain America, one of comics' most enduring superheroes, the team worked extensively on such features at DC Comics as the 1940s Sandman and Sandy the Golden Boy, co-created the Newsboy Legion, the Boy Commandos, Manhunter. Simon and Kirby creations for other comics publishers include Boys' Ranch, Fighting American and the Fly. In the late 1940s, the duo created the field of romance comics, were among the earliest pioneers of horror comics. Simon, who went on to work in advertising and commercial art founded the satirical magazine Sick in 1960, remaining with it for a decade, he returned to DC Comics in the 1970s. Simon was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1999.
Joe Simon was born in 1913 as Hymie Simon and raised in Rochester, New York, the son of Harry Simon, who had emigrated from Leeds, England, in 1905, Rose, whom Harry met in the United States. Harry Simon moved to Rochester a clothing-manufacturing center where his younger brother Isaac lived, the couple had a daughter, Beatrice, in 1912. A poor Jewish family, the Simons lived in "a first-floor flat which doubled as my father's tailor shop". Simon attended Benjamin Franklin High School, where he was art director for the school newspaper and the yearbook – earning his first professional fee as an artist when two universities each paid $10 publication rights for his art deco, tempera splash pages for the yearbook sections. Upon graduation in 1932, Simon was hired by Rochester Journal-American art director Adolph Edler as an assistant, replacing Simon's future comics colleague Al Liederman, who had quit. Between production duties, he did occasional sports and editorial cartoons for the paper. Two years Simon took an art job at the Syracuse Herald in Syracuse, New York, for $45 a week, supplying sports and editorial cartoons here as well.
Shortly thereafter, for $60 a week, he succeeded Liederman as art director of a paper whose name Simon recalled in his 1990 autobiography as the Syracuse Journal American, although the Syracuse Journal and the Syracuse Sunday American, were the separate weekday and Sunday papers, respectively. The paper soon closed, Simon, at 23, ventured to New York City. There, Simon took a room at the boarding house Haddon Hall, in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, near Columbia University. At the suggestion of the art director of the New York Journal American, he sought and found freelance work at Paramount Pictures, working above the Paramount Theatre on Broadway, retouching the movie studio's publicity photos, he found freelance work at Macfadden Publications, doing illustrations for True Story and other magazines. Sometime afterward, his boss, art director Harlan Crandall, recommended Simon to Lloyd Jacquet, head of Funnies, Inc. one of that era's comic-book "packagers" that supplied comics content on demand to publishers testing the new medium.
That day, Simon received his first comics a seven-page Western. Four days Jacquet asked Simon, at the behest of Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman, to create a flaming superhero like Timely's successful character the Human Torch. From this came Simon's first comic-book hero, the Fiery Mask. Simon used the pseudonym Gregory Sykes on at least one story during this time, "King of the Jungle", starring Trojak The Tiger Man, in Timely's Daring Mystery Comics #2. During this time, Simon met Fox Feature Syndicate comics artist Jack Kirby, with whom he would soon have a storied collaboration lasting a decade-and-a-half. Speaking at a 1998 Comic-Con International panel in San Diego, Simon recounted the meeting: I had a suit and Jack thought, nice. He'd never seen a comic book artist with a suit before; the reason I had a suit was. Jack's father was a tailor too, but he made pants! Anyway, I was doing freelance work and I had a little office in New York about ten blocks from DC' and Fox's offices, I was working on Blue Bolt for Funnies, Inc.
So, of course, I loved the first time I saw it I couldn't believe what I was seeing. He asked. I was delighted and I took him over to my little office. We worked from the second issue of Blue Bolt... and remained a team across the next two decades. In the early 2000s, original art for an unpublished, five-page Simon and Kirby collaboration titled "Daring Disc", which may predate the duo's Blue Bolt, surfaced. Simon published the story in the 2003 updated edition of The Comic Book Makers. After leaving Fox and landing at pulp magazine publisher Martin Goodman's Timely Comics, where Simon became the company's first editor, the Simon and Kirby team created the seminal patriotic hero Captain America. Captain America Comics #1, going on sale in December 1940 – a year before the bombing of Pearl Harbor but showing the hero punching Hitler in the jaw – sold nearly one million copies, they remained on the hit series as a team through issue #10, were established as a notable creative force in the industry.
After the first issue was published, Simon asked Kirby to join the Timely staff as the company's art director. Despite the success of the Captain America character, Simon felt Goodman was not paying the pair the promised percentage of profits, so sought work for the two of t
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
James F. Steranko is an American graphic artist, comic book writer/artist, comics historian, magician and film production illustrator, his most famous comic book work was with the 1960s superspy feature "Nick Fury, Agent of S. H. I. E. L. D." in Marvel Comics' Strange Tales and in the subsequent eponymous series. Steranko earned lasting acclaim for his innovations in sequential art during the Silver Age of Comic Books his infusion of surrealism, pop art, graphic design into the medium, his work has been published in many countries and his influence on the field has remained strong since his comics heyday. He went on to create book covers, become a comics historian who published a pioneering two-volume history of the birth and early years of comic books, to create conceptual art and character designs for films including Raiders of the Lost Ark and Bram Stoker's Dracula, he was inducted into the comic-book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006. Steranko was born in Pennsylvania. According to Steranko's authorized biography, his grandparents emigrated from Ukraine to settle in the anthracite coal-mining region of eastern Pennsylvania.
Steranko's father, one of nine siblings, began working in the mines at age 10, as an adult became a tinsmith. Steranko said his father and uncles "would bootleg coal – they would go up into a mountain and open up a shaft." One of three children, all boys, Steranko spent his early childhood during the American Great Depression living in a three-room house with a tar-paper roof and outhouse toilet facilities. He slept on a couch in the nominal living room. Steranko's father and five uncles showed musical inclination, performing in a band that played on Reading radio in the 1930s, Steranko has said. Steranko recalled beginning school at age 4. "Because my father had tuberculosis, I began third grade at what was called an'open-window' school, a facility across the city that had a healthy program for kids with special problems. I was bused to school for four years dropped into standard junior high." There, being smaller and younger than his classmates, he found himself a target for bullies and young gang-members until he studied boxing and self-defense at the local YMCA and began to fight back.
His youngest brother was born when Steranko was 14, "severing the minimal interaction between me and my parents."Steranko had begun drawing while young and flattening envelopes from the mail to use as sketch paper. Despite his father's denigration of Steranko's artistic talent, the boy's ambition to become an architect, Steranko paid for his art supplies by collecting discarded soda bottles for the bottle deposit and bundled old newspapers to sell to scrap-paper dealers, he studied the Sunday comic strip art of Milton Caniff, Alex Raymond, Hal Foster, Chester Gould, as well as the characters of Walt Disney and Superman, provided in "boxes of comics" brought to him by an uncle. Radio programs, Saturday movie matinées and serials, other popular culture influenced him. Steranko in 1978 described some influences and their impact on his creative philosophy: Early influences were Chester Gould's Dick Tracy, Hal Foster, Frank Robbins' Johnny Hazard. I still think. Fans seem to have a lot less opinion of Robbins for some reason, just because they're more enamored of lines.
Fans seem to think the better it is. The opposite is true; the fewer lines you can put into a drawing the quicker it reads, the simpler it is. Toth is one of the few guys who can simplify an illustration to a minimum of lines with a maximum of impact. By his account, Steranko learned stage magic using paraphernalia from his father's stage magician act, in his teens spent several summers working with circuses and carnivals, working his way up to sideshow performer as a fire-eater and in acts involving a bed of nails and sleight-of-hand. At school, he competed on the gymnastics team, on the rings and parallel bars, took up boxing and, under swordmaster Dan Phillips in New York City, fencing. At 17, Steranko and another teenage boy were arrested for a string of burglaries and car thefts in Pennsylvania. Up through his early 20s, Steranko performed as an illusionist, escape artist, close-up magician in nightclubs, musician, having played in drum and bugle corps in his teens before forming his own bands during the early days of rock and roll.
Steranko, whose first band, in 1956, was called The Lancers, did not perform under his own name, claiming he used pseudonyms to help protect himself from enemies. He claims to have put the first go-go girls onstage; the seminal rock and roll group Bill Haley and his Comets was based in nearby Philadelphia and Steranko, who played a Jazzmaster guitar performed in the same local venues, sometimes on the same bill, became friendly with Haley guitarist Frank Beecher, who became a musical influence. By the late 1960s, Steranko was a member of a New York City magicians' group, the Witchdoctor's Club. Comics historian Mark Evanier notes that the influential comic-book creator Jack Kirby, who "based some of his characters... on people in his life or in the news", was "inspired" to create the escape artist character Mister Miracle "by an earlier career of writer-artist Jim Steranko". During the day, Steranko made his living as an artist for a printing company in his hometown of Reading and drawing pamphlets and flyers for local dance clubs and the like.
He moved on after five years to jo