Spyware is a type of malware that aims to gather information about a person or organization, without their knowledge, send such information to hack another entity without the consumer's consent. Furthermore, spyware asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, sending confidential information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies. Spyware is classified into four types: adware, system monitors, tracking cookies, trojans. Spyware is used for the stealing information and storing Internet users' movements on the Web and serving up pop-up ads to Internet users. Whenever spyware is used for malicious purposes, its presence is hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect; some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users. While the term spyware suggests software that monitors a user's computing, the functions of spyware can extend beyond simple monitoring.

Spyware can collect any type of data, including personal information like internet surfing habits, user logins, bank or credit account information. Spyware can interfere with a user's control of a computer by installing additional software or redirecting web browsers; some spyware can change computer settings, which can result in slow Internet connection speeds, un-authorized changes in browser settings, or changes to software settings. Sometimes, spyware is included along with genuine software, may come from a malicious website or may have been added to the intentional functionality of genuine software. In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a recognized element of computer security practices for computers running Microsoft Windows. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which target any software, surreptitiously installed to control a user's computer. In German-speaking countries, spyware used or made by the government is called govware by computer experts.

Govware is a trojan horse software used to intercept communications from the target computer. Some countries, like Switzerland and Germany, have a legal framework governing the use of such software. In the US, the term "policeware" has been used for similar purposes. Use of the term "spyware" has declined as the practice of tracking users has been pushed further into the mainstream by major websites and data mining companies. In one documented example, on CBS/CNet News reported, on March 7, 2011, on a Wall Street Journal analysis revealing the practice of Facebook and other websites of tracking users' browsing activity, linked to their identity, far beyond users' visits and activity within the Facebook site itself; the report stated: "Here's. You go to Facebook, you log in, you spend some time there, then... you move on without logging out. Let's say the next site; those buttons, without you clicking on them, have just reported back to Facebook and Twitter that you went there and your identity within those accounts.

Let's say. This one has a tweet button, a Google widget, those, can report back who you are and that you went there." The WSJ analysis was researched by founder of Disconnect, Inc.. Spyware does not spread in the same way as a virus or worm because infected systems do not attempt to transmit or copy the software to other computers. Instead, spyware installs itself on a system by deceiving the user or by exploiting software vulnerabilities. Most spyware is installed by using deceptive tactics. Spyware may try to deceive users by bundling itself with desirable software. Other common tactics are using a Trojan horse, spy gadgets that look like normal devices but turn out to be something else, such as a USB Keylogger; these devices are connected to the device as memory units but are capable of recording each stroke made on the keyboard. Some spyware authors infect a system through security holes in other software; when the user navigates to a Web page controlled by the spyware author, the page contains code which attacks the browser and forces the download and installation of spyware.

The installation of spyware involves Internet Explorer. Its popularity and history of security issues have made it a frequent target, its deep integration with the Windows environment make it susceptible to attack into the Windows operating system. Internet Explorer serves as a point of attachment for spyware in the form of Browser Helper Objects, which modify the browser's behaviour. A spyware operates alone on a computer. Users notice unwanted behavior and degradation of system performance. A spyware infestation can create significant unwanted CPU activity, disk usage, network traffic. Stability issues, such as applications freezing, failure to boot, system-wide crashes are common. Spyware, which interferes with networking software causes difficulty connecting to the Internet. In some infections, the spyware is not evident. Users assume in those situations th

Mystery Train (book)

Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock'N' Roll Music is a non-fiction book written in 1975 by Greil Marcus. It features critical essays centered around artists such as Elvis Presley, Sly Stone, Robert Johnson, Randy Newman. Greil Marcus, rock critic and columnist for Rolling Stone, contributor to other publications, such as Creem, the Village Voice, Artforum, wrote Mystery Train in 1975. In the prologue, he relates that the book "is no attempt at synthesis, but a recognition of unities in the American imagination that exist." The writing, according to the author, took about "two years of doing nothing else."Mystery Train, according to one reviewer, reflects on what could be called "the historical turn" that rock took at the close of the 60s, initiated by Bob Dylan and the Band, followed through by everyone from Creedence Clearwater Revival to Randy Newman, the music moving "beyond rock'n'roll's teenage immersion in the present to an adult sophistication steeped in deep knowledge of rock's roots in blues and country and lyrics that looked to the past for inspiration."According to another reviewer, Marcus proceeds in his examination of American popular culture with the "democratic assumption" that Presley and Herman Melville are cultural and political equals, are, therefore, "in conversation with one another - having a dialogue about freedom and limits and tradition, American dreams and American obsessions."

When the 2nd edition came out, Elvis had died, Marcus was asked to amend the chapter relating to Elvis by putting everything in the past tense but he refused, because, he said, "Elvis' presence was so powerful, I felt he's always in the present tense."Mystery Train opens with an episode on the Dick Cavett show, where Little Richard interrupts a disagreement between a writer and a critic, closes with a transcript of Jerry Lee Lewis arguing with producer Sam Phillips as they are setting up to record "Great Balls of Fire" in 1957.. Frank Rich reviewed the book for The Village Voice and wrote that Marcus' "frame of reference is so vast that he never runs out of connections worth making between the music he loves and just about anything else that matters in American art and life.” David Itzkoff and Alan Light, in a 2005 critical roundup of music-related books, claimed that Myster Train is "perhaps the finest book written about pop music." New York Times literary critic Dwight Garner stated in 2015 that "most critics and serious listeners think ’s certainly the best book yet written about American music in general, about rock in particular."In 2011, Time magazine picked it among the "100 best and most influential written in English since 1923."

Author's note PROLOGUE ANCESTORSHARMONICA FRANK ROBERT JOHNSONINHERITORSTHE BAND: Pilgrims' ProgressCrossing the Border / Stranger Blues / The Righteous Land / Even Stranger Blues / The WeightSLY STONE: The Myth of StaggerleeStaggerlee / Sly Stone / Riot / Sly Versus Superfly / A Quiet RebellionRANDY NEWMAN: Every Man Is FreePop / Newman's America, 1 / Newman's America, 2 / Newman's FailureELVIS: PresliadFanfare / Hillbilly Music / Raised Up / The Rockabilly Moment / Elvis Moves Out / The Boy Who Stole The Blues / The Pink Cadillac / Elvis At Home / Mystery Train / FinaleEPILOGUE NOTES AND DISCOGRAPHIES Dead Elvis, on the influence of Elvis Presley on American culture in the latter half of the 1970s. Invisible Republic, on the creation and cultural importance of The Basement Tapes, a series of recordings made by Bob Dylan in 1967 in collaboration with the Hawks, who would subsequently become known as the Band. Music journalism Cantwell, David. "Greil Marcus's The New Yorker, 2 December 2015 Garner, Dwight.

"Just a Book? No, More Like a Trusty Companion", The New York Times, 2 September 2015 Itzkoff, David & Alan Light. "Music Chronicle", The New York Times, 3 July 2005 Marcus, Greil. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock'N' Roll Music. "Greil Marcus: a life in writing", The Guardian, 17 February 2012 Sheffield, Rob. "A Conversation With Greil Marcus:'Mystery Train' Keeps Rolling at 40", Rolling Stone, 19 October 2015 All-TIME 100 Nonfiction Books", Time magazine, 17 August 2011 Mars-Jones, Adam. "A New Literary History of America Edited by Greil Marcus and Werner Sollors, The Guardian, 31 January 2010

Light level geolocator

A light level geolocator, light-level logger or GLS is a lightweight, electronic archival tracking device used in bird migration research to map migration routes, identify important staging areas, sometimes provide additional ecological information. A geolocator periodically records ambient light level to determine location. Animal tracking using light level data appears to have been first carried out on elephant seals. Although not described until 1992, the first device to be developed was in 1989 as an adaptation of a TDR and called a geographic location, time-depth recorder weighing 196g. In 1992 was a publication by a different group with a similar design who called it a global location sensor though no field use was mentioned; the use of dedicated light level recorders for tracking birds was pioneered in the 1990s by engineer, Vsevolod Afanasyev, scientists at the British Antarctic Survey who first developed a device in an attempt to record the movements of juvenile wandering albatross during the many years between fledging and returning to their colony to breed.

From albatrosses and other seabirds the use of geolocators has been extended to other migratory species, including waders, wildfowl and songbirds as designs have become smaller and more energy efficient. Light level geolocators use an electronic light sensor to record light level and may make other measurements to aid geolocation; the smallest are archival types that do not use satellite or radio telemetry to offload data and recapture of the bird is necessary to obtain the data. The disadvantage of having to recapture is offset by the miniature size to which archival loggers can be made. By using low power design techniques and data compression they can record data for long periods of time. Recording light levels over time produces data that can be used to calculate latitude and longitude readings of a bird's long-distance movements; the traditionally used'threshold analysis method' requires only twilight data time-stamped. Daylight length is used to determine latitude, while the mid-time between a dawn and dusk is used to determine longitude.

In this way, two position fixes can be obtained daily. Other analysis techniques can include analysis of the dawn and dusk curve, or use the noon light level to attempt cloud compensation; the location data so derived is not as accurate as that from GPS or PTT tracking involving satellites, but the devices can be made lighter and cheaper. Other sensors, such as for recording temperature, or whether the logger is wet or dry, may be used in conjunction with the light-level logging in order to provide further ecological information; the devices may be attached to the bird being tracked by a harness, or to the band on the bird's leg. The weights of geolocators range with a battery life of 6 months to 5 years; the main accuracy limitation of light level geolocation is due to the uncertainty in the amount of attenuation of the ambient light level at any particular time. Light attenuation can have many causes e.g. cloud, foliage, topography. Because of this, the quality of the resulting location calculations varies with species, tag attachment technique and behaviour