Numbered Air Force
A Numbered Air Force is a type of organization in the United States Air Force, subordinate to a Major Command and has assigned to it operational units such as wings and groups. A Component Numbered Air Force has the additional role as an Air Force Component Command exercising command and control over air and space forces supporting a Unified Combatant Command. Unlike MAJCOMs, which have a management role, a NAF is a tactical organization with an operational focus, does not have the same functional staff as a MAJCOM. Numbered air forces are commanded by a major general or a lieutenant general. Numerical designations for Numbered Air Forces are written out, without the use of ordinal numbers, but cardinal numerals are used in abbreviations. Units directly subordinate to a NAF are numbered 6XX. For example, the 618th Air and Space Operations Center is a unit subordinate to the Eighteenth Air Force. Numbered air forces began as named organizations in the United States Army Air Corps before World War II.
The first four NAFs were established as the Northeast, Northwest and Southwest Air Districts on 19 October 1940 to provide air defense for the United States. These Air Districts were redesignated as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Air Forces on 26 March 1941. Over a year after the establishment of the United States Army Air Forces on June 20, 1941, the Arabic numerals were changed to the First, Second and Fourth Air Forces on 18 September 1942. Other organizations established during this period and that became Numbered air forces include the Philippine Department Air Force, the Panama Canal Air Force, the Hawaiian Air Force, the Alaskan Air Force. After World War II, the US Air Force numbered air forces. While named air forces were used in both tactical and support roles, numbered air forces were employed only in tactical roles; as part of a peacetime restructuring in March 1946, the United States Army Air Forces were reorganized into three major operating commands: the Strategic Air Command, the Tactical Air Command, the Air Defense Command.
These commands reflected the basic air combat missions that evolved during the war, each reported directly to General Carl Spaatz, the Commanding General, Army Air Forces. Numbered air forces served as an intermediate headquarters between these commands and the operational wings and groups. Eleven of the sixteen wartime; the Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces were assigned to SAC. Second Air Force would be transferred to SAC in 1949; the numbered air forces had both operational and administrative authority, existed as a command level between major commands and air divisions. Although variations existed, number air forces were reassigned, this basic arrangement persisted throughout the Cold War; the role of numbered air forces changed in the 1990s during the Air Force reorganization initiated by Air Force Chief of Staff General Merrill McPeak. The goal of the reorganization was to "streamline, take layers out, flatten organizational charts, while at the same time clarifying the roles and responsibilities of essential supporting functions."
Numbered air forces were reorganized into tactical echelons focused on operations, their administrative staff functions were eliminated. This reorganization reduced the number of major commands, eliminated the air divisions to place numbered air forces directly in command of operational wings; the role of numbered air forces was again changed in 2006 with the implementation of the Component Air Force concept. Some numbered air forces have an additional mission as the Air Force Component Command exercising command and control over air and space forces supporting a Unified Combatant Command. C-NAFs have a second designation to identify their role. For example, First Air Force, a numbered air force assigned to Air Combat Command, is designated as Air Force Northern in its role as the air component of the United States Northern Command. Most C-NAFs have an Air and Space Operations Center to provide command and control of air and space operations for the supported combatant commander; the table below lists current and historical numbered air forces of the US Air Force, their C-NAF designation, their current shield and station, the major command to which they are assigned.
Note that the lineage of some numbered air forces is continued by non-NAF organizations. Boldface indicates a NAF or C-NAF, active. Named Air Forces operate at the same level as Numbered Air Forces. General Headquarters Air Force, the first named air force of the United States Army's air arm, began operations in 1935; the GHQ Air Force became the Air Force Combat Command in 1941. Several of the numbered air forces began as named air forces. Since World War II other named. Air Forces Iceland, the Central, Eastern and Western Air Defense Forces, have provided air defense capability; the USAF Special Operations Force controlled operational special forces. The Crew and Technical Training Air Forces served Air Training Command both in the air and on the ground. Pacific Air
Exercise Red Flag
Exercise Red Flag is a two-week advanced aerial combat training exercise held several times a year by the United States Air Force. The purpose is to offer realistic air-combat training for military pilots and other flight crew members from the U. S. NATO and other allied countries; each year, four to six Red Flag exercises are held at Nellis Air Force Base, while up to four more, dubbed Red Flag – Alaska, are held at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. First held in 1975, the Red Flag exercises bring together air crews from the United States Air Force, United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, United States Army and numerous NATO and other allied nations' air forces. Red Flag exercises are conducted under the aegis of the United States Air Force Warfare Center at Nellis, they are run by the 414th Combat Training Squadron of the 57th Wing. They use "enemy" hardware and live ammunition for bombing exercises within the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range; the mission of the 414 CTS is to maximize the combat readiness and survivability of participants by providing a realistic training environment and a pre-flight and post-flight training forum that encourages a free exchange of ideas.
To accomplish this, combat units from the United States and its allied countries engage in realistic combat training scenarios conducted within the Nellis Range Complex. The Nellis Range complex is located northwest of Las Vegas and covers an area of 60 nautical miles by 100 nautical miles, about half the area of Switzerland; this space allows the exercises to be on a large scale. In a typical Red Flag exercise, Blue Forces engage Red Forces in realistic combat situations. Blue Forces are made up of units from the Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Global Strike Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, United States Air Forces Europe, Pacific Air Forces, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command, Air Force Space Command, aviation units of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Army, the Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, as well as other allied air forces and fleet air arms, they are led by a Blue Forces commander, who coordinates the units in an "employment plan" scheme of operation.
Red Forces are composed of the 57th Wing's 57th Adversary Tactics Group, flying F-16s from the 64th Aggressor Squadron and F-15s from the 65th Aggressor Squadron to provide realistic air threats through the emulation of opposition tactics. The Red Forces are augmented by other U. S. Air Force, U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps units flying in concert with the 507th Air Defense Aggressor Squadron's electronic ground defenses and communications, radar jamming equipment; the 527th Space Aggressor Squadron, an Active Duty unit, the 26th Space Aggressor Squadron, an Air Force Reserve Command unit provide GPS jamming. Additionally, the Red Force command and control organization simulates a realistic enemy integrated air defense system. A key element of Red Flag operations is Debriefing System. RFMDS is a computer hardware and software network which provides real-time monitoring, post-mission reconstruction of maneuvers and tactics, participant pairings and integration of range targets and simulated threats.
Blue Force commanders objectively assess mission effectiveness and validate lessons learned from data provided by the RFMDS. A typical flag exercise year includes one Canadian Maple Flag and four Red Flags; each Red Flag exercise involves a variety of fighter interdiction, attack/strike, air superiority, enemy air defense suppression, air refueling and reconnaissance missions. In a 12-month period, more than 500 aircraft fly more than 20,000 sorties, while training more than 5,000 aircrews and 14,000 support and maintenance personnel. Before a "flag" begins, the Red Flag staff conducts a planning conference where unit representatives and planning staff members develop the size and scope of their participation. All aspects of the exercise, including billeting of personnel, transportation to Nellis AFB, range coordination, ordnance/munitions scheduling, development of training scenarios, are designed to be as realistic as possible exercising each participating unit's capabilities and objectives.
The origin of Red Flag was the unacceptable performance of U. S. Air Force fighter pilots and weapon systems officers in air combat maneuvering during the Vietnam War in comparison to previous wars. Air combat over North Vietnam between 1965 and 1973 led to an overall exchange ratio of 2.2:1. Among the several factors resulting in this disparity was a lack of realistic ACM training. USAF pilots and WSOs of the late 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s were not versed in the core values and basics of ACM due to the belief that BVR missile engagements and equipment made "close-in" maneuvering in air combat obsolete; as a result of this BVR-only mindset that reached its zenith in the early 1960s, nearly all USAF fighter pilots and WSO of the period were unpracticed in maneuvering against dissimilar aircraft because of a concurrent Air Force emphasis on flying safety. An Air Force analysis known as Project Red Baron II showed that a pilot's chances of survival in combat dram
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Republic of Singapore Air Force
The Republic of Singapore Air Force is the air arm of the Singapore Armed Forces. It was first established in 1968 as the Singapore Air Defence Command. In 1975, it was renamed the Republic of Singapore Air Force. In January 1968, the British announced the imminent withdrawal of all their troops east of Suez by the end of 1971. Prior to Singapore had depended on Britain's Royal Air Force for its air defence, while the newly established Singapore Armed Forces had concentrated its efforts on building up the Singapore Army; the predecessor to the RSAF, the SADC, was formed in September 1968. The SADC's immediate task was to set up the Flying Training School to train pilots. Qualified flying instructors were obtained through Airwork Services Limited, a UK-based company specialising in defence services. Basic training for pilots was carried out using two Cessna light aircraft hired from the Singapore Flying Club; the SADC enlisted the help of the Royal Air Force which introduced the first flying training syllabus and provided two ex-RAF pilots as instructors, as well as facilities and services at Seletar Airport.
The first batch of six pilot trainees were sent to the United Kingdom in August 1968 to undergo training in various technical disciplines. The training was based on the SADC's first air defence fighter; the following month, another pioneer group of technicians, this time from the rotary wing, were sent to France to begin their technical training on the Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopter. In 1969, a number of local RAF technicians were released to join the fledgling SADC; these local technicians had experience working on fixed-wing RAF aircraft such as the Hawker Hunter, Gloster Javelin, English Electric Canberra, English Electric Lightning and Avro Shackleton. Eight Cessna 172K aircraft – the SADC's first – arrived in May 1969 to be used for basic pilot training. By December, the first batch of students completed the course. Of these, six were sent to the UK to receive further training. On their return to Singapore in 1970, they were ready to operate the newly acquired Hawker Hunter fighter aircraft.
The pace of training pilots and ground crew picked up gradually. On 1 August 1969, Minister for the Interior and Defence, Lim Kim San, inaugurated the Flying Training School at Tengah Air Base; the inauguration of FTS brought SADC closer to its goal of fulfilling the heavy responsibility of defending Singapore's airspace. The subsequent arrival of the BAC Strikemasters in 1969, used for advanced phase flying training, meant that pilot trainees were now able to earn their initial wings locally rather than overseas; the first batch of locally trained fighter pilots were trained at the FTS and graduated in November 1970. Amongst this batch was 2LT Goh Yong Siang, who rose to the appointment of Chief of Air Force on 1 July 1995; the SADC had its own pilots, flying instructors, air traffic controllers, ground crew. When Britain brought forward its plan to withdraw its forces by September 1971, the SADC was entrusted with a huge responsibility and resources. Britain's former air bases – Tengah, Seletar and Changi – were handed over to the SADC, as well as its air defence radar station and Bloodhound II surface-to-air missiles.
In 1973, the SADC procured Shorts Skyvan search-and-locate aircraft and Douglas A-4 Skyhawk fighter-bombers. With a reliable mix of fighters, fighter-bombers and transport aircraft, the SADC was ready to assume the functions of a full-fledged air force. On 1 April 1975, the SADC was renamed the Republic of Singapore Air Force. One of its first commanders was LTC Ee Tean Chye; the RSAF celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2018 with the theme "Our Home, Above All". 50 years of RSAF history can be accessed here. The RSAF celebrated its Golden Jubilee with an extended flypast during the national day parade on 9th August and performed 2 sessions of aerial display at the Marina Barrage on the 11th and 12th of August. RSAF history factsheet can be accessed here. Combat Operations: 2004-2008: Multi-National Force – Iraq. Aircraft participated in the Iraq War and returned home after two or three months deployment in the Persian Gulf without any ground troops involved. Singapore's withdrawal was acknowledged on 23 December 2008.
May 2007 - June 2013: International Security Assistance Force. Deployment of close to 500 personnel including Singapore Air Force soldiers as part of Singapore's contributions to the multinational stabilisation and reconstruction efforts in War in Afghanistan 2014 - Present: Military intervention against ISIL. Offering military aid in the ongoing War on Terror with a KC-135 and assistant intelligence analysts; the RSAF is led by the Chief of the Air Air Force Command Chief. The Air Staff comprises six functional departments: Air Manpower, Air Intelligence, Air Operations, Air Engineering and Logistics, Air Plans and Air Training. There are two specialist departments: the Air Force Inspectorate and the Office of the Chief Air Force Medical Officer; the current CAF is Brigadier General Kelvin Khong Boon Leong. On 5 January 2007, Defence minister Teo Chee Hean announced that the Air Force organisation chart will be re-structured into five major commands, namely the Air Defence and Operations Command, the Air Combat Command, the Participation Command, the Air Power Generation Command and the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Command.
The first to be inaugurated was ADOC, along the restructuring announcement. ADOC is the principal agency in charge of planning and executing peacetim
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Royal Netherlands Air Force
The Royal Netherlands Air Force, is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces. It was created in 1953; the aerobatic display team of the Royal Netherlands Air Force is the Solo Display Team. The Royal Netherlands Air Force is the second youngest operational part of the Dutch Armed Forces, which consists of four parts: Navy, Air Force and Marechaussee. Dutch air power started on 1 July 1913 with the founding of the Army Aviation Group at Soesterberg airfield with four pilots; when founded, the Army Aviation Group operated one aircraft, the Brik, supplemented with three French Farman HF.20 aircraft a few months later. These aircraft were soon outdated and the Dutch government ordered several fighter/reconnaissance Nieuport and Caudron aircraft to replace them; the Netherlands maintained a neutral position during World War I and the Army Aviation Group did not take part in any action, instead developing the force's capabilities. Pilot training was opened for ranks below officer, technical, aerial photography and navigation flights were established.
New airfields were established at Arnhem, Gilze-Rijen air base and Vlissingen. After the end of World War I the Dutch government cut the defence budget and the Army Aviation Group was dissolved; as political tensions in Europe increased during the late 1930s the government tried to rebuild the armed forces again in 1938 but there were many problems, not least the shortage of pilot instructors and pilots to fly the new multiple engine aircraft. Lack of standardisation and resulting maintenance issues added to the complexity of the rebuilding task; as war loomed, in July 1939 the Army Aviation Group was renamed the Army Aviation Brigade. In August 1939, the Netherlands government mobilised its armed forces, but due to limited budgets the Army Aviation Brigade operated only 176 combat aircraft of the following types: 16 Fokker T. V type bombers 36 Fokker D. XXI single-engine fighters 35 Fokker G. I twin-engine fighters 7 Fokker D. XVII single engine fighters 17 Douglas DB-8A-3N light bombers 20 Fokker C.
X light bombers 33 Fokker C. V reconnaissance aircraft 20 Koolhoven FK-51 artillery observer aircraft In May 1940 the III Reich invaded the Netherlands. Within five days the Dutch Army Aviation Brigade was defeated by the Luftwaffe. All of the Brigade's bombers, along with 30 D. XXI and 17 G. I fighters were shot down. XXI and eight G. I were destroyed on the ground. Two G. I were captured by German forces, one of, flown to England by a Fokker pilot; the Douglas bombers were used as fighters. In spite of their numerical inferiority the Dutch Armed Forces did achieve some success against the Luftwaffe, which lost 350 aircraft in the conquest of the Netherlands, although many of these were lost to anti-aircraft fire and crashes at improvised landing fields in the Netherlands rather than due to action by Dutch fighter-aircraft; the cost was high – 95% of the Dutch pilots were lost. In recognition of their actions Queen Wilhelmina granted the highest Dutch military decoration, the Militaire Willemsorde, to the Army Aviation Brigade collectively.
Some aircrews escaped to England and on 1 June 1940, 320 Squadron and 321 Squadron were established there under RAF operational command. Due to a shortage of personnel, 321 Squadron was absorbed by 320 Sqn in January 1941. Although their personnel were predominantly from the Navy Air Service, Army Aviation aircrew served with 320 Sqn until the end of the war. In 1941, the Royal Netherlands Military Flying-School was re-established, in the United States at Jackson Field, Mississippi, operating lend-lease aircraft and training all military aircrew for the Netherlands; the separate Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger continued in the Netherlands East Indies, until its occupation by Japan in 1942. Some personnel escaped to Ceylon. 321 Squadron was re-formed in March 1942, from Dutch aviators. In 1942, 18 Squadron, a joint Dutch-Australian unit was established, in Canberra, equipped with B-25 Mitchell bombers, it saw action over the Dutch East Indies. In 1943, 120 Squadron was established.
Equipped with Kittyhawk fighters, it flew many missions under Australian command, including the recapturing of Dutch New Guinea. In June 1943, a Dutch fighter squadron was established in England. 322 Squadron, equipped with the Supermarine Spitfire, saw action as part of the RAF. 322 Sqn aircraft featured the British RAF roundels as well as the Dutch orange triangle. 322 Sqn was deployed against incoming V-1 flying bombs. From mid-1944, during the invasion of Normandy, it executed ground attack missions over France and Belgium. In July 1944, the Directorate of Netherlands Airpower was established in London. In 1947, its Chief of Air Force Staff was appointed. In 1951 several non-combat functions in the Army Aviation were opened to women. On 27 March 1953 the Royal Netherlands Air Force became an independent part of the Dutch armed forces, rather than part of the Army; the Air Defense Command, consisting of a command unit, five radar stations and six fighter squadrons, had been established. Its radar equipment as well as its
Nellis Air Force Base
Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation in southern Nevada with military schools and more squadrons than any other USAF base. Nellis hosts air combat exercises such as Exercise Red Flag and close air support exercises such as Green Flag-West flown in "Military Operations Area airspace", associated with the nearby Nevada Test and Training Range; the base has the Combined Air and Space Operations Center-Nellis. The Nellis AFB mission of advanced combat training for composite strike forces is conducted in conjunction with air and grounds units of the Army, Marine Corps and allied forces; the base supports operations at the nearby Creech Air Force Base, the Tonopah Test Range and the Nevada National Security Site. Nellis ground systems for range operations include the Computer and Computed Subsystem used to receive microwave signals from the NTTR Ground-Based Stations of the Tracking and Communications Subsystem for presentation on Nellis' Display and Debrief SubSystem. Units 53d Test and Evaluation Group, including the 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron 57th Wing, including the 57th Adversary Tactics Group, the Thunderbirds Squadron, the Weapons & Rescue Schools, & the Maintenance/Munitions Officers School 99th Air Base Wing 505th Operations Group 926th Group Air Expeditionary Force Battle Lab Joint Unmanned Aircraft Systems Center of Excellence Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis AFB covers about 11,300 acres in the northeast corner of the Las Vegas Valley, an alluvial basin in the Basin and Range Province.
Since World War II, Nellis has had areas added, such as Area II in 1969, but still has about 7,000 acres of undeveloped space. One World War II runway has been removed; the base has 3 areas. The United States Geological Survey names five different locations for the base: "Nellis Air Force Base", the airfield, the post office, a Community College of Southern Nevada campus, the census-designated place. Nellis Area I has the airfield and shopping facilities, dormitories/temporary lodging, some family housing, "and most of the command and support structures", e.g. Suter Hall for Red Flag. Nellis Area II northeast of the main base "at the foot of Sunrise Mountain" has the Nellis Gun Club, the 820th Red Horse Squadron. Nellis Area III is west of the main base with family housing and industrial areas, the Mike O'Callaghan Federal Hospital, Area III includes a 23.4 acres munitions response area which had World War II storage for small arms ammunition and chemical bombs and that now includes 2 remaining World War II buildings, 5 modern igloos, & the RV storage.
The Nellis Air Force Base CDP is a 3.1 sq mi region defined by the United States Census Bureau as of the 2010 United States Census. The CDP area includes military family housing and lodging as for aircrew temporary quarters during Red Flag exercises; the CDP residents include a portion of the Nellis work force of ~12,000 military and civilian personnel. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,896 people, 2,873 households, 2,146 families residing in the CDP. Population density was 2,895.9 people per square mile. There were 3,040 housing units at an average density of 989.6/sq mi. The gender ratio was 4813 males to 4083 females; the median age was 24 years, distribution by age group was 33.4% under the age of 18, 19.7% from 18 to 24, 38.5% from 25 to 44, 7.1% from 45 to 64, 1.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The racial makeup of the base was 68.5% White, 14.3% African American, 1.4% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 4.9% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population.
There were 2,873 households out of which 52.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. Of all households 17.9% were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.36. 2000 census median incomes were $33,118, $34,307, $25,551, & $19,210. About 10.0% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 16.1% of those age 65 or over. "Nellis AFB complex" refers to a group of southern Nevada military areas that are predominantly USAF and Bureau of Land Management areas outside of the base. The complex's land areas include Nellis AFB, the USAF Nevada Test and Training Range, the active portion of the Small Arms Range Annex north of the base, the annex's Formerly Used Defense Site of 5,775 acres, 13 BLM areas of 5.7 acres each leased for Patriot Radar/Communications Exercises, other BLM sites "under Military Operations Area airspace".
Nellis AFB leases space at the former Las Vegas AFS, environmental sites of the Tonopah Bombing Range are monitored by the EPA. Additional Formerly Used Defense Sites associated with the area's military operations are the Nye County Areas A, G, H, & I. After World War I, Nevada and other western