In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube is the only regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids and it has 6 faces,12 edges, and 8 vertices. The cube is a square parallelepiped, an equilateral cuboid and it is a regular square prism in three orientations, and a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron and it has cubical or octahedral symmetry. The cube has four special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, face, the first and third correspond to the A2 and B2 Coxeter planes. The cube can be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. In analytic geometry, a surface with center and edge length of 2a is the locus of all points such that max = a. For a cube of length a, As the volume of a cube is the third power of its sides a × a × a, third powers are called cubes, by analogy with squares. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with a surface area.
Also, a cube has the largest volume among cuboids with the same linear size. They were unable to solve this problem, and in 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved it to be impossible because the root of 2 is not a constructible number. The cube has three uniform colorings, named by the colors of the faces around each vertex,111,112,123. The cube has three classes of symmetry, which can be represented by coloring the faces. The highest octahedral symmetry Oh has all the faces the same color, the dihedral symmetry D4h comes from the cube being a prism, with all four sides being the same color. The lowest symmetry D2h is a symmetry, with sides alternating colors. Each symmetry form has a different Wythoff symbol, a cube has eleven nets, that is, there are eleven ways to flatten a hollow cube by cutting seven edges. To color the cube so that no two adjacent faces have the color, one would need at least three colors
Point groups in three dimensions
In geometry, a point group in three dimensions is an isometry group in three dimensions that leaves the origin fixed, or correspondingly, an isometry group of a sphere. It is a subgroup of the orthogonal group O, the group of all isometries that leave the origin fixed, or correspondingly, O itself is a subgroup of the Euclidean group E of all isometries. Symmetry groups of objects are isometry groups, analysis of isometry groups is analysis of possible symmetries. All isometries of a bounded 3D object have one or more fixed points. We choose the origin as one of them, the rotation group of an object is equal to its full symmetry group if and only if the object is chiral. Finite Coxeter groups are a set of point groups generated purely by a set of reflectional mirrors passing through the same point. A rank n Coxeter group has n mirrors and is represented by a Coxeter–Dynkin diagram, Coxeter notation offers a bracketed notation equivalent to the Coxeter diagram, with markup symbols for rotational and other subsymmetry point groups. SO is a subgroup of E+, which consists of direct isometries, i. e. isometries preserving orientation, it contains those that leave the origin fixed. O is the product of SO and the group generated by inversion.
An example would be C4 for H and S4 for M, Thus M is obtained from H by inverting the isometries in H ∖ L. This is clarifying when categorizing isometry groups, see below, in 2D the cyclic group of k-fold rotations Ck is for every positive integer k a normal subgroup of O and SO. Accordingly, in 3D, for every axis the cyclic group of rotations about that axis is a normal subgroup of the group of all rotations about that axis. e. See the similar overview including translations, when comparing the symmetry type of two objects, the origin is chosen for each separately, i. e. they need not have the same center. Moreover, two objects are considered to be of the symmetry type if their symmetry groups are conjugate subgroups of O. The conjugacy definition would allow a mirror image of the structure, but this is not needed. For example, if a symmetry group contains a 3-fold axis of rotation, there are many infinite isometry groups, for example, the cyclic group generated by a rotation by an irrational number of turns about an axis.
We may create non-cyclical abelian groups by adding more rotations around the same axis, there are non-abelian groups generated by rotations around different axes. They will be infinite unless the rotations are specially chosen, all the infinite groups mentioned so far are not closed as topological subgroups of O
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer, Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into a form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclids Elements. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC, islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, while geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry.
These include the concepts of points, planes, angles, contemporary geometry has many subfields, Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense. The mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, planes, triangles, similarity, solid figures, Euclidean geometry has applications in computer science and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of calculus and linear algebra to problems in geometry. It has applications in physics, including in general relativity, topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this often means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues, often using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis and functional analysis, algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques.
It has applications in areas, including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned mainly with questions of relative position of simple objects, such as points. It shares many methods and principles with combinatorics, Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiters position and motion within time-velocity space
In geometry, an octahedron is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. A regular octahedron is a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, a regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations and it is a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the case of the more general concept of a cross polytope. A regular octahedron is a 3-ball in the Manhattan metric, the second and third correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The octahedron can be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. An octahedron with edge length √2 can be placed with its center at the origin and its vertices on the coordinate axes, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are then. In an x–y–z Cartesian coordinate system, the octahedron with center coordinates, additionally the inertia tensor of the stretched octahedron is I =.
These reduce to the equations for the regular octahedron when x m = y m = z m = a 22, the interior of the compound of two dual tetrahedra is an octahedron, and this compound, called the stella octangula, is its first and only stellation. Correspondingly, an octahedron is the result of cutting off from a regular tetrahedron. One can divide the edges of an octahedron in the ratio of the mean to define the vertices of an icosahedron. There are five octahedra that define any given icosahedron in this fashion and tetrahedra can be alternated to form a vertex and face-uniform tessellation of space, called the octet truss by Buckminster Fuller. This is the only such tiling save the regular tessellation of cubes, another is a tessellation of octahedra and cuboctahedra. The octahedron is unique among the Platonic solids in having a number of faces meeting at each vertex. Consequently, it is the member of that group to possess mirror planes that do not pass through any of the faces. Using the standard nomenclature for Johnson solids, an octahedron would be called a square bipyramid, truncation of two opposite vertices results in a square bifrustum.
The octahedron is 4-connected, meaning that it takes the removal of four vertices to disconnect the remaining vertices and it is one of only four 4-connected simplicial well-covered polyhedra, meaning that all of the maximal independent sets of its vertices have the same size
In geometry, an isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two sides of equal length. By the isosceles triangle theorem, the two angles opposite the sides are themselves equal, while if the third side is different the third angle is different. By the Steiner–Lehmus theorem, every triangle with two angle bisectors of equal length is isosceles, in an isosceles triangle that has exactly two equal sides, the equal sides are called legs and the third side is called the base. The angle included by the legs is called the vertex angle, the vertex opposite the base is called the apex. In the equilateral triangle case, since all sides are equal, any side can be called the base, if needed, and the term leg is not generally used. A triangle with two equal sides has exactly one axis of symmetry, which goes through the vertex angle. Thus the axis of symmetry coincides with the bisector of the vertex angle, the median drawn to the base, the altitude drawn from the vertex angle. Whether the isosceles triangle is acute, right or obtuse depends on the vertex angle, in Euclidean geometry, the base angles cannot be obtuse or right because their measures would sum to at least 180°, the total of all angles in any Euclidean triangle.
The Euler line of any triangle goes through the orthocenter, its centroid. In an isosceles triangle with two equal sides, the Euler line coincides with the axis of symmetry. This can be seen as follows, if the vertex angle is acute, the orthocenter, the centroid, and the circumcenter all fall inside the triangle. In an isosceles triangle the incenter lies on the Euler line, the Steiner inellipse of any triangle is the unique ellipse that is internally tangent to the triangles three sides at their midpoints. For any isosceles triangle with area T and perimeter p, we have 2 p b 3 − p 2 b 2 +16 T2 =0. By substituting the height, the formula for the area of a triangle can be derived from the general formula one-half the base times the height. This is what Herons formula reduces to in the isosceles case, if the apex angle and leg lengths of an isosceles triangle are known, the area of that triangle is, T =2 = a 2 sin cos . This is derived by drawing a line from the base of the triangle. The bases of two right triangles are both equal to the hypotenuse times the sine of the bisected angle by definition of the term sine.
For the same reason, the heights of these triangles are equal to the times the cosine of the bisected angle
In geometry, a frustum is the portion of a solid that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it. A right frustum is a truncation of a right pyramid. The term is used in computer graphics to describe the viewing frustum. It is formed by a pyramid, in particular, frustum culling is a method of hidden surface determination. In the aerospace industry, frustum is the term for the fairing between two stages of a multistage rocket, which is shaped like a truncated cone. Each plane section is a floor or base of the frustum and its axis if any, is that of the original cone or pyramid. A frustum is circular if it has circular bases, it is if the axis is perpendicular to both bases, and oblique otherwise. The height of a frustum is the distance between the planes of the two bases. Cones and pyramids can be viewed as degenerate cases of frusta, the pyramidal frusta are a subclass of the prismatoids. Two frusta joined at their bases make a bifrustum, the Egyptians knew the correct formula for obtaining the volume of a truncated square pyramid, but no proof of this equation is given in the Moscow papyrus.
V = h 1 a h 12 − h 2 a h 223 = a 3 By factoring the difference of two cubes we get h1−h2 = h, the height of the frustum, and α/3. Distributing α and substituting from its definition, the Heronian mean of areas B1, the alternative formula is therefore V = h 3 Heron of Alexandria is noted for deriving this formula and with it encountering the imaginary number, the square root of negative one. In particular, the volume of a circular cone frustum is V = π h 3 where π is 3.14159265. and R1, R2 are the radii of the two bases. The volume of a frustum whose bases are n-sided regular polygons is V = n h 12 cot π n where a1. The surface area of a frustum whose bases are similar regular n-sided polygons is A = n 4 where a1. On the back of a United States one-dollar bill, a pyramidal frustum appears on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, certain ancient Native American mounds form the frustum of a pyramid. The John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois is a frustum whose bases are rectangles, the Washington Monument is a narrow square-based pyramidal frustum topped by a small pyramid.
The viewing frustum in 3D computer graphics is a photographic or video cameras usable field of view modeled as a pyramidal frustum
In geometry, a vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices. A vertex is a point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other higher-dimensional polytope. However, in theory, vertices may have fewer than two incident edges, which is usually not allowed for geometric vertices. However, a smooth approximation to a polygon will have additional vertices. A polygon vertex xi of a simple polygon P is a principal polygon vertex if the diagonal intersects the boundary of P only at x and x, there are two types of principal vertices and mouths. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called an ear if the diagonal that bridges xi lies entirely in P, according to the two ears theorem, every simple polygon has at least two ears. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called a mouth if the diagonal lies outside the boundary of P. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula.
Thus the number of vertices is 2 more than the excess of the number of edges over the number of faces, for example, a cube has 12 edges and 6 faces, and hence 8 vertices
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted △ A B C, in Euclidean geometry any three points, when non-collinear, determine a unique triangle and a unique plane. This article is about triangles in Euclidean geometry except where otherwise noted, triangles can be classified according to the lengths of their sides, An equilateral triangle has all sides the same length. An equilateral triangle is a polygon with all angles measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length, some mathematicians define an isosceles triangle to have exactly two equal sides, whereas others define an isosceles triangle as one with at least two equal sides. The latter definition would make all equilateral triangles isosceles triangles, the 45–45–90 right triangle, which appears in the tetrakis square tiling, is isosceles. A scalene triangle has all its sides of different lengths, equivalently, it has all angles of different measure.
Hatch marks, called tick marks, are used in diagrams of triangles, a side can be marked with a pattern of ticks, short line segments in the form of tally marks, two sides have equal lengths if they are both marked with the same pattern. In a triangle, the pattern is no more than 3 ticks. Similarly, patterns of 1,2, or 3 concentric arcs inside the angles are used to indicate equal angles, triangles can be classified according to their internal angles, measured here in degrees. A right triangle has one of its interior angles measuring 90°, the side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse, the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the legs or catheti of the triangle, special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. One of the two most famous is the 3–4–5 right triangle, where 32 +42 =52, in this situation,3,4, and 5 are a Pythagorean triple. The other one is a triangle that has 2 angles that each measure 45 degrees.
Triangles that do not have an angle measuring 90° are called oblique triangles, a triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, a2 + b2 > c2, a triangle with one interior angle measuring more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, a2 + b2 < c2, a triangle with an interior angle of 180° is degenerate
A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes. In chemistry it is the angle between planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common, in solid geometry it is defined as the union of a line and two half-planes that have this line as a common edge. In higher dimension, a dihedral angle represents the angle between two hyperplanes, a dihedral angle is an angle between two intersecting planes on a third plane perpendicular to the line of intersection. A torsion angle is an example of a dihedral angle. In stereochemistry every set of three atoms of a molecule defines a plane, when two such planes intersect, the angle between them is a dihedral angle. Dihedral angles are used to specify the molecular conformation, stereochemical arrangements corresponding to angles between 0° and ±90° are called syn, those corresponding to angles between ±90° and 180° anti. Similarly, arrangements corresponding to angles between 30° and 150° or between −30° and −150° are called clinal and those between 0° and ±30° or ±150° and 180° are called periplanar.
The synperiplanar conformation is known as the syn- or cis-conformation, antiperiplanar as anti or trans, for example, with n-butane two planes can be specified in terms of the two central carbon atoms and either of the methyl carbon atoms. The syn-conformation shown above, with an angle of 60° is less stable than the anti-configuration with a dihedral angle of 180°. For macromolecular usage the symbols T, C, G+, G−, A+, a Ramachandran plot, originally developed in 1963 by G. N. Ramachandran, C. Ramakrishnan, and V. Sasisekharan, is a way to visualize energetically allowed regions for backbone dihedral angles ψ against φ of amino acid residues in protein structure, the figure at right illustrates the definition of the φ and ψ backbone dihedral angles. In a protein chain three dihedral angles are defined as φ, ψ and ω, as shown in the diagram, the planarity of the peptide bond usually restricts ω to be 180° or 0°. The distance between the Cα atoms in the trans and cis isomers is approximately 3.8 and 2.9 Å, the cis isomer is mainly observed in Xaa–Pro peptide bonds.
The sidechain dihedral angles tend to cluster near 180°, 60°, and −60°, which are called the trans, gauche+, the stability of certain sidechain dihedral angles is affected by the values φ and ψ. For instance, there are steric interactions between the Cγ of the side chain in the gauche+ rotamer and the backbone nitrogen of the next residue when ψ is near -60°. An alternative method is to calculate the angle between the vectors, nA and nB, which are normal to the planes. Cos φ = − n A ⋅ n B | n A | | n B | where nA · nB is the dot product of the vectors and |nA| |nB| is the product of their lengths. Any plane can be described by two non-collinear vectors lying in that plane, taking their cross product yields a vector to the plane
In geometry, a pentagonal pyramid is a pyramid with a pentagonal base upon which are erected five triangular faces that meet at a point. Like any pyramid, it is self-dual, the regular pentagonal pyramid has a base that is a regular pentagon and lateral faces that are equilateral triangles. It is one of the Johnson solids and its height H, from the midpoint of the pentagonal face to the apex, can be computed as, H =5 −510 a ≈0.5257 a. Its surface area, A, can be computed as the area of pentagonal base plus five times the area of one triangle, A = a 2 ≈3.8855 a 2. Its volume when a length is known can be figured out with this formula. It can be seen as the lid of an icosahedron, the rest of the forms a gyroelongated pentagonal pyramid, J11. More generally an order-2 vertex-uniform pentagonal pyramid can be defined with a pentagonal base and 5 isosceles triangle sides of any height. The pentagrammic star pyramid has the vertex arrangement, but connected onto a pentagram base. The dual edge lengths are different due to the polar reciprocation, eric W.
Weisstein, Pentagonal pyramid at MathWorld. Virtual Reality Polyhedra www. georgehart. com, The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra
In geometry, a Johnson solid is a strictly convex polyhedron, which is not uniform, and each face of which is a regular polygon. There is no requirement that each face must be the same polygon, an example of a Johnson solid is the square-based pyramid with equilateral sides, it has 1 square face and 4 triangular faces. As in any strictly convex solid, at least three faces meet at every vertex, and the total of their angles is less than 360 degrees, since a regular polygon has angles at least 60 degrees, it follows that at most five faces meet at any vertex. The pentagonal pyramid is an example that actually has a degree-5 vertex. Although there is no restriction that any given regular polygon cannot be a face of a Johnson solid, it turns out that the faces of Johnson solids always have 3,4,5,6,8. In 1966, Norman Johnson published a list which included all 92 solids and he did not prove that there were only 92, but he did conjecture that there were no others. Victor Zalgaller in 1969 proved that Johnsons list was complete, however, it is not vertex-transitive, as it has different isometry at different vertices, making it a Johnson solid rather than an Archimedean solid.
The naming of Johnson Solids follows a flexible & precise descriptive formula, from there, a series of prefixes are attached to the word to indicate additions and transformations, Bi- indicates that two copies of the solid in question are joined base-to-base. For cupolae and rotundae, the solids can be joined so that like either faces or unlike faces meet, using this nomenclature, an octahedron can be described as a square bipyramid, a cuboctahedron as a triangular gyrobicupola, and an icosidodecahedron as a pentagonal gyrobirotunda. Elongated indicates a prism is joined to the base of the solid in question, a rhombicuboctahedron can thus be described as an elongated square orthobicupola. Gyroelongated indicates an antiprism is joined to the base of the solid in question or between the bases in the case of Bi- solids, an icosahedron can thus be described as a gyroelongated pentagonal bipyramid. Augmented indicates a pyramid or cupola is joined to one or more faces of the solid in question, diminished indicates a pyramid or cupola is removed from one or more faces of the solid in question.
Gyrate indicates a cupola mounted on or featured in the solid in question is rotated such that different edges match up, the last three operations — augmentation and gyration — can be performed multiple times certain large solids. Bi- & Tri- indicate a double and treble operation respectively, for example, a bigyrate solid has two rotated cupolae, and a tridiminished solid has three removed pyramids or cupolae. In in certain solids, a distinction is made between solids where altered faces are parallel and solids where altered faces are oblique. Para- indicates the former, that the solid in question has altered parallel faces, for example, a parabiaugmented solid has had two parallel faces augmented, and a metabigyrate solid has had 2 oblique faces gyrated. The last few Johnson solids have names based on certain polygon complexes from which they are assembled and these names are defined by Johnson with the following nomenclature, A lune is a complex of two triangles attached to opposite sides of a square.
Spheno- indicates a complex formed by two adjacent lunes
Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron, duality preserves the symmetries of a polyhedron. Therefore, for classes of polyhedra defined by their symmetries. Thus, the regular polyhedra – the Platonic solids and Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra – form dual pairs, the dual of an isogonal polyhedron, having equivalent vertices, is one which is isohedral, having equivalent faces. The dual of a polyhedron is isotoxal. Duality is closely related to reciprocity or polarity, a transformation that. There are many kinds of duality, the kinds most relevant to elementary polyhedra are polar reciprocity and topological or abstract duality. The duality of polyhedra is often defined in terms of polar reciprocation about a concentric sphere. In coordinates, for reciprocation about the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2, the vertex is associated with the plane x 0 x + y 0 y + z 0 z = r 2.
The vertices of the dual are the reciprocal to the face planes of the original. Also, any two adjacent vertices define an edge, and these will reciprocate to two adjacent faces which intersect to define an edge of the dual and this dual pair of edges are always orthogonal to each other. If r 0 is the radius of the sphere, and r 1 and r 2 respectively the distances from its centre to the pole and its polar, then, r 1. R2 = r 02 For the more symmetrical polyhedra having an obvious centroid, it is common to make the polyhedron and sphere concentric, the choice of center for the sphere is sufficient to define the dual up to similarity. If multiple symmetry axes are present, they will intersect at a single point. Failing that, a sphere, inscribed sphere, or midsphere is commonly used. If a polyhedron in Euclidean space has an element passing through the center of the sphere, since Euclidean space never reaches infinity, the projective equivalent, called extended Euclidean space, may be formed by adding the required plane at infinity.
Some theorists prefer to stick to Euclidean space and say there is no dual. Meanwhile, Wenninger found a way to represent these infinite duals, the concept of duality here is closely related to the duality in projective geometry, where lines and edges are interchanged