Ancient Greece and wine
The influence of wine in ancient Greece helped ancient Greece trade with neighboring countries and regions. Many mannerisms and cultural aspects were associated with wine, it led to great change in Ancient Greece as well. The ancient Greeks pioneered new methods of viticulture and wine production that they shared with early winemaking communities in what are now France, Italy and Russia, as well as others, through trade and colonization. Along the way, they markedly influenced the ancient European winemaking cultures of the Celts, Etruscans and the Romans. Viticulture has existed in Greece since the late Neolithic period, with domestic cultivation becoming widespread by the early Bronze Age. Through trade with ancient Egypt, the Minoan civilization on Crete was introduced to Egyptian winemaking methods, an influence most imparted to Mycenaean Greece; the Minoan palaces had their associated vineyards, as Spyridon Marinatos demonstrated in excavations just south of the palace site at Archanes, the Minoan equivalent of a villa rustica devoted to wine production was unearthed at Kato Zakros in 1961.
In Minoan culture of the mid-second millennium BC, wine and the sacred bull were linked in the form of the horn-shaped drinking cups called rhyta. Along with olives and grain, grapes were an important agricultural crop vital to sustenance and community development. One of the earliest known wine presses was discovered in Palekastro in Crete, from which island the Mycenaeans are believed to have spread viticulture to others in the Aegean Sea and quite to mainland Greece. In the Mycenaean period, wine took on greater cultural and economic importance. Records inscribed on tablets in Linear B include details of wine and wine merchants, as well as an early allusion to Dionysus, the Greek god of wine. Greeks embedded the arrival of winemaking culture in the mythologies of Dionysus and the cultural hero Aristaeus. Early remnants of amphoras show that the Mycenaeans traded wine throughout the ancient world in places such as Cyprus, Palestine and southern Italy; as the Greek city-states established colonies throughout the Mediterranean, the settlers brought grapevines with them and were active in cultivating the wild vines they encountered.
Sicily and southern Italy formed some of the earliest colonies, as they were areas home to an abundance of grapevines. The Greeks called the southern part of the Italian Peninsula Oenotria. Settlements in Massalia in southern France and along the shores of the Black Sea soon followed, with the expectation that not only would colonial wine production supply domestic needs, but create trading opportunities to meet the demand of the nearby city-states. Athens itself provided a large and lucrative market for wine, with significant vineyard estates forming in the Attican region and on the island of Thasos to help satisfy demand. Wine historians have theorized that the Greeks may have introduced viticulture to Spain and Portugal, but competing theories suggest that the Phoenicians reached those areas first; the grape clusters and wine cups that adorn Greek coins from classical times bear witness to the importance of wine to the ancient Greek economy. With every major trading partner, from the Crimea, Scythia and beyond, the Greeks traded their knowledge of viticulture and winemaking, as well the fruits of their own production.
Millions of amphora pieces bearing the unique seals of various city-states and Aegean islands have been uncovered by archaeologists, demonstrating the scope of Greek influence. A shipwreck discovered off the coast of southern France included nearly 10,000 amphoras containing nearly 300,000 litres of Greek wine destined for trade up the Rhône and Saône rivers into Gaul, it is estimated that the Greeks shipped nearly 10 million liters of wine into Gaul each year through Massalia. In 1929, the discovery of the Vix Grave in Burgundy included several artifacts demonstrating the strong ties between Greek wine traders and local Celtic villagers; the most notable of these was a large Greek-made krater, designed to hold over 1,000 litres of wine. Ancient Greeks called the cultivated vine hemeris, after their adjective for "tame", differentiating it from its wild form. A massive rootstock was carved into a cult image of the Great Goddess and set up on the coast of Phrygia by the Argonauts; the late Dionysiaca of Nonnus recounts the primitive invention of wine-pressing, credited to Dionysus, Homer's description of the Shield of Achilles describes that part of its wrought decoration illustrating the grape harvest from a vineyard protectively surrounded by a trench and a fence.
He wrote that Laertes, father of Odysseus, had over 50 grape varieties planted in different parts of his vineyard. The 4th-century BC Greek writer Theophrastus left a detailed record of some Greek influences and innovations in viticulture, one of, the study of vineyard soils and their proper match to specific grapevines. Another innovation was the minimization of yields for more intense concentration of flavors and quality, rather than increased quantity; the economics of the time favored high yields for most crops, intentionally limiting agricultural output was exceedingly uncommon in the ancient world. Theophrastus detailed the practice of using suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings; the Greeks employed vine training with stacked plants for easier cultivation and harvesting, ra
Basil called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae. Basil is native to tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia, it is a tender plant, is used in cuisines worldwide. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent sweet smell. There are many varieties of basil, as well as several related species or hybrids called basil; the type used as a flavor is called sweet basil, as opposed to Thai basil, lemon basil, holy basil. While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, including holy basil and a cultivar known as "African blue basil". Basil is sometimes perennial, herb used for its leaves. Depending on the variety, plants can reach between 150 cm, its leaves are richly green and ovate, but otherwise come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes depending on cultivar. Leaf sizes range from 3 cm to 11 cm long, between 1 cm and 6 cm wide.
Basil grows a central taproot. Its flowers are small and white, grow from a central inflorescence that emerges from the central stem atop the plant; the various basils have such different scents because the herb has a number of different essential oils in different proportions for various cultivars. The essential oil from European basil contains high concentrations of linalool and methyl chavicol, in a ratio of about 3:1. Other constituents include: 1,8-cineole and myrcene, among others; the clove scent of sweet basil is derived from eugenol. The aroma profile of basil includes 1,8-cineole and methyl eugenol; the exact taxonomy of basil is uncertain due to the immense number of cultivars, its ready polymorphy, frequent cross-pollination with other members of the Ocimum genus and within the species. Ocimum basilicum has at least 60 varieties. Most basils are cultivars of sweet basil. Anise basil, Licorice basil or Persian basil Cinnamon basil Dark opal basil Lettuce leaf basil Purple basil Rubin basil Globe basil, dwarf basil, French basil Thai basil African blue basil Spice basil, sometimes sold as holy basil) Lemon basil Camphor basil, African basil Clove basil African basil Holy basil Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many regions of Asia.
Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavor that is, in general, stronger than the Mediterranean basils. The most notable is a revered home-grown plant in India and Nepal. Lemon basil has a strong lemony smell and flavor different from those of other varieties because it contains a chemical called citral, it is used in Indonesia, where it is called kemangi, served raw together with raw cabbage, green beans, cucumber as an accompaniment to fried fish or duck. Its flowers, when broken up, are a zesty salad condiment; the name "basil" comes from Latin and Greek βασιλικόν φυτόν, "royal/kingly plant" because the plant was believed to have been used in production of royal perfumes. The Latin name has been confused with basilisk, as it was supposed to be an antidote to the basilisk's venom. Basil is native to India and other tropical regions stretching from Africa to Southeast Asia, but has now become globalized due to human cultivation. Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of the species Ocimum basilicum, but other species are grown and there are many hybrids between species.
Traditionally a green plant, some varieties, such as ` Purple Delight' have leaves. Basil grows between 30–130 cm tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3–11 cm long and 1–6 cm broad; the flowers white in color and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lie over the inferior lip. After entomophilous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx. Basil is sensitive to cold, with best growth in dry conditions, it behaves as an annual. However, due to its popularity, basil is cultivated in many countries around the world. Production areas include countries in the Mediterranean area, those in the temperate zone, others in subtropical climates. In Northern Europe, the northern states of the U. S. and the South Island of New Zealand it will grow best if sown under glass in a peat pot planted out in late spring/early summer. Additionally, it may be sown in soil.
It fares best in sunny exposure. Although basil grows best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on a sun-facing windowsill, it should be kept away from cold drafts, grows best in strong sunlight, therefore a greenhouse or row cover is ideal if available. It can, however, be grown in a basement, under fluorescent lights. If its leaves have wilted from lack of water, it will recov
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium was a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians, it was located on the left bank of the River Tiber, extending northward to the River Anio and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus as far south as the Circeian promontory. The right bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii, the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast; the modern descendant, the Italian Regione of Lazio called Latium in Latin, in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium. The ancient language of the Latins, the tribespeople who occupied Latium, was to become the immediate predecessor of the Old Latin language, ancestor of Latin and the Romance languages.
Latium has played an important role in history owing to its status as the host of the capital city of Rome, at one time the cultural and political centre of the Roman Empire. Latium is home to celebrated works of art and architecture. Earliest known Latium was the country of the Latini, a tribe whose recognised centre was a large, extinct volcano, Mons Albanus, 20 kilometres to the southeast of Rome, 64 kilometres in circumference. In its center is a crater lake, Lacus Albanus, oval in shape, a few km long and wide. At the top of the second-highest peak was a temple to Jupiter Latiaris, where the Latini held state functions before their subjection to Rome, the Romans subsequently held religious and state ceremonies; the last pagan temple to be built stood until the Middle Ages when its stone and location were reused for various monasteries and a hotel. During World War II, the Wehrmacht turned it into a radio station, captured after an infantry battle by American troops in 1944, it is a controversial telecommunications station surrounded by antennae considered unsightly by the population within view.
The selection of Jupiter as a state god and the descent of the name Latini to the name of the Latin language are sufficient to identify the Latins as a tribe of Indo-European descent. Virgil, a major poet of the early Roman Empire, under Augustus, derived Latium from the word for "hidden" because in a myth Saturn, ruler of the golden age in Latium, hid from Jupiter there. A major modern etymology is that Lazio comes from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" meaning the Roman Campagna; the region that would become Latium had been home to settled agricultural populations since the early Bronze Age and was known to the Ancient Greeks and earlier to the Mycenaean Greeks. The name is most derived from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" but the name may originate from an earlier, non-Indo-European one; the Etruscans, from their home region of Etruria exerted a strong cultural and political influence on Latium from about the 8th century BC onward.
However, they were unable to assert political hegemony over the region, controlled by small, autonomous city-states in a manner analogous to the state of affairs that prevailed in Ancient Greece. Indeed, the region's cultural and geographic proximity to the cities of Magna Graecia had a strong impact upon its early history. By the 10th century BC, archaeology records a slow development in agriculture from the entire area of Latium with the establishment of numerous villages; the Latins cultivated grains, olives and fig trees. The various Latini populi lived in a society led by influential clans; these clans were a sign of their tribal origin, which continued in Rome as the thirty curiae which organized Roman society. However, as a social unit the gens was replaced by the family, headed by the paterfamilias - the oldest male who held supreme authority over the family. A fixed local center seemed necessary as the center of the region cannot have been one of the villages, but must have been a place of common assembly, containing the seat of justice and the common sanctuary of the district, where members of the clans met for purposes of administration and amusement, where they obtained a safer shelter for themselves in case of war: in ordinary circumstances such a place was not at all or but scantily inhabited.
Such a place was called in Italy "height", or "stronghold". The isolated Alban range, that natural stronghold of Latium, which offered to settlers a secure position, would doubtless be first occupied by the newcomers. Here, along the narrow plateau above Palazzuola between the Alban lake and the Alban mount, extended the town of Alba Longa, regarded as the primitive seat of the Latin stock, the mother city of Rome as well as of all the other Old Latin communities. Here too are found some primitive works of masonry, which mark the be
Tzatziki, cacık or tarator is a dip, soup, or sauce found in the cuisines of Southeast Europe and the Middle East. It is made of salted strained yogurt or diluted yogurt mixed with cucumbers, salt, olive oil, sometimes with vinegar or lemon juice, herbs such as dill, mint and thyme, it is served as a cold appetizer or a side dish. The Greek word tzatziki comes from the Turkish word cacık. According to Olga Razuvajeva, the word comes from the Armenian cacıg; the root cac is related to several words in Western Asian languages. Persian zhazh refers to various herbs used for cooking. Evliya Çelebi's 17th-century Seyâhatnâme travelogue defined cacıχ as a kind of herb, added to food. Ahmet Vefik Pasha's 1876 Ottoman dictionary defined cacık as an herb salad with yogurt; this remains the most common definition today. The form tarator is found in languages from the Balkans to the Levant, appears to be of Slavic origin, coming from Bulgaria. Greek-style tzatziki sauce is served as a side with meat dishes.
It may be served as part of an assorted meze small plate platter, traditionally served with the anise-flavored liquor called ouzo. Tzatziki is made of strained yogurt mixed with cucumbers, salt, olive oil, sometimes lemon juice, dill or mint or parsley; some variations are made with cattails or purslane, tofu and seasoned with Vege-sal and either whole allspice or spicebush berries. Purslane is called glistrida in Greek and this may be called glistrida me yiaourti meaning "purslane and yogurt salad" rather than tzatziki. One simple recipe calls for olive oil, red wine vinegar and dill. Another is made with purslane, cilantro and ground coriander, along with the standard yogurt-cucumber base. Turkish cacık is made by combining a bit of water and yogurt in a deep bowl together with garlic and different combinations of fresh vegetables and herbs; the amount of water used depends on how thick the cook wants the cacık to be—sometimes the dish is served as a cold soup, but it can be made thicker according to taste.
Labneh may be substituted for some of the yogurt. Garlic is crushed in a mortar and pestle together with salt and the cucumbers are either chopped or grated; the crushed garlic and cucumber are combined before the dish is garnished with some combination of aleppo pepper, sumac or mint. It is popular during summer months and may optionally be served with ice; when shredded carrots are added along with the cucumber it is called havuçlu cacık. In Turkey tarator is called balkan cacığı and is made with fresh scallions and mint. Other cacık varieties may include chopped red pepper and fresh parsley. Dill can optionally be added as well; some recipes add a tablespoon of vinegar. One version with basil is made with made with ground walnuts and chopped fresh basil. Not all cacıks are made with shredded cucumber—sometimes various types of leafy greens or herbs are used in combination with other ingredients. For example, one version calls for fresh dill, it can be made into a type of salad with purslane. Sometimes it is made with unripe almonds called çağla in Turkish.
It may be made from wild edible plants like çıtlık and eaten in a wrap called dürüm. For cacıklı arap köftesi, kofta made from a mix of bulgur and ground meat is served over cacık. In this case the cacık is made with chard rather than the usual cucumber. Bulgurlu madımak cacığı is made with cracked wheat, cucumber and a type of knotweed called madımak. There are dishes similar to tzatziki called tarator in many Balkan countries. Tarator is more prepared as a cold soup, popular in the summer, it is made of yogurt, garlic, dill, vegetable oil, water, is served chilled or with ice. Local variations may omit nuts or dill, or add bread; the cucumbers may on rare occasions be replaced with lettuce or carrots. The thicker variation more similar to Tzatziki is sometimes known as "dry tarator", or as "Snezhanka" salad, which means "Snow white salad", is served as an appetizer or side dish. During preparation, the yogurt is hung for several hours in a kerchief and loses about half of its water; the cucumbers, minced walnuts and vegetable oil are added.
In Bulgaria, Tarator is a popular meze, but served as a side dish along with Shopska salad with most meals. Sunflower oil and Olive oil more used, walnut is sometimes omitted. Tarator is seasoned with dill, both of which can be omitted. It's a common refresher during the summer. In Albania, Tarator is a popular dish in summer time, it is served cold and is made from yoghurt, parsley, cucumber and olive oil. Fried squids are offered with Tarator. In Cyprus, the dish is known as "ταλαττούρι" and is not a soup like Bulgarian tarator but more of a dipping sauce, it is made from strained yogurt, sliced cucumbers, minced garlic cloves and sprinkled with oregano and sometimes olive oil. Similar dishes in Iraq are known as jajeek, they are served as meze to accompany alcoholic drinks Arak, an Ouzo-like drink made from dates. A similar dish in Iran is called ash-e doogh, instead of cucumbers it contains a variety of herbs such as basil, mint, black pepper and raisins. In this style, sometimes dried bread chips, chopp
Octopus as food
Humans of some cultures eat octopus. The arms and sometimes other body parts are prepared in various ways varying by species and/or geography. Octopuses are sometimes eaten or prepared alive, a practice, controversial due to scientific evidence that octopuses experience pain. Octopus is a common ingredient in Japanese cuisine, including sushi and akashiyaki. Takoyaki is a ball-shaped snack made of a wheat flour-based batter and cooked in a special takoyaki pan, it is filled with minced or diced octopus, tempura scraps, pickled ginger, green onion. Takoyaki are brushed with takoyaki sauce, similar to Worcestershire sauce, mayonnaise; the takoyaki is sprinkled with small strips of laver and shavings of dried bonito. Giant octopus, long arm octopus, webfoot octopus are common food ingredient in Korean cuisine. In Korea, some small species are sometimes eaten raw as a novelty food. A raw octopus is sliced up, seasoned with salt and sesame seeds and eaten while still squirming posthumously. Nakji bokkeum is another popular dish in Korea.
It's a type of stir-fried food made with chopped octopus. Miruhulee boava is a Maldivian delicacy made of octopus tentacles braised in curry leaves, garlic, onion and coconut oil. In Mauritius and Rodrigues, known by its Mauritian Creole name "Ourite" is eaten in coastal regions as it is found abundantly in Mauritian waters, although a sharp decline has been observed recently. Popular octopus dishes include the masala octopus curry or boiled octopus in spicy tomato sauce, known as the "Daube". In the Spanish region of Galicia, polbo á feira is a local delicacy. Restaurants which specialize or serve this dish are known as pulperías. In Portugal octopus is eaten Lagareiro style, stewed with rice, as well as breaded and deep fried, with rice and beans. Hongzhang is a famous Singapore delicacy; the ingredients include steamed octopus limbs, a sauce of pork skin and flour. This chewy dish is common in Singapore and most traditional Chinese restaurants would serve it. Octopus is a common food in Mediterranean cuisine such as Tunisian cuisine.
On the Tunisian island of Djerba, local people catch octopuses by taking advantage of the animals' habit of hiding in safe places during the night. In the evening, they put grey ceramic pots on the sea bed; the morning of the following day they check them for octopuses sheltered there. Unlike its other Maghreb neighbor, including octopus is used extensively in Tunisia, roasted, in couscous, pastas or chorbas. A common scene in the Greek islands is octopuses hanging in the sunlight from a rope, just like laundry from a clothesline, they are caught by spear fishing close to the shore. The fisherman brings his prey to land and tenderizes the flesh by pounding the carcass against a stone surface, thus treated, they are hung out to dry, will be served grilled, either hot or chilled in a salad. A common preparation technique involves classic Greek spices and seasonings including olive oil, garlic cloves, oregano and lemon juice. On the whole, octopus is considered a superb meze alongside ouzo.. Octopus is eaten in Hawaii, since many popular dishes are Asian in origin.
Locally known by their Hawaiian or Japanese names, octopus is a popular fish bait. According to the USDA Nutrient Database, cooked octopus contains about 56 kilocalories per 100 grams, is a source of vitamin B3, B12, potassium and selenium. Octopus heads are high in selenium and are a risk for cadmium poisoning in small amounts. In 2010, over 29 mg of cadmium—14 times higher than the permitted level—was found in the heads of octopuses imported to South Korea from China. Eating live animals Eating live seafood List of seafood dishes Pain in invertebrates Seafood Squid lū'au Media related to Octopus-based food at Wikimedia Commons Octopus at Wikibook Cookbooks
Greek salad or horiatiki salad is a salad in Greek cuisine. Greek salad is made with pieces of tomatoes, sliced cucumbers, feta cheese, olives seasoned with salt and Greek mountain oregano, dressed with olive oil. Common additions include green bell pepper slices or caper berries. Greek salad is imagined as a farmer's breakfast or lunch, as its ingredients resemble those that a Greek farmer might have on hand. Outside Greece, "Greek salad" may be a lettuce salad with Greek-inspired ingredients though the original dish is distinguished by the absence of lettuce. Meanwhile, the variant without lettuce may be called horiatiki, "country salad", "peasant salad", or "village salad". Lettuce, tomatoes and olives are the most standard elements in an American-style Greek salad, but cucumbers, bell peppers, radishes and anchovies/sardines are common. In Detroit, for example, Greek salad includes beets, in the Tampa Bay Area, it includes potato salad. Dressings containing various herbs and seasonings are used in the U.
S. This style of Greek salad is encountered in Greece. Various other salads have been called "Greek" in the English language in the last century, including some with no apparent connection to Greek cuisine. A 1925 Australian newspaper described a Greek salad of boiled squash dressed with sour milk. There are many other salads in Greek cuisine; these include: marouli, pantzarosalata, roka) salad, patatosalata and maintanouri. Cypriot salad; some spreads and dips found in the meze of Greek cuisine are called "salads" in Greek, such as melitzanosalata and tzatziki. Shopska salad, a similar salad from Bulgaria, invented in the 20th century as a tourist attraction Çoban salatası, a similar salad from Turkey Serbian salad, a similar salad from Serbia