Squat (Warhammer 40,000)
In the fictional universe of Warhammer 40,000, the Squats are a dwarf-like race descended from the humans that colonised high gravity worlds. Separated from the rest of humanity over the millennia, they evolved their own distinct morphology and culture. Squats were discontinued from the game in the 1990s by Games Workshop though their existence remains canon, their omission from the game was explained by a Tyranid invasion of their Home Worlds wiping them out to a man. The survivors were assimilated into the Imperium, however there are rumours that the squats created Tau technology which despite being younger than the Imperium, is more advanced. Squats evolved from the human miners and explorers sent to reap the mineral wealth at the center of the galaxy; the high gravity environment, combined with the punishing mining conditions changed their morphology. The subsequent generations became shorter and stockier; the Squat Home Worlds were isolated from the rest of humanity during the Age of Isolation.
When they were reunited with the rest of the Imperium, wars were launched against them in the belief that they were aliens. The Squats were accepted, along with other abhumans, as being human in nature, they are now considered a separate race. The Squat Home Worlds were colonized during the Age of Founding; the planets were rich in minerals and ores human civilization needed, so millions of ships full of miners and explorers were sent out. The worlds were high gravity with brutal environments; the settlers dug deep into the bedrock of the planets to survive, so the first strongholds were born. The Age of Trade, which lasted for three millennia, saw a decrease in the warp storms isolating the Home Worlds; the Squats traded with the Eldar during this period. The Age of Trade was ended in an enormous attack on the Home Worlds by the Ork Warlord Grunhag the Flayer; the Squats were rebuffed. This led to the Squats' enmity against Orks and Eldar that has lasted through the Age of Wars into the current Age of Rediscovery.
The Forces of the Great Crusade launched wars against the Squats in the belief that they were aliens, but the Squats were accepted, along with other abhumans, as being human in nature. The millions of Squat Strongholds spread across their homeworlds joined the Imperium, but continued to retain their autonomy as an independent but allied empire to the Imperium; the Home Worlds maintained trade and mutual assistance with the Imperium, trading military hardware, allowing Commissar military advisors to join their armies, sending recruits to the Adeptus Mechanicus. In the forty-first millennium, Tyranid Hive Fleet Behemoth threatened to sweep through the Home Worlds, capable of destroying the Squats as a power in the galaxy; the council of Ancients decided to unite with humanity to provide a unified front against the Tyranids, the hundreds of thousands of Squat Homeworlds were integrated by the Imperium as DaoT protectorates over several centuries before facing off the Tyranids during the attack by Behemoth.
Although the vast majority of the Squat race joined the Imperium, a few Squats remained separated from the council and carried on independently. Some became pirates or mercenaries, others joined the Imperium; the Squats carried grudges for millennia, none so as against the race of Orks, who betrayed the Squats on more than one occasion and inflicted many losses upon them in war. The Squats do not worship the Emperor as a god, but instead see him as an talented and powerful mortal; the Squats have their own religion in place of the Imperium-prescribed religion: they worship their own ancestors. They believe their ancestors to be powerful overseers of their actions, with all Squats having a chance to join them in eternal happiness and share their power to watch over still living Squats. Squats believe that the only way of being refused the chance to join the ancestors is to dishonour themselves by committing a horrible moral crime, such as murder; the souls that are turned away from the ancestors' realm are doomed to wander as ghosts, haunting the living, urging them not to repeat their mistakes.
The Imperium of Man has adopted this as a variant of the standard creed by teaching that the Squats' ancestors join with the Emperor in the celestial realm. Squat technology is based upon the heavy mining equipment. During their isolation from the rest of humanity, they adapted it for other uses, notably exo-armour, engineered from heavy mining suits. Squats continued to invent while humanity sank into a Dark Age; as a result, the Squats have developed technologies such as neo-plasma and warp cores far in advance of anything the Imperium owns. Some Squat technologies were absorbed into the Imperium tunneling vehicles and weaponry such as the Termite. In Warhammer 40,000, Squats had a similar armament to Imperial armies, coming with las and bolt weaponry as standard. Armies included squads in exo-armour supported with bikes and trikes. Squats were characterised in Epic with colossal war machines, including the Land Train, Leviathan and Colossus; the Squat
Bicycle suspension is the system, or systems, used to suspend the rider and bicycle in order to insulate them from the roughness of the terrain. Bicycle suspension is used on mountain bikes, but is common on hybrid bicycles. Bicycle suspension can be implemented in a variety of ways, any combination thereof: Front suspension Rear suspension Suspension seatpost Suspension saddle Suspension stem Suspension hubBicycles with only front suspension are referred to as hardtail and bicycles with suspension in both the front and rear are referred to as dual or full suspension bikes; when a bicycle has no suspension it is called rigid. Bicycles with only rear suspension are uncommon although the Brompton folding bicycle is equipped with rear only suspension. Although a stiffer frame is preferable, no material is infinitely stiff and therefore any frame will exhibit some flexing. Bicycle designers intentionally make frames in such a way that the frame itself can absorb some vibrations. Besides providing comfort to the rider, suspension systems improve traction and safety by helping to keep one or both wheels in contact with the ground.
As early as 1885, the Whippet brand of safety bicycle was notable for its use of springs to suspend the frame. Front suspension is implemented using a telescopic fork; the specifics of the suspension depend on the type of mountain biking the fork is designed for and is categorized by the amount of travel. For instance, manufacturers produce different forks for cross-country, downhill and enduro riding which all have different demands for amount of travel, durability and handling characteristics. Telescopic suspension forks have become sophisticated; the amount of travel available has increased. When suspension forks were introduced, 80–100 mm of travel was deemed sufficient for a downhill mountain bike; this amount of travel is now common for cross-country disciplines, whereas downhill forks offer 200 mm of travel for handling the most extreme terrain. Other advances in design include adjustable travel, allowing riders to adapt the fork's travel to the specific terrain. Many forks feature the ability to lock out the travel.
This eliminates or drastically reduces the fork's travel for more efficient riding over smooth sections of terrain. The lockout can sometimes be remotely controlled by a lever on the handlebars via a mechanical cable, or through electronics; as with all shock absorbers it consists of two parts: a spring, a damper. The spring may be implemented with a steel or titanium coil, compressed air, or an elastomer. Different spring materials have different spring rates which have a fundamental effect on the characteristics of the fork as a whole. Coil-sprung forks keep an constant spring rate throughout their travel; the spring rate of air-sprung forks however increases with travel. Titanium coils are much lighter but much more expensive. Air-sprung forks are lighter still. Air springs work by using the characteristic of compressed air to resist further compression; as the spring itself is provided by the compressed air rather than a coil of metal it is much lighter. Another advantage of this type of fork design is that the spring rate can be adjusted by changing the air pressure within the fork.
This allows a fork to be tuned to a rider's weight. To achieve this in a coil sprung fork, one would have to swap out different coils with different spring rates; however air pressure controls both spring rate and preload at the same time, requiring air forks to have additional systems to adjust preload separately, adding to its complexity. Another disadvantage of air-sprung forks is the difficulty in achieving a linear spring rate throughout the fork's action; as the fork compresses, the air held inside is compressed. Towards the end of the fork's travel, further compression of the fork requires greater force; this gives the fork its progressive feel. Increasing the volume of the air inside the spring reduces this effect but the volume of the spring is limited by the need to be contained within the fork; the use of two air chambers within the system has allowed a more linear feel to air suspension, this is achieved by having a'reserve' chamber that becomes connected to the main chamber when it reaches a certain amount of compression.
Once achieved, a valve opens and makes the chamber larger. By linking the two, the force needed to compress the air in the chambers is reduced which reduces the exponential spring rate feel traditionally associated with air systems when approaching the end of the suspension's travel; the amount of preload on coil-sprung forks can be adjusted by turning a knob on top of one of the fork legs. Air sprung designs have various ways of dealing with preload. Several systems have been designed to influence preload, such as separately pressurizing different chambers, or systems that automatically set sag after changing the air pressure. A damper is implemented by forcing oil to pass through one or more small orifices or shim stacks. On some models the damper may be adjusted for rider weight, riding style, terrain, or any combination of these or other factors; the two components are separated by housing the spring mechanism in one of the fork's legs and the damper in the other. Without a damper unit the system would rebound excessively and would give the rider less control than would a rigid fork.
To prevent wa
In Australian history, a squatter was a man, either a free settler or ex-convict, who occupied a large tract of Crown land in order to graze livestock. Having no legal rights to the land, they gained its usage by being the first settlers in the area; the term squattocracy, a play on "aristocracy", developed to refer to some of these squatters. The term ‘squatter’ derives from its English usage as a term of contempt for a person who had taken up residence at a place without having legal claim; the use of ‘squatter’ in the early years of European settlement of Australia had a similar connotation, referring to a person who had ‘squatted’ on'unoccupied' land for pastoral or other purposes. In its early derogatory context the term was applied to the illegitimate occupation of land by ticket-of-leave convicts or ex-convicts. From the mid-1820s, the occupation of Crown land without legal title became more widespread carried out by those from the upper echelons of colonial society; as wool began to be exported to England and the colonial population increased, the occupation of pastoral land for raising cattle and sheep progressively became a more lucrative enterprise.
‘Squatting’ had become so widespread by the mid-1830s that Government policy in New South Wales towards the practice shifted from opposition to regulation and control. By that stage, the term ‘squatter’ was applied to those who occupied Crown land under a lease or license, without the negative connotation of earlier times; the term soon developed a class association, suggesting an elevated socio-economic status and entrepreneurial attitude. By 1840 squatters were recognized as being amongst the wealthiest men in the colony of New South Wales, many of them from upper and middle-class English and Scottish families; as unoccupied land with frontage to permanent water became more scarce, the acquisition of runs required larger capital outlays. The term ‘squatter’ came to refer to a person of high social prestige who grazes livestock on a large scale. In Australia the term is still used to describe large landowners in rural areas with a history of pastoral occupation. Hence the term, Squattocracy, a play on aristocracy.
When the British settled at Sydney Cove in 1788 the colonial government in Australia claimed all lands for the Crown. Governors of New South Wales were given authority to make land grants to free settlers and non-commissioned officers; when land grants were made they were subject to conditions such as a quit rent and a requirement for the grantee to reside on and cultivate the land. In line with the British government's policy of concentrated land settlement for the colony Governors of New South Wales tended to be prudent in making land grants. By the end of Governor Macquarie’s tenure in 1821 less than 1,000 square miles of land had been granted in the colony of New South Wales. During Governor Brisbane's term, land grants were more made. In addition regulations introduced during Brisbane’s term enabled settlers to purchase up to 4,000 acres at 5s an acre. During Governor Brisbane's four years in office the total amount of land in private hands doubled; the impetus for squatting activities during this early phase was an expanding market for meat as the population of Sydney increased.
The first steps in establishing wool production in New South Wales created an increased demand for land. Squatting activity was carried out by emancipist and native-born colonists as they sought to define and consolidate their place within society. From 1824 there were regulations to limit squatting; the limits of location known as the Nineteen Counties, were defined from 1826. This was because of the expense of providing government services and difficulty supervising convicts over a wide tract of land; however the nature of the sheep industry which required access to vast grassy plains meant that despite the limitations, squatters occupied land far beyond the colony's official limits. From 1833 Commissioners of Crown Lands were appointed under the Encroachment Act to manage squatting. From 1836 legislation was passed to legalise squatting with grazing rights available for ten pounds per year; this fee was for a lease of the land, rather than ownership, what the squatters wanted. The 1847 Orders in Council divided land into settled and unsettled areas, with pastoral leases of one, eight and 14 years for each category respectively.
From here on, squatters were able to purchase parts of their land, as opposed to just leasing it. It is known that many squatters fought battles with advanced European weapons against the local Indigenous Australian communities in the areas they occupied, though such battles were investigated; these battles/massacres are the subject of the history wars, being the term for an ongoing public discussion on Australia's interpretation of its history. Squatters were only prosecuted for killing indigenous people; the first conviction of white men for the massacre of Indigenous people followed the Myall Creek massacre in 1838, in which Aboriginal subject status was employed by colonial courts for the rare co-incidence of local and imperial authorities. Whilst life was tough for the squatters, with their huge landholdings many of them became wealthy and were described as the "squattoc
Squatters is a 2014 American direct-to-video independent drama film directed by Martin Weisz and starring Gabriella Wilde, Thomas Dekker, Richard Dreyfuss, Luke Grimes. A homeless couple from Venice Beach begins squatting in a mansion in the Pacific Palisades but are discovered when the homeowners return from vacation early Gabriella Wilde as Kelly Thomas Dekker as Jonas Richard Dreyfuss as David Lolita Davidovich as Evelyn Luke Grimes as Michael Andrew Howard as Ronald Evan Ross as AJ Nancy Travis as Carol Squatters on IMDb Squatters at Rotten Tomatoes
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting is absent from policy and academic debate and is conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement."Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or to provide affordable housing. In many of the world's poorer countries, there are extensive slums or shanty towns built on the edges of major cities and consisting entirely of self-constructed housing built without the landowner's permission. While these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewerage system, drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, if there is electricity, it is stolen from a passing cable.
During the Great Recession and increased housing foreclosures in the late 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western, developed nations. Besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés. In Spanish-speaking countries, squatters receive several names, such as okupas in Spain, Chile or Argentina, or paracaidistas in Mexico. Dutch sociologist Hans Pruijt separates types of squatters into five distinct categories: Deprivation-based – i.e. homeless people squatting for housing need An alternative housing strategy – e.g. people unprepared to wait on municipal lists to be housed take direct action Entrepreneurial – e.g. people breaking into buildings to service the need of a community for cheap bars, clubs etc. Conservational – i.e. preserving monuments because the authorities have let them decay Political – e.g. activists squatting buildings as protests or to make social centres In many countries, squatting is in itself a crime.
Property law and the state have traditionally favored the property owner. However, in many cases where squatters had de facto ownership, laws have been changed to legitimize their status. Squatters claim rights over the spaces they have squatted by virtue of occupation, rather than ownership. Anarchist Colin Ward comments: "Squatting is the oldest mode of tenure in the world, we are all descended from squatters; this is as true of the Queen with her 176,000 acres as it is of the 54 percent of householders in Britain who are owner-occupiers. They are all the ultimate recipients of stolen land, for to regard our planet as a commodity offends every conceivable principle of natural rights."Others have a different view. UK police official Sue Williams, for example, has stated that "Squatting is linked to Anti-Social Behaviour and can cause a great deal of nuisance and distress to local residents. In some cases there may be criminal activities involved." The public attitude toward squatting varies, depending on legal aspects, socioeconomic conditions, the type of housing occupied by squatters.
In particular, while squatting of municipal buildings may be treated leniently, squatting of private property leads to strong negative reaction on the part of the public and authorities. Squatting, when done in a positive and progressive manner, can be viewed as a way to reduce crime and vandalism to vacant properties, depending on the squatter's ability and willingness to conform to certain socioeconomic norms of the community in which they reside. Moreover, squatters can contribute to the maintenance or upgrading of sites that would otherwise be left unattended, the neglect of which would create abandoned and decaying neighborhoods within certain sections of moderately to urbanized cities or boroughs, one such example being New York City's Lower Manhattan from the 1970s to the post-9/11 era of the New Millennium. Adverse possession is a method of acquiring title to property through possession for a statutory period under certain conditions. Countries where this principle exists include the United States, based on common law.
However, some non-common law jurisdictions have laws similar to adverse possession. For example, Louisiana has a legal doctrine called acquisitive prescription, derived from French law. There are large squatter communities such as Kibera in Nairobi. An estimated 1,000 people live in the Grande Hotel Beira in Mozambique; the Zabbaleen settlement and the City of the Dead are both well-known squatter communities in Cairo. In South Africa, squatters tend to live in informal settlements or squatter camps on the outskirts of the larger cities but not always near townships. In the mid-1990s, an estimated 7.7 million South Africans lived in informal settlements: a fifth of the country's population. The number has grown in the post-apartheid era. Many buildings in the inner city of Johannesburg have been occupied by squatters. Property owners or government authorities can evict squatters after following certain legal procedures including requesting a court order. In Durban, the city council ro
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet but the knees and hips are bent. In contrast sitting involves taking the weight of the body, at least in part, on the buttocks against the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat; the angle between the legs when squatting can vary from zero to splayed out, flexibility permitting. Another variable may be the degree of forward tilt of the upper body from the hips – see here and here. Squatting may be either: full – known as full squat, deep squat, on one's haunches, on one's hunkers, or hunkering – see text and see image gallery partial – known as partial, half, parallel, intermediate, incomplete or monkey squat etc. – see text and see image gallery. Crouching is considered to be synonymous with squatting, it is common to kneel with the other leg. One or both heels may be up when squatting. Young children instinctively squat. Among Chinese, Southeast Asian and Eastern European adults, squatting takes the place of sitting or standing.
Elements of squatting are used in everyday life without us realising it, whenever we lower our body. The variations in this section apply to full squatting but can apply to or have elements of partial squatting. Squatting for both legs can involve: heels down for both feet heels up for both feet, or the heel up for just one foot. Heels down squatting for both feet is the most stable arrangement of the three but most Western adults cannot do it. Where the heel is up for one foot, the thigh for that leg is more parallel to the ground than the other leg, additionally the heel up foot is planted further back than the heel down foot. Where the heel is up for both feet, it can be by different degrees thus giving two different thigh angles, it is common for one leg to be kneeling, while the other leg is: squatting with the heel down, or squatting with the heel up. Genuflection requires the heel down version of the squat/kneel combination; the kneel in the squat/kneel combination is just taking the heel up for one foot variant of both legs squatting a stage further.
The heel up squat version of the squat/kneel combination is a stage before both legs kneeling. Variations are possible as to which part of the toes touch the ground for a kneeling leg: the tip the under part the upper part; as a verb – early 15th century. Squatting in the sense of "crouch on the heels" is from the Old French words esquatir and escatir. Squatting in the sense of "compress, press down, lay flat, crush" is from about 1400. Meaning "posture of one who squats" is from 1570s. Act of squatting is from 1580s. Weight-lifting sense is from 1954. Young children squat instinctively as a continuous movement from standing up whenever they want to lower themselves to ground level. One- and two-year-olds can be seen playing in a stable squatting position, with feet wide apart and bottom not quite touching the floor, although at first they need to hold onto something to stand up again. Full squatting involves resting one's weight on the feet with the buttocks resting on the backs of the calves, it may be used as a posture for resting or working at ground level where the ground is too dirty or wet to sit or kneel.
Most Western adults cannot place their heels flat on the ground when squatting because of shortened Achilles tendons caused by habitually: sitting on chairs or seats wearing shoes with heels For this reason the squatting position is not sustainable for them for more than a few minutes as heels-up squatting is a less stable position than heels-down squatting. See dorsiflexion. Catchers in baseball and wicket-keepers in cricket facing slow deliveries assume full squatting positions. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist. Gopnik is a pejorative term to describe a particular subculture in Russia, the former Soviet republics, other East Slavic countries. Gopniks are seen squatting in groups, it is described as a learned behavior attributed to Russian prison culture. Gopniks wear Adidas tracksuits, due to them being popularised by the 1980 Moscow Olympics Soviet team; the Slav squat or Russian squat is associated with Gopniks in Eastern European countries together with stereotypical Eastern European behavior such as consumption of vodka and cigarettes and participation in street gambling.
It is a full squat with both heels down. Equivalents to the Slav squat in Western culture, sometimes with the hands together in a prayer position, are the rap squat, prison pose, jail pose, they are used as photographic poses. "Hunkerin'" is, in particular, the name applied to the American fad of resting in the squatting position in the late 1950s. Life referred to it as "sociable squatting"; such behavior had been seen in many cultures in Asia, for centuries when it became a fad in the United States in 1959. While the word "hunkerin'" is believed to originate from the Scots word for "haunches", claims were made for Yorkshire and Japan. Time reported that the craze started at the University of Arkansas when a shortage of chairs at a fraternity house led students to imitate their Ozark forefathers, who hunkered regularly; the fad spread first to Missouri and Oklahoma across the U. S. While males were the predominant hunkerers, it was reported that females were welcomed by many groups. Within months, re
More Flanimals is the sequel to Ricky Gervais' book Flanimals. Like Flanimals, the book features around 30 species of Flanimal, illustrated by Rob Steen, which make up their own imaginary ecosystem; some notable Flanimals in this book include the Psquirm and the Mung Ungler. Skwunt – a clam-like Flanimal with its eyes inside its mouth. Plappavom -- a Flanimal resembling scrambled eggs. Fud Dumpton – a built dopey looking Flanimal. Grommomulunt – a caterpillar-like creature with no organs other than a pair of eyes, it is the larval stage of the Munt Fly. Horosi Horasi – the fastest and smallest Flanimal on the planet. Edgor – the slowest moving Flanimal on the planet, overtaken by some dead flanimals. Dweezle Muzzbug – a grasshopper-like Flanimal that sheds its legs. Verminal Psquirm and Hordery Psquirm – two similar Flanimals that are seen only peeping round corners. Squat – an aggressive spider-like Flanimal. Mung Ungler – a bovine-like Flanimal with many udders. Pong Flibber – a balloon-like Flanimal that escapes by pumping out its entire gaseous insides.
Weezy Tong Nambler – an irritating Flanimal whose only defences are to flap and lick. Prug Fuggell – a testroprod nad snail. Gronglet – a trunked Flanimal that cannot find enough food so dies within its first day of its life. Spleg – related to the Gronglet but can survive until the day after its birth. Swog Monglet – a primitive lazy pond dweller that pulled itself out of the swamps millions of years ago. Gumbnumbly Knunk Knunk -- not explicitly features in a story at the end. Plodonklopus – an ancient strain of Blunging, stronger and faster, but nonetheless became extinct. Splorn - a microscopic organism that gave rise to all the other Flanimals. Many other Flanimals are shown on an evolutionary tree but not described, including the Anker, the Gundulump, the Scrabs, many others. Klut - a simple life form similar to a pear. Skrag Valve - a slug-like Flanimal that evolved from the Klut. Gernloid - an orange Flanimal resembling an anthropomorphic frog, related to the Psquirms. Austrillo Ployb- a small, pink Flanimal, related to all members of the Ployb family.
Nurdler Ployb - a scrawny, orange Flanimal, related to the Print. Squabulo Ployb - a Flanimal similar to a Hemel Sprot with arms. Grebulond - a green Flanimal with four legs and a long thin nose, it is the ancestor of the Edgor. Wig Scrambler- a light blue, centipede-like Flanimal, the ancestor of the Dweezle Muzzbug. Drub Mipe – a minuscule, spider-like Flanimal with no mouth, it is the ancestor of the Squat. Scrabs – a round, blue Flanimal with spikes on its head. Muffid Skrunt – a yellow, spider-like flanimal with a vicious expression. Progulant Glob – a lime-green blobby Flanimal, the ancestor to many Flanimal Vertebrates. Nub Sprunt - a small, purple Flanimal, related to the Flemping Bunt-Himmler. Ung Noglet - a small, blue frog-like flanimal, related to the Grundit. Gundulump - a Flanimal resembling a legged version of the Plamglotis, it has a tongue that sticks out and its eyes seem to be close to its tongue. Anker - a large, round Flanimal with a small face. Faber and Faber - UK publisher of all the'Flanimals' books Flanimals official Website Flanimals on Ricky Gervais's site Flanimals on Rob Steen's site Pictures from the book in the BBC website