The Squeak programming language is a dialect of Smalltalk. It is object-oriented, class-based, reflective, it was derived directly from Smalltalk-80 by a group at Apple Computer that included some of the original Smalltalk-80 developers. Its development was continued by the same group at Walt Disney Imagineering, where it was intended for use in internal Disney projects. On the group moved on to be supported by HP labs, SAP Labs and most Y Combinator. Squeak is cross-platform. Programs produced on one platform run bit-identical on all other platforms, versions are available for many platforms including the obvious Windows/macOS/linux versions; the Squeak system includes code for generating a new version of the virtual machine on which it runs. It includes a VM simulator written in Squeak. For these reasons, it is ported. Dan Ingalls, an important contributor to the Squeak project, wrote the paper upon which Squeak is built and constructed the architecture for five generations of the Smalltalk language.
Squeak incorporates many of the elements Alan Kay proposed in the Dynabook concept, which he formulated in the 1960s. Kay is an important contributor to the Squeak project. Squeak includes four user interface frameworks: An implementation of Morphic, Self's graphical direct manipulation interface framework; this is Squeak's main interface. Tile-based, limited visual programming scripting in Etoys, based on Morphic. A novel, experimental interface called Tweak. In 2001 it became clear that the Etoy architecture in Squeak had reached its limits in what the Morphic interface infrastructure could do. Hewlett-Packard researcher Andreas Raab proposed defining a "script process" and providing a default scheduling-mechanism that avoids several more general problems; this resulted in a new user interface, proposed to replace the Squeak Morphic user interface in the future. Tweak added mechanisms of islands, asynchronous messaging and costumes, language extensions and tile scripting, its underlying object system is class-based, but to users, during programming, it acts like it is prototype-based.
Tweak objects are run in Tweak project windows. A model–view–controller interface was the primary UI in Squeak versions 3.8 and earlier. It derived from the original Smalltalk-80 user interface framework which first introduced and popularized the MVC architectural pattern. MVC takes its name from the three core classes of the framework. Thus, the term "MVC" in the context of Squeak refers to both one of the available user interface frameworks and the pattern the framework follows. MVC is still provided for programmers. Many Squeak contributors collaborate on Open Cobalt, a free and open source virtual world browser and construction toolkit application, built on Squeak. Squeak is used in the Nintendo ES operating system and was used for implementing the first version of Scratch programming language for beginning programmers. In May 2011 the OpenQwaq virtual conferencing and collaboration system based on Squeak, an open source release of Teleplace, was announced on the Teleplace blog. Squeak 4.0 and may be downloaded at no cost, including source code, as a prebuilt virtual machine image licensed under the MIT License, with the exception of some of the original Apple code, governed by the Apache License.
Apple released Squeak under a license called the Squeak License. While source code was available and modification permitted, the Squeak License contained an indemnity clause that prevented it from qualifying as true free and open-source software. In 2006, Apple relicensed Squeak twice. First, in May, Apple used its own Apple Public Source License, which satisfies the Free Software Foundation's concept of a Free Software License and has attained official approval from the Open Source Initiative as an Open Source License; the Apple Public Source License, as it turns out, fails to pass the third standard that Free and Open Source Software licenses are held to: the Debian Free Software Guidelines promulgated by the Debian project, an influential volunteer-run Linux distribution. To enable inclusion of Etoys in the One Laptop Per Child project, a second relicensing was undertaken using the Apache License. At this point, an effort was made to address the issue of code contributed by members of the Squeak community, which it was not in Apple's power to unilaterally relicense.
For each contribution made under the Squeak License since 1996, a relicensing statement was obtained authorizing distribution under the MIT license, in March 2010, the end result was released as Squeak 4.0, now under combined MIT and Apache licenses. The Squeak virtual machine is a family of virtual machines used in Smalltalk programming language implementations, they are an essential part of any Smalltalk implementation. All are open-source software; the current VM is a high performance dynamic translation system. The relevant code is maintained on GitHub at OpenSmalltalk CogVM RoarVM List of open-source programming languages Alice Croquet Project Pharo Seaside Official website Squeak at Curlie
William Worth Patterson was a Kentucky businessman, the sixth Mayor of Ashland and the Division Inspector of the Post Offices in Denver. William Worth was born on November 3, 1849 in Clarion, Pennsylvania to William Evans and Ellen Patterson, both natives of Pennsylvania. In 1855, his father, William, a stonemason, moved to Jackson County, where he was engaged in the iron business. W. W. Patterson received a good academical education. In 1870, he came to Kentucky and taught a term of five months in the public school at Beuna Vista Furnace. Patterson entered the store of Means & Co. as storekeeper, which position he held until the spring of 1878, when he engaged in general merchandising with W. L. Geiger. In 1880, Patterson located to Ashland and entered the wholesale and retail grocery business in partnership with Col. Frank Coles. In 1881, Patterson was nominated by the Republicans as a candidate for the Kentucky Legislature. In 1885 he finished his first run as Post Office Inspector. In June 1886, he was elected mayor of Kentucky.
Patterson was a Kentucky delegate at the 1888 Republican National Convention, held June 19–25 in Chicago. He was an early supporter of Benjamin Harrison. After Harrison obtained the nomination and that year, narrowly won the elections, Patterson chased "nice, fat government" positions as a Harrison man; the Maysville Democrat newspaper, The Evening Bulletin, ran several items on the job search and retention of the Republican mayor. After missing out on an appointment as Superintendent of the Louisville and Portland Canal, he next applied for Chief of Post Office Inspectors in the Louisville and St. Louis district; this time he received the appointment from Postmaster General Walter Q. Gresham. Patterson continued as Mayor of Ashland until May 1989; as the regional Post Office Inspector, operating from Louisville, Patterson investigated robberies and fraud. In 1889 he was promoted to Division Inspector of the Post Offices in Denver. Patterson finished his government employment at the advent of the Cleveland administration.
Mariano Necochea was an Argentine-Peruvian soldier. In 1802, he was sent to Spain for his education, but he was obliged to return to Argentina in 1811 on account of the death of his father, he took an active part in the struggle for independence, was in the campaigns in upper Peru from 1811 until 1814. Necochea took part of the Battle of San Lorenzo, on February 3, 1813, under the command of General José de San Martín. In 1817 he went to Chile in the Army of the Andes as commander of a regiment of mounted grenadiers, took part in the whole campaign of Chile under José de San Martín, he accompanied the latter to Peru, was promoted brigadier for his valor in the siege of Callao, afterward as commander of cavalry engaged in the campaign of Peru, assisting in the battle of Junin, 6 August 1824, where he was dangerously wounded and saved from death by a Spanish soldier who had served under him in the Army of the Andes. He was promoted general of division. After the independence of Peru was established, he returned to Buenos Aires, where he took part as commander of a body of volunteer cavalry in the war against Brazil in 1826-27.
In the latter year he returned to Peru, participated in the war against Colombia, was commander of Guayaquil in 1828. In consequence of a military conspiracy in Lima, with several other officers, was summarily ordered to leave the country without a hearing, he returned to the congress his commission as general, saying that he wished to carry from Peru nothing but his honorable wounds; when his innocence was recognized, he returned to Peru and received the rank of grand marshal, but saw no more active service, retired to private life. Mariano Necochea is buried in the Cementerio Presbítero Matías Maestro in Lima, Perú, his brother Eugenio Necochea fought beside him on occasion. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Necochea, Eugenio". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton
Stone washing is a textile manufacturing process used to give a newly manufactured cloth garment a worn-in appearance. Stone-washing helps to increase the softness and flexibility of otherwise stiff and rigid fabrics such as canvas and denim; the process uses large stones to roughen up the fabric being processed. The garments are placed in a large horizontal industrial clothes washer, filled with large stones; as the wash cylinder rotates, the cloth fibers are pounded and beaten as the tumbling stones ride up the paddles inside the drum and fall back down onto the fabric. A number of people and organizations have claimed to have invented stone-washing. According to Levi Strauss & Co. Donald Freeland, an employee of the Great Western Garment Company, invented "stone-washing" denim in the 1950s. Inventor Claude Blankiet has been credited with having invented the technique in the 1970s; the jeans company Edwin claims to have invented the technique in the 1980s. It is accepted that French stylists Marithé + François Girbaud are inventors of industrialization of stone washing.
Stonewashed jeans are jeans. This is accomplished either by washing the jeans with pumice in a rotating drum, or by using chemicals to create the appearance without the use of a rotating drum; the expanding cost of importing pumice stone from Italy and Turkey led to extensive mining of pumice deposits in California and New Mexico, triggering a negative response from American ecologist groups. The reduction of pumice usage and the growing disposal of its chemically-tainted residue triggered a search for novel methods, notably the use of alternative abrading materials or machines and the use of cellulase enzymes. Stonewashed jeans were a popular 1970s fashion trend, before commercial acid wash denim was introduced in the 1980s. In the 2000s, stonewashed jeans were distressed, with pre-made holes, frayed edges and extensive fading caused by sandblasting. Claude Blankiet with American Garment Finishers from Texas promoted the use of cellulase enzymes in the finishing industry. Cellulase was used in the paper pulp, food processing industry and in the fermentation of biomass for biofuel production.
Cellulase is produced by fungi and protozoan that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose. Since the enzyme decomposes cellulose fibers this enhanced the characteristic appearance that the jeans have been abraded with stones. Selecting the most suitable type of enzyme and their application for ageing jeans was the key to success. American Garment Finishers used a new cellulolytic agent patented in 1991 by Novo Nordisk from Denmark because of its safer effect on cotton fiber. Other finishers used an acid side Trichoderma fungi enzyme and faster acting, but resulting in excessive fabric tear and a back lash because jeans pockets were lifting off. Acid-washed denim is washed with pumice stones and chlorine until it is bleached white. California surfers and members of the 1960s counterculture prized Levi 501s and other jeans, bleached by the salt water due to their authentic, "lived in" appearance; as natural wear took weeks, or months, it was not uncommon to hang a few new pairs of jeans to fade in the sun turn them over to fade the other side.
For many surfers, this process took too long, so they sped up the process by soaking the jeans in diluted bleach and some beach sand. Simple chlorine bleach and muriatic acid were available at the time, as they were used to sterilize swimming pools. During the early 1980s, skinheads and punk rockers would spatter bleach on their jeans and battle jackets for a mottled effect similar to camouflage; this early faded look, known as snow wash, tended to retain the original dark blue dye around the seams and waistband. One of the first companies to sell "pre washed" jeans, was Guess inc. in 1981. Despite its association with punk fashion, the faded effect was copied by many individuals not associated with the subculture, who dipped their jeans in diluted bleach and embellished them with metal studs and rhinestones; the modern process of acid washing was patented in Italy by the Rifle jeans company in February 1986. They accidentally tumbled jeans and pumice stones wetted with a weak solution of bleach in a washing machine without water.
American Garment Finishers from Texas industrialized the process in North America in June 1986 and offered it to Levi Strauss. Shortly afterward, AGF improved the technique by using Potassium Permanganate instead of bleach, achieving a more natural abraded look, far less damaging to the cotton fibers. Other abrading materials such as marble sand or expanded glass foam were used as an alternative to pumice stone. Specific areas of the jeans and jackets were acid-washed by spraying a solution of bleach or potassium permanganate to simulate a wear pattern. Popular worldwide from 1986 to the mid nineties, it is still used by fashion designers today. Acid wash jeans, worn with fringe jackets or the Perfecto motorcycle jacket were popularised by hard rock, outlaw country and heavy metal bands in the late 1980s. Fans of glam metal favored frayed "destroyed denim," and jeans, bleached white. Snow washed jeans, which retained more of the original blue dye, remained popular among grunge fans during the mid 1990s, until they were supplanted by darker shades of denim associated with hardcore punk and hip hop fashion.
Acid washed jeans made a comeback i
Totontepec Villa de Morelos is a small village and municipality, in the Sierra Mixe district of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is located some 1840 metres above sea level and some 326 km from the state capital, Oaxaca de Juárez. In spite of the Mixe influence, the toponym is Nahuatl in origin, meaning "hot hill"; the locals, called Totontepecanos, speak the local dialect of the Mixe language. Each dialect of Mixe is different depending on the village. According to the 2005 census, the town had a population of 5,626 people; the town's most notable feature is a rock. They call it "La Mitra", it is located at the top of the mountain. The locals will get a great view of their town. According to the 2005 Census, the municipality had a total population of 4,780, many of whom were proficient of an indigenous tongue; the municipality covers 318.95 km². As municipal seat, Totontepec has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: Chinantequilla, El Duraznal, Patio Grande, Rancho Alejandro Villegas, San Francisco Jayacaxtepec, San Marcos Moctum, San Miguel Metepec, Santa María Huitepec, Santa María Ocotepec, Santa María Tiltepec, Santiago Amatepec, Santiago Jareta, Santiago Tepitongo, Tierra Caliente Totontepec Villa de Morelos Totontepec Villa de Morelos
Bigsweir Woods is a 48.16-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Gloucestershire, notified in 1984. The site is listed in the'Forest of Dean Local Plan Review' as a Key Wildlife Site; the site is within the Wye Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is part owned by the Woodland Trust. Wye Valley Woodlands/ Coetiroedd Dyffryn Gwy are recognised as a Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive; the woods of the region are one of the most important areas of woodland conservation in the United Kingdom, being semi-natural woodland, run continuously along the Lower Wye Gorge. There is a rich mixture of tree types and rare and local species are present. Bigsweir Woods are sited on quartz conglomerate; this produces acid soil. The wood includes some Beech, Small-leaved Lime and Birch. Hazel, Small-leaved Lime make up an understorey with Rowan and Holly. Ground flora includes Bramble, Ivy, Dog's Mercury and Bilberry. Local herbs include Bitter Vetch, Alder Buckthorn and Wood Fescue.
There are carpets of Bluebell. The site supports a significant range of ferns. Natural England SSSI information on the citation Natural England SSSI information on the Bigsweir Woods units Media related to Bigsweir Woods at Wikimedia Commons Natural England Woodland Trust