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Squelch

In telecommunications, squelch is a circuit function that acts to suppress the audio output of a receiver in the absence of a sufficiently strong desired input signal. Squelch is a specialized type of noise gate designed to suppress randomized signals. Squelch is used in two-way radios and radio scanners to suppress the sound of channel noise when the radio is not receiving a transmission. Squelch can be opened; this can be useful when trying to hear otherwise weak signals, for example in DXing. A carrier squelch or noise squelch is the most simple variant of all, it operates on the signal strength, such as when a television mutes the audio or blanks the video on "empty" channels, or when a walkie-talkie mutes the audio when no signal is present. In some designs, the squelch threshold is preset. For example, television squelch settings are preset. Receivers in base stations, or repeaters at remote mountain top sites, are not adjustable remotely from the control point. In two-way radios, the received signal level required to unsquelch the receiver may be fixed or adjustable with a knob or a sequence of button presses.

The operator will adjust the control until noise is heard, adjust in the opposite direction until the noise is squelched. At this point, a weak signal will be heard by the operator. Further adjustment will increase the level of signal required to unsquelch the receiver. A typical FM two-way radio carrier squelch. To minimize the effects of voice audio on squelch operation, the audio from the receiver's detector is passed through a high-pass filter passing 4,000 Hz and above, leaving only high frequency noise; the squelch control adjusts the gain of an amplifier which varies the level of the noise coming out of the filter. This noise is rectified; the presence of continuous noise on an idle channel creates a DC voltage which turns the receiver audio off. When a signal with little or no noise is received, the noise-derived voltage is reduced and the receiver audio is unmuted; some applications have the receiver tied to other equipment that uses the audio muting control voltage, as a "signal present" indication.

Tone squelch, or another form of selective calling, is sometimes used to solve interference problems. Where more than one user is on the same channel, selective calling addresses a subset of all receivers. Instead of turning on the receiver audio for any signal, the audio turns on only in the presence of the correct selective calling code; this is akin to the use of a lock on a door. A carrier squelch will let any signal in. Selective calling locks out all signals except ones with the correct key to the lock. In non-critical uses, selective calling can be used to hide the presence of interfering signals such as receiver-produced intermodulation. Receivers with poor specifications—such as inexpensive police scanners or low-cost mobile radios—cannot reject the strong signals present in urban environments; the interference will still be present, will still degrade system performance, but by using selective calling the user will not have to hear the noises produced by receiving the interference. Four different techniques are used.

Selective calling can be regarded as a form of in-band signaling. CTCSS continuously superimposes any one of about 50 low-pitch audio tones on the transmitted signal, ranging from 67 to 254 Hz; the original tone set was 10 32 tones, has been expanded further over the years. CTCSS is called PL tone, or tone squelch. General Electric's implementation of CTCSS is called Channel Guard. RCA Corporation used the name Quiet Channel, or QC. There are many other company-specific names used by radio vendors to describe compatible options. Any CTCSS system that has compatible tones is interchangeable. Old and new radios with CTCSS and radios across manufacturers are compatible. Selcall transmits a burst of up to five in-band audio tones at the beginning of each transmission; this feature is common in European systems. Early systems used one tone. Several tones were used, the most common being 1,750Hz, still used in European amateur radio repeater systems; the addressing scheme provided by one tone was not enough, so a two-tone system was devised—one tone followed by a second tone.

Motorola marketed a system called "Quik-Call" that used two simultaneous tones followed by two more simultaneous tones, used by fire department dispatch systems in the USA. Selective call systems used paging system technology that made use of a burst of five sequential tones. DCS, generically known as CDCSS, was designed as the digital replacement for CTCSS. In the same way that a single CTCSS tone would be used on an entire group of radios, the same DCS code is used in a group of radios. DCS is referred to as Digital Private Line, another trademark of Motorola, General Electric's implementation of DCS is referred to as Digital Channel Guard. DCS is called DTCS by Icom, other names by other manufacturers. Radios with DCS options are compatible, provided the radio's enco

Overton, North Yorkshire

Overton is a small village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, about 4 miles north-west of York. The population of civil parish taken at the 2011 Census was less than 100. Details are included in the civil parish of North Yorkshire; the East Coast Main Line passes to the east, not far from the village. The village is mentioned three times in the Domesday Book as Ovretun in the Bulford hundred; the manor belonged to Earl Morcar, who had a hall in the village, at the time of the Norman invasion. Some of the land was the possession of the Church of St Peter of Thorbiorn; the manor passed to the Crown and Count Alan of Brittany by 1086. Both granted the manor to St Mary's Abbey, York; the Hall that once stood in the village was the country seat of the Abbots until the dissolution. The Hall was demolished at some time in the 18th century, though earthworks indicate where the old moat may have been; the manor and estate came into the hands of the Bourchier, thence the Dawnay, family at Beningbrough.

The parish included the manors of Shipton and Skelton. The remains of the base of a limestone cross indicate that there may have been a church in the village at one time; the nearest settlements are Skelton 1 mile to the east. It lies on the north bank of the River Ouse. In 1881 the UK Census recorded the population as 67; the village lies within the Malton Parliamentary constituency. It lies within the Shipton ward of Hambleton District Council and the Stillington electoral division of North Yorkshire County Council. Media related to Overton, North Yorkshire at Wikimedia Commons

John Dyfnallt Owen

Rev. John Dyfnallt Owen, was a Welsh poet, served as Archdruid of the National Eisteddfod of Wales from 1954 until his death, he was known by his bardic name, "Dyfnallt". Owen was born in Llangiwg, the son of Daniel and Anghara Owen, was brought up by his grandparents because of the death of his mother when he was an infant, he worked for a short period as a coal miner obtained an education at Parcyfelfed Academy and Bala Bangor College. He had two sons Meirion Dyfnallt Owen and Geraint Dyfnallt Owen. Having been ordained as a Congregational minister, he became a minister at Trawsfynydd and Deiniolen before moving to Sardis Chapel at Pontypridd in 1905. In 1910 he was inducted as minister of Carmarthen, he remained there until his retirement from the ministry in 1947. During his time there he was elected to the Carmarthen Board of Guardians. During World War I, he served as a chaplain in France. In 1927, he became editor of the Welsh-language journal Y Tyst. In 1936 he became President of the Union of Welsh Independents.

Like all Archdruids, he was a winner of a major poetry prize at the National Eisteddfod, in his case the crown at the 1907 Eisteddfod in Swansea. He joined the Celtic Congress in 1908 and maintained a lifelong interest in Breton affairs, writing a book in 1934 and was part of the Welsh delegation investigating French abuses of the Breton movement after WWII, he hosted the Breton Literary figure Roparz Hemon at his own home when he fled France in 1946. He gained an hon. M. A. degree from the University of Wales in 1953. At the age of 80 he was elected Archdruid of Wales at Rhyl in 1954. Myfyrion a chaneuon maes y tân, O ben tir Llydaw Min yr hwyr Y greal a cherddi eraill Rhamant a Rhyddid Ar y tŵr Dictionary of Welsh Biography https://biography.wales/article/s2-OWEN-DYF-1873 Geraint Elfyn Jones, Bywyd a gwaith John Dyfnallt Owen Emrys Jones in Derec Llwyd Morgan, Adnabod deg. Portreadau o ddeg o arweinwyr cynnar y Blaid Genedlaethol Journal of the Welsh Bibliographical Society, 11, 120–8, for his bibliography.]

The Celtic Times 15 July 1947. Http://bibliotheque.idbe-bzh.org/data/cle_160/An_Aimsear_Ceiltiac_1947_july__.pdf

Little Barningham

Little Barningham is a village and a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The village is 19 miles north of Norwich, 10 miles south-west of Cromer and 133 miles north-east of London; the nearest railway station is in the town of Sheringham where access to the national rail network can be made via the Bittern Line to Norwich. The nearest airport is Norwich International Airport. Little Barningham is within the area covered by North Norfolk District Council; the village is mentioned in the great survey of 1086 known as the Domesday book. In the survey the village has the names of Berneswrde; the main landholders were The King, under the custody of Godric, William de Warenne and Bishop William. With the main tenant being Brant from Robert FitzCorbucion; the survey mentions a church and a mill. Little Barningham straddles a small valley with the parish church sitting on a mound beside the single street; the village comprises some forty dwellings. The village has now lost its post office and pub but the village hall is still a thriving centre of the local community.

The church is late mediaeval. The church is built of flint and consists of a chancel, west tower and south porch; the roof of the chancel has a hammerbeam roof but at one time the roof was thatched. There is a Jacobean box or pew which dates from 1640 and has the inscription: "FOR COUPLES JOYND IN WEDLOCK AND MY FRIENDS THAT STRANGER IS, THIS SEAT DID I INTEND BUILT AT THE COST AND CHARGE OF STEVEN CROSBEE. ALL YOU THAT DOE THIS SPACE PASS BY, AS YOU ARE NOWE, EVEN SO WAS I. REMEMBER DEATH FOR YOU MUST DYE AND AS I AM SOE SHALL YOU BE PREPARE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW ME"; the carving of a skeleton in a shroud at one corner of the box described by Pevsner was stolen in 1996 having been in place for 400 years, but there are two replacements: one fixed to the pew in the original position and another at the back of the church carved by a well-wisher. Media related to Little Barningham at Wikimedia Commons

Timothy J. Corrigan

Timothy J. Corrigan is an American lawyer and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida. Corrigan was born in 1956 in Florida, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1978 from the University of Notre Dame and his Juris Doctor from Duke University School of Law in 1981. Corrigan served as a law clerk to Judge Gerald B. Tjoflat of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit from 1981 to 1982, he was in private practice in Florida from 1982 to 1996, served as an adjunct instructor at the Duke University School of Law from 1985 to 1996. Corrigan served as a United States Magistrate Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida from 1996 to 2002, was an adjunct professor at the Florida Coastal School of Law in 1999. President George W. Bush nominated Corrigan to the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida on May 22, 2002, to a new seat created by 113 Stat. 1501. Confirmed by the Senate on September 12, 2002, he received his commission the next day.

In June 2013, Judge Corrigan was the victim of an assassination attempt. A bullet fired by Aaron Richardson into Corrigan's home missed him by less than two inches. In June 2016, Richardson was sentenced to 343 years in prison for related charges. Timothy J. Corrigan at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Boris Volkoff

Boris Vladimirovich Volkoff, was a Canadian-Russian ballet dancer, director and ballet master. After studying dance in Warsaw and Moscow he defected from Russia and settled in Toronto, he created the Boris Volkoff School of Dance which trained ballet dancers, the Boris Volkoff Ballet Company, arguably considered the first ballet company in Canada. He gave his dancers and studio to the National Ballet of Canada to raise the profile of Canadian ballet, he attempted to revive his company which ended in failure. He was appointed as a Member of the Order of Canada in one year before his death. Volkoff, birth name Boris Vladimirovich Baskakoff, was born on April 24, 1900, in Schepotievo, Russia; when he was nine Volkoff joined his brother Igor in Warsaw to dance and perform for the Russian Army. He alternated between using this birth name and performing using the last name Volkoff, his mother's family name. Volkoff attended the Moscow State Academy of Choreography and danced with Mordkin Ballet and the Moscow State Youth Ballet.

During a Siberian tour Volkoff went to Shanghai. He joined the Shanghai Variety Ballet and toured with Russian expatriates to various Asian countries and the United States, he danced with Adolph Bolm's company until his visa expired and Volkoff was smuggled into Canada in 1929. He became ballet master at Jack Arthur's Uptown Theatre in Toronto and choreographed short dances that were performed between films, it was during this time. In 1930 Volkoff opened the Boris Volkoff School of Dance, which operated until 1974. In 1932 he created ice ballet versions of Prince Igor with the Toronto Skating Club, he continued creating works for the club for fourteen seasons. Volkoff brought his dance troupe to the 1936 Summer Olympics to compete in an international dance competition, his company performed two new ballets called Mon-Ka-Ta and Mala, both based on Inuit and Native American legends. The pieces were given five "honourable mentions". In 1938 the troupe that traveled to Berlin became the Volkoff Canadian Ballet, the Boris Volkoff Ballet Company.

This company is sometimes considered the first Canadian ballet company. The company performed in many notable venues such as Massey Hall in 1939. Volkoff co-founded the Canadian Ballet Festival with Gweneth Lloyd in 1948 to showcase the talent of Canadian ballet dancers and Volkoff Canadian Ballet was one of three companies to perform at its inaugural event. On March 2, 1949, Volkoff premiered The Red Ear of a ballet in two acts; the name refers to red ears of corn found in northern Quebec by huskers. The piece was inspired by French Canadian dance music; the musical score was composed by John Weinzweig. Unable to secure stable funding for the Volkoff Canadian Ballet Volkoff worked with other Canadian ballet enthusiasts to create the National Ballet of Canada. Volkoff and Gweneth Lloyd both wanted to run the new company but they reached a compromise by bringing Celia Franca to be its new artistic director. Volkoff became the company's first resident choreographer. Volkoff gave his studio and dancers to the National Ballet and taught the male dancers of the company.

He regretted this decision as he disliked Celia Franca's "English" dancing style and believed ballet should be performed in the Russian style. In 1952 Volkoff and David Adams became co-artistic directors; the company featured many of the founding members of the National Ballet. He attempted to revive his company in 1953 and 1967 but these ended in failure. Volkoff married a student at his ballet studio, she became his business associate in the operation of his studio. Volkoff died March 1974, in Toronto. Volkoff was appointed as a Member of the Order of Canada in 1973. In 2009 Heritage Toronto unveiled a plaque commemorating Volkoff, it was installed at the site of Volkoff's studio at 771 Yonge Street