WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the national academy of Slovenia, which encompasses science and the arts and brings together the top Slovene researchers and artists as members of the academy. Established in 1938, the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts is the supreme national institution for science and the arts, it associates scientists and artists who have been elected as its members for their outstanding achievements in the field of sciences and arts. It cultivates and promotes sciences and arts and, through its activities, contributes to the development of scientific thought and creativity in the arts by: addressing basic issues of sciences and arts; the president, the two vice-presidents, the secretary general and the secretaries of its various sections are elected for a period of three years with the possibility of one further re-election. SAZU can have a maximum of 60 full and 30 associate members, it can have a maximum of 90 corresponding members from scientific institutions abroad.
SAZU is active in different fields of research, as reflected in the corresponding six sections of the Academy: The Section of Historical and Social Sciences has 11 full members, three associate members and 19 corresponding members, comprises two subsections, Historical Sciences and Social Sciences. The Section of Philological and Literary Sciences has 15 full members, two associate members and 16 corresponding members; the Section of Mathematical, Physical and Technical Sciences has 15 full members, four associate members and 17 corresponding members and comprises two subsections, Mathematical and Chemical Sciences and Technical Sciences. The Section of Natural Sciences has 12 full members, two associate members and eight corresponding members; the Section of Medical Sciences has nine full members, two associate members and 11 corresponding members. And the Section of Arts has 12 full members, six associate members and 14 corresponding members. SAZU has founded 17 important research institutes from the fields of the humanities and natural sciences, each of which functions an autonomous research organisation, yet falls under the overall management of the Academy's Research Centre.
SAZU has several special units, including the Department for International Relations and Scientific Co-ordination is headed by a full member of SAZU and the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts Library, the third largest library in Slovenia, which exchanges publications with scientific institutions all over the world. SAZU was established in 1938 and was named Academy of Sciences and Arts. On 23 January 1943, AZU breached the cultural silence. Due to the efforts of Milan Vidmar, the epithet Slovenian was added to its name in 1943 with a decree by Leon Rupnik, the mayor of Ljubljana under the Italian annexation; the renaming was disregarded after the war. In autumn 1945, the National Government of Slovenia led by Boris Kidrič took autonomy from the Academy and again named it Academy of Sciences and Arts; the literary historian France Kidrič was elected its president, confirmed for the second term in 1948. In 1948, it lost more autonomy and was renamed to the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts again.
The academy lost its members with the new act and 30 days ceased to exist. In 1949, an amendment to the act was passed that allowed for membership not only of scientists and artists, but of those the deeds of which had a "special significance". In this manner, Josip Broz - Tito and Edvard Kardelj became its honorary members. Boris Kidrič, Josip Vidmar and Boris Ziherl were elected members, which influenced the development of the Academy. According to the Soviet scheme of development, the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Chemistry were established in 1946, followed by the Institute of Electrical Economics four years later. Despite this, social sciences and classical natural history remained the dominating fields. In 1950, there were ten institutes, one board and one committee, among them the Institute of Slovene language and the Institute of Literatures. In this time, the Academy divided into five classes: a class for historical and social sciences, a class for philological and literary sciences, a class for mathematical-physical and technical sciences, a class for natural history and medicine, a class for arts.
This make its composition similar to the current one. SAZU joined the European Scientific Foundation in 1995. List of members of Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts Anton Melik Geographical Institute Jožef Stefan Institute ARNES University of Ljubljana Official website Media related to Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts at Wikimedia Commons
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe. The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more used for the same region though with a somewhat different sense, with only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Epoch Pannonian Sea dried out, it is a geomorphological subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system a sediment-filled back-arc basin. Most of the plain consists of the Great Hungarian Plain and the Little Hungarian Plain, divided by the Transdanubian Mountains; the Pannonian Basin lies in the southeastern part of Central Europe. It forms a topographically discrete unit set in the European landscape, surrounded by imposing geographic boundaries - the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps; the Rivers Danube and Tisza divide the basin in half. It extends between Vienna in the northwest, Bratislava in the northeast, Ostrava in the north, Zagreb in the southwest, Novi Sad in the south and Satu Mare in the east. In terms of modern state boundaries, the basin centres on the territory of Hungary, but it covers regions of western Slovakia, southeastern Poland, western Ukraine, western Romania, northern Serbia, the tip of northeast Croatia, northeastern Slovenia, eastern Austria.
The name "Pannonian" comes from a province of the Roman Empire. Only the western part of the territory of modern Hungary formed part of the ancient Roman Province of Pannonia. In English-language, the terms "Pannonian Basin" and "Carpathian Basin" are used synonymously; the name "Pannonian" is taken from that of a province of the Roman Empire. The historical province was not coterminous with the geographical plain or basin. Pannonia Inferior covered much of the western half of the basin, as far as the Danube. Pannonia Superior included the western fringe of the basin as well as part of the Eastern Alps, as far as Virunum; the southern fringe of the basin was in Moesia. The eastern half of the basin was not conquered by the Romans and was considered part of Sarmatia, inhabited by the Iazyges; the parts north of the Danube were not in the empire. The term Pannonian Plain refers to the lowland parts of the Pannonian Basin as well as those of some adjoining regions like Lower Austria and Silesia; the lands adjoining the plain proper are sometimes called peri-Pannonian.
The term Carpathian Basin is used in Hungarian literature, while the West Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian languages, German language, Romanian language use Pannonian: in Hungarian the basin is known as Kárpát-medence, in Czech. The East Slavic languages, namely Ukrainian, use terms Tisa-Danube Basin or Middanubian Basin In Hungarian geographical literature various subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains are considered parts of the Carpathian Basin on the basis of traditional geopolitical divisions. Julius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, wet". Although rain is not plentiful, it falls when necessary and the plain is a major agricultural area. For its early settlers, the plain offered few sources of metals or stone, thus when archaeologists come upon objects of obsidian or chert, copper or gold, they have unparalleled opportunities to interpret ancient pathways of trade. The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains.
The northwestern part is called Western Pannonian plain and the southeastern part Eastern Pannonian plain. They comprise the following sections: Western Pannonian Plain: Vienna Basin Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Pannonian Plain: Great Hungarian Plain Pannonian Island Mountains Transdanubian Mountains Drava–Mura lowlandsNote: The Transylvanian Plateau and the Lučenec-Košice Depression and some other lowlands are sometimes considered part of the Pannonian Plain in non-geomorphological or older divisions. Large or distinctive areas of the plain that do not correspond to national borders include: Bačka/Bácska Šajkaška Telečka Gornji Breg Banat Pančevački Rit Veliki Rit Gornje Livade Baranya/Baranja Burgenland, Austria Crişana Jászság Kunság Little Hungarian Plain Mačva Međimurje Moravia, Czech Republic Moslavina Podravina Podunavlje Pokuplje Pomoravlje, around M
University of Ljubljana
The University of Ljubljana is the oldest and largest university in Slovenia. It has 40.000 enrolled students. Although certain academies were established as Jesuit higher education in what is now Slovenia as early as the seventeenth century, the first university was founded in 1810 under the Écoles centrales of the French imperial administration of the Illyrian provinces; the chancellor of the university in Ljubljana during the French period was Joseph Walland, born in Upper Carniola. That university was disbanded in 1813, when Austria regained territorial control and reestablished the Imperial Royal Lyceum of Ljubljana as a higher-education institution. During the second half of the 19th century, several political claims for the establishment of a Slovene-language university in Ljubljana were made, they gained momentum in the fin de siècle era, when a considerable number of renowned Slovene academians worked throughout Central Europe, while more numerous Slovenian students were enrolled in foreign-language universities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the Austrian and Czech lands.
In the 1890s, a unified board for the establishment of a Slovenian university was founded, with Ivan Hribar, Henrik Tuma, Aleš Ušeničnik as its main leaders. In 1898, the Carniolan regional parliament established a scholarship for all those students who were planning a habilitation under the condition that they would accept a post at Ljubljana University when founded. In this way, a list of suitable faculty started to emerge. Unfavorable political circumstances prevented the establishment of the university until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the establishment of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1918, the founding of the university became possible. On November 23, 1918, the first meeting of the Founding Board of Ljubljana University was called, presided over by Mihajlo Rostohar, professor of psychology at the Charles University in Prague. Together with Danilo Majaron, Rostohar convinced the central government of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in Belgrade to pass a bill formally establishing the university.
The bill was passed on July 2, 1919. The first lectures started on December 3 of the same year. In 1919, the university comprised five faculties: law, technology and medicine; the seat of the university was in the central Congress Square of Ljubljana in a building that had served as the State Mansion of Carniola from 1902 to 1918. The building was first designed in 1902 by Jan Vladimír Hráský, was remodelled by a Czech architect from Vienna, Josip Hudetz. In the mid-1920s, the university was renamed the "King Alexander University in Ljubljana" and continued to grow despite financial troubles and constant pressure from Yugoslav governments’ centralist policies. In 1941, Jože Plečnik's National and University Library was completed, as one of the major infrastructure projects of the university in the interwar period. After the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, the university continued to function under the Italian and Nazi German occupation, despite numerous problems and interference in its autonomous operation.
Several professors were arrested or deported to Nazi concentration camps and large numbers of students joined either the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People or the Slovenian Home Guard. Following the end of the Second World War, the first and only foreigner elected to hold the office of chancellor was the Czech professor Alois Král, who had lectured at Faculty of Technical Sciences since 1920 and held the position of dean thereof four times. After the establishment of Communist Yugoslavia in 1945, the university was again put under political pressure: numerous professors were dismissed, some were arrested and tried, the theological faculty was excluded from the university; some of the most brilliant students emigrated. The university maintained its educational role and regained a limited degree of autonomy from the mid-1950s onward, it suffered a serious setback in autonomy from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, when some professors were again dismissed by the authorities. In 1979 it was renamed "Edvard Kardelj University in Ljubljana" after the Communist leader.
In 1990, with the fall of Yugoslavia, it was regiven its original name. As of 2018, the university has 23 faculties and three academies, situated throughout urban Ljubljana: Academy of Theatre, Radio and Television Academy of Fine Arts and Design Academy of Music Faculty of Administration Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Arts Biotechnical Faculty Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy Faculty of Computer and Information Science Faculty of Economics Faculty of Education Faculty of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Law Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Social work Faculty of Sport Faculty of Theology Veterinary Faculty Faculty of Health SciencesThe university was located in the centre of Ljubljana where the central university building and the majority of its faculties are lo
The Slovenes known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, to Italy and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture and speak Slovene as their native language. Most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia. In the Slovenian national census of 2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes, while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language; the autochthonous Slovenian minority in Italy is estimated at 83,000 to 100,000, the Slovene minority in southern Austria at 24,855, in Croatia at 13,200, in Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene expatriate communities live in the United States and Canada, in other European countries, in Argentina, in Australia; the largest population of Slovenes outside of Slovenia is in Ohio. In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a, more frequent than in South Slavic peoples, constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions.
Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a common ancestral Slavic population in central European region; the M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280 its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic and not Slavic neighbours. The Z92 branch of Z280, significant among East Slavs is recorded as absent among Slovenes. Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106; the Dinaric-North haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming higher frequency than Dinaric-South in regions with high frequency. In the 6th century AD, Slavic people settled the region between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea in two consecutive migration waves: the first wave came from the Moravian lands around 550, while the second wave, coming from the southeast, moved in after the retreat of the Lombards to Italy in 568.
From 623 to 658 Slavic peoples between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range united under the leadership of King Samo in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death in 658, but a smaller Slavic tribal principality, remained, with its centre in the present-day region of Carinthia. Faced with the pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians accepted a union with Bavaria in 745, in the 8th century recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity; the last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocel, lost its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to pressure from Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain; the first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending regional boundaries, date from the 16th century. During this period, the first books in Slovene were written by the Protestant preacher Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the development of standard Slovene.
In the second half of the 16th century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral translation of the Bible by Jurij Dalmatin. At the beginning of the 17th century, Protestantism was suppressed by the Habsburg-sponsored Counter Reformation, which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture; the Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II many reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary education in Slovene; the start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars, some secular literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first history of the Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton Tomaž Linhart, while Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive grammar of Slovene.
Between 1809 and 1813, Slovenia was part of the Illyrian Provinces, an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, with Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it contributed to the rise of national consciousness and political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all Slovene Lands were once again included in the Austrian Empire. A distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, the quest for a political unification of all Slovenes became widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian movement, Pan-Slavic and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance. However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop and the Romantic poet France Prešeren was influential in affirming the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing the idea of merging Slovenes into a wider Slavic nation.
In the 1840s, the Slovene national movement developed far beyond literary expression. In 1848, the first Slovene national political programme, called United Slovenia, was wr
The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north. With a total length of 120 kilometres in an east-west direction, the Karawanks chain is one of the longest ranges in Europe, it has a great tourist significance. Geographically and geologically, it is divided into the higher Western Karawanks and the lower-lying Eastern Karawanks, it is traversed by the Periadriatic Seam, separating the Apulian tectonic plate from the Eurasian Plate. The Karawanks form the continuation of the Carnic Alps east of the Slizza stream near the tripoint of Austria and Italy at Arnoldstein, they are confined by the Drava Valley in the north and the Sava in the south, separating it from the adjacent Julian Alps. In the east, they border on the Kamnik–Savinja Alps and Pohorje ranges. A number of mountain passes on important trade routes cross the range, like Wurzen, Loibl or Seeberg, which have been used since prehistory.
Nowadays the Austrian Karawanken Autobahn runs from Villach to the Karavanke motorway tunnel, which traverses the Western Karawanks connecting it with the Slovenian A2 motorway at Jesenice. A parallel railway line crosses the range through the Karawanks railway tunnel; the Karawanks are a popular mountaineering area with numerous mountain huts. Many of the peaks offer a good view of the Klagenfurt basin on the Austrian side and the Ljubljana basin on the Slovene side; the northern Austrian side is rocky and precipitous while the Slovenian side is less steep, covered with spruce forests and low bushy pine at lower elevations with grass higher up. The Karawanks were settled in the Stone Age, as indicated by findings from the Potok Cave. In Roman times, they represented the southern border of the Noricum province, of the Slavic principality of Carantania; the ancient geographer Claudius Ptolemy mentioned the Karwankas mountains about 150 AD. The name is derived from Celtic karv, a tradition that has survived in the Košuta massif.
From the first half of the 11th century, the Karawanks formed the border between the territory of the Duchy of Carinthia and the adjacent March of Carniola in the south. After Carniola had been elevated to a duchy in 1364, both lands became part of Inner Austria and were crown lands of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526 up to World War I; the northern slopes of the Karawanks had been settled by Carinthian Slovenes in October 1920, the Carinthian Plebiscite decided that the crest was the border between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In the final weeks of the Second World War the Karawanks passes witnessed intense fighting; the 24th SS Kampfgruppe commanded by SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS Heinz Harmel was ordered to keep the Karawanken passes open between Yugoslavia and Austria. This task was critical in allowing German forces to withdraw from Yugoslavia in order to surrender to British rather than Yugoslav forces; the Kampfgruppe succeeded in its final task, was one of the last German units to surrender, when it encountered the British 6th Armoured Division on 9 May 1945.
After World War II the Karawanks remained the border between Austria and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the independent Slovenia from 1991. Since the entry of Slovenia to the Schengen Area in 2007, a free movement of people and goods across the Karawanks has been allowed, the two countries started to aim for an economic integration of their border areas. Several place names have German names, today the peaks along the main chain of the Karawanks are displayed in Slovene and German on hiking maps: List of mountains in Slovenia List of mountains in Austria Slovenian Mountain Hiking Trail Karawanks on Hiking Trail Karawanks. More Information about Karawanks