Nedumangad is a city and a municipality in Thiruvananthapuram metropolitan area of Thiruvananthapuram district in the Indian state of Kerala, It's the headquarters of Nedumangad and Nedumangad Revenue Division. It is a suburb of the extended metropolitan region of Thiruvananthapuram city, it is located around 18 km to the north-east of Thiruvananthapuram city on the Thiruvananthapuram — Shencottah. It is the second biggest commercial center in the district, it is a growing commercial, educational hub and important Government institutions situated in the Town. It is an important centre for the commercial trade in rubber. A wholesale market set up by the Department of Agriculture is situated there. Nedumangad panchayat was formed on 1936, it was one among the 4 Panchayats sanctioned by Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer; the others were Paravur and Perumbavoor. In 1978 Nedumangad Muncipality was established; the adivasis are the tribal people of the region. From 1677 to 1689 AD, who ruled Travancore, lost to the battlefield and escaped to Koyikkal Palace, Nedumangad.
The queen sought the help of Kerala Varma to defeat the Mukkappappa. History has indicated that Kerala Varma defeated Mukulapada in Thiruvattar and took Umayamma Rani into Trivandrum; the arrival of Umayamma Rani Koyikkal headquarters came to this place by the merchants of the merchants, golden tattans and the Tamil Brahmins who became Puaris. The Tamil Brahmins became the heirs of most land in the area; the palace at Karipur, Pulellunthu Mallan's family head, Karippur Mudipura are the historical findings of the ancient history of Nedumangad. Nedumangad Koyikkal palace is one of the few buildings built in the shape of the sea in the 15th century Kerala Architectural Architecture; the historic Koyikkal Palace has been maintained since 1979 by the Kerala State Department of Archaeology. Nedumangad Street struggle was one of the historical struggles of the national movement during Independence; the LLA LP School, which started as "Pallalu school", is the first school to be established here. The first library of the library is the Guruvayur Vidyalaya.
Karimakavu Sastha Temple,Mannamkonam Sree Bhagavathy Temple,Indalayappan Temple, Ardhanarisheshwara Temple, Muthumariamman Temple, Melamcode Temple, Mutharamman Temple, Pazhavadi Ganapati Temple, Paranthokha Bhagwati Temple, Nedumangad Town Muslim jamaath Complex and the Christian Church are some of the oldest shrines of the region. Nedumangad's commercial history is concerned with agriculture. Nedumangad Public Market is the largest market in the district of Thiruvananthapuram, it is the largest market for agricultural commodities. The Agrarian Sales Complex, with the help of the Department of Agriculture is set up with the help of the European Economic Community. Thiruvananthapuram - Chenkotta and Shorlakode - Nedumangad State Highway is one of the most important interstate routes through Nedumangad; the main road that passes through Ponmudi is the main road. The distance from Nedumangad to the capital city is only 18 km. In the state of Kerala, the first of its kind in the state of Kerala was started by the Folklore Museum and the Museum of Numismatics at Nedumangad Koyikkal Palace on 27 March 1992.
The Koyikkal Palace is located next to the municipal office. The museum is under the control of Government of Kerala. Nedumangad is a place on the journey to the Ponmudi hill resort. PSLV, a subsidiary of ISRO and VSSC The project is located at Valiyamala; the "Amman Rock" located at Venkode is most popular among tourists. A Numismatical Museum was started on 27 March 1992 at Koyikkal palace at Nedumangad. Nedumangad is located at 8.6°N 77.0°E / 8.6. It has an average elevation of 68 metres, it lies 18 km from Thiruvananthapuram on the way to Ponmudi hill resort. It is the capital of the taluk, is unique for having no coastal belt or railway lines, it is bounded on the west by Trivandrum Taluk, on the east by the State of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Neyyattinkara Taluk and on the north by Kollam District. Agasthyarkoodam, a mountain preserve famous for its abundant ayurvedic herbs and medicinal plants is around 50 km away. About 32 km from Nedumangad, en route to the Ponmudi Hill Resort lies the Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, of particular interest to ornithologists.
Near Nedumangad town another Monolithic - Thiruchittapara is located. With Siva Vishnu Temple, lots of monkeys congregated this place; the name Nedumangadu means kadu of Vishnu, called Neduman and Nediyavan in ancient texts like Chilappadikaram. Vembayam is another famous town in Nedumangadu taluk. Kerala's Numismatic museum is at Koikkal Palace within Nedumangad Town; the palace was the residence of one of the prominent matriarchal lines of Travancore. Nedumangad is the one of the important hub and commercial centre in the district, it is located 18 km to the north-east of thiruvananthapuram city. On the way to Thiruvananthapuram - Shencottah and Other major roads are SH 3 connecting Kanyakumari, SH 45 connecting Ponmudi and SH 47 connecting Attingal. Bus service Operated by Kerala state Road Transport Corporation. Nedumangad KSRTC Bus Depot is the largest Bus station in the Taluk. KSRTC services connecting all major towns in Kerala and outside kerala. Nearest airport is Thiruvananthapuram International Airport No railway lines pass through Nedumangadu.
The nearest railway station is Thiruvananthapuram central. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 5676, 9.43 % of total population of Nedumang
Chirayinkeezhu Taluk is a Taluk in Thiruvananthapuram district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated in the northern part of the Thiruvananthapuram district, it comprises two municipalities. Chirayinkeezhu taluk is the birthplace of a host of illustrious personalities like the painter Raja Ravi Varma, the great poet and social reformer Kumaran Asan, the practical saint and sanyasin Sree Narayana Guru, Prem Nazir etc. There are 29 villages and one municipalities are in the taluk. Alamcode, Azhoor, Cherunniyoor, Edakkode, Kadakkavoor, Keezhattingal, Ponganadu, Koduvazhannoor, Madavoor, Mudakkal, Navaikulam, Pallickal, Perunguzhi, Sarkara-Chirayinkeezhu, Vellalloor, Vettoor· There one Municipality Attingal. Chirayinkeezh has a network of backwaters and canals, quite typical of Kerala. There are many Temples and important tourist places; some of them are given below. The estate of Kilimanoor belonged to a Pillai ruling chief and was forfeited to Travancore by Maharaja Marthanda Varma; the estate comprising several villages was handed over to the family of the father of the King who had come south from Parappanad in Malabar around 1718.
In 1705 the son and two daughters of Ittammar Raja of Beypore Thattarikovilakam, a Kolathunadu royal house, were adopted into the Royal house of Venad. Ittammar Raja's sister and her sons, Rama Varma and Raghava Varma, settled in Kilimanoor and married the now adopted sisters. Marthanda Varma, the founder of the Kingdom of Travancore, was the son of Raghava Varma; the nephew of Raghava Varma, Ravi varma Koil Thampuran, married the sister of Marthanda Varma. Their son became known as Dharma Raja Kartika Thirunnal Rama Varma. In 1740 when an allied force, led by Dutchman Captain Hockert supporting the Deshinganadu King, attacked Venad, an army from Kilimanoor resisted and defeated them. Although a small victory, this was the first time. In 1753, in recognition of this feat, Marthanda Varma exempted the areas controlled by the Kilimanoor palace from taxes, granted them autonomous status; the present palace complex was built at this time, together with the Ayyappa temple. For the family deity,Sastha or Ayyapan.
Velu Thampi Dalawa held meetings at Kilimanoor palace. He handed over his sword at the palace before going into his final battle against the British, India's first President, Dr Rajendra Prasad received this sword from the palace and it was kept in the National Museum in Delhi. After wards the sword was moved to the Napier Trivandrum. Varkala Beach is a haven for swimming, it is situated on Varkala. There are several small restaurants and snack shops near and around Papasnanam beach, which attracts visitors both for leisure as well as for religious reasons. Sivagiri Mutt was established by Sree Narayana Guru, a spiritual leader, renowned philosopher and social reformer of Kerala. Presently, the Sivagiri Mutt is the'samadhi' of Sree Narayana Guru; the Sivagiri Mutt, built in 1904, is situated at the top of the Sivagiri hill at Varkala. Decades after the Guru breathed his last here in 1928, his samadhi continues to be visited by throngs of devotees, dressed in yellow attire, during the Sivagiri Pilgrimage days, 30 December to 1 January.
The Sivagiri Mutt is the headquarters of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Sangham, a religious organization established by the Guru to propagate his concept of'One Caste, One Religion, One God'. The Guru Deva Jayanti, the birthday of the Guru, the Samadhi day, the day of his demise, are celebrated in August and September every year. Colourful processions and seminars, public meetings, cultural shows, community feasts, group weddings and rituals mark the celebrations. Sarkaradevi Temple is one of the most important Devi temples in South India. Tradition accords a remote antiquity to this temple, its main deity is Bhadrakali. The temple assumed a significant status and rose to historical importance with the introduction of the famous'Kaliyoot' festival by Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma, the Travancore sovereign, in 1748. In those days, with the Chirayinkeezhu Taluk being directly under the immediate administration of the Attingal Swarupam, the Attingal Ranis where entrusted by the Travancore Raja with the conduct of the elaborate festival of Kaliyoot.
The Attingal Rani being related to the Travancore royal family through adoption from the Kolathunad royal family, had enjoyed independent rights in several respects over the neighbouring regions and temples and at times over the entire Venad. When King Marthanda Varma annexed Attingal to Travancore soon after ascending the throne and decided to assume direct control over Attingal'estate', the Ranis seem to have been allowed to continue in their independent status in many respects. Hence it was no wonder that when the former decided to introduce Kaliyoot festival in the Sarkaradevi Temple of Chirayinkeezhu Division, he entrusted the responsibility to the Attingal Ranis though the finances came directly from the Travancore royal treasury; the Attingal Ranis in turn bestowed the rights to the members of the martial family of Ponnara Panickers It is the only temple in South Kerala w
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
National Highway 66 (India)
National Highway 66 referred to as NH 66, is a busy National Highway that runs north–south along the western coast of India, parallel to the Western Ghats. It connects Panvel to Kanyakumari, passing through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; the highway is undergoing a major overhaul in Karnataka, where the state government has accepted the NHAI's request of international standard, 60-metre-wide national highway with grade separators. The complete stretch from the Goa border to the Kerala border is being widened to four lanes, with space to accommodate future expansion to six lanes. There were protests for a narrower stretch from the people who will lose lands, but the Karnataka government has not heeded the protests; the stretch from Kazhakootum to Eanchakal and Karamana to Kaliyikkavila in Trivandrum city is upgraded to 4lane and 6lane respectively. Land acquisition and tendering process for national highway widening is happening at brisk pace in Kerala. New bypass works have been kick-started.
Owing to higher density of population and high land value, national highway will be 45 meter width, 6 lane, in Kerala. Goa will have a similar alignment. Karnataka and Maharashtra sections will have 60-meter width; the Maharashtra section will be converted into a flexible pavement road with four lanes. The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India has proposed a greenfield access controlled expressway corridor connecting the port cities of Mangalore-Karwar-Panaji as part of the Indian National Expressway Network; this expressway will be parallel to NH-66 and will be located in coastal Karnataka. It is expected to be a 6/8 lane access-controlled 3D right-of-way designed expressway, it starts at Panvel, at the junction of National Highway 4, ends at Kanyakumari. NH-66 traverses through the west coast of India, sometimes touching the shores of the Arabian Sea; the NH66 touches the Arabian Sea at Maravanthe in Karnataka, Thalassery and Kollam in Kerala. It passes through the Indian states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
The National Highway 66 connects cities and towns of different states as follows: Panvel, Mangaon, Poladpur, Chiplun, Lanja, Kankavli, Sawantwadi, Canacona, Karwar, Honnavar, Kundapura, Surathkal, Manjeshwar, Kanhangad, Kannur, Vatakara, Koyilandi, Feroke, Tirurangadi, Valanchery, Chavakkad, North Paravur, Kochi, Alappuzha, Haripad, Karunagappally, Neendakara, Kollam, Kottiyam, Kallambalam, Trivandrum, Neyyattinkara, Marthandam and Kanyakumari. The NHAI has received the approval to upgrade the complete stretch of highway, from start to end, to a four-lane highway, which will be 60 metres and grade separated. Out of four states through which the highway goes and Maharashtra have received approval from the centre for the 60 metre wide highway. Kerala and Goa have requested a narrower width of 45 metres, there are protests against the highway being widening in these states. NHAI feels the Kerala state government was lethargic in acquiring land, but NHAI is unaware of the complex issues of home-resettlement issues in this high dense areas.
The four-laning of NH-66 has been completed until Thalapadi in the Karnataka-Kerala border and only its stretch in Kerala is pending. In the beginning of 2017, new Kerala government under chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan has announced the six laning of NH 66 in the state as a major agenda and said to be completed in three years, but the high value of land will make it hard for compensation, the ruling party's influence is controversial in relation to similar acquisitions like GAIL pipeline. Now the process is going fast in spite of protests from various highway action forum groups because it connects Kerala's capital Thiruvananthapuram to Kochi and of tourism importance. NH 66 has one of the highest vehicle densities in the state compared to sections of the highway in other states, so its development is vital for the overall development of the state the HAM model to be followed in widening will be instrumental in collecting the funds for the development. NHAI has been infamous for their long tenure of toll collection in the state.
Tunnels will be constructed in the stretches where the road goes through the ghat section. As the forest department does not allow land acquisition for road widening purposes, tunnels which can accommodate four-lane expressways are proposed for such stretches of the road in NH-66. One such proposal is the Maharashtra government's proposal of 1.4 kilometre tunnel at the Karnala bird sanctuary. The road is comparatively narrow and without dividers for the most part; the lack of dividers has led to an increased incidence of head-on collisions between vehicles. At some places, signboards indicating left or right turns, speed-breakers, etc. are either damaged or missing. In addition to its narrow span, there are no guard railings along the sides of the highway; the sides of the road are at times at a lower level than the road. Due to heavy human settlement around the highway and narrow span, the average speed on this highway is far lesser than what can be attained on comparatively better highways such as NH3, NH4 or NH8.
One can find carcasses of animals on the road, indicating the risk of inatt
Thiruvananthapuram known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of 2011; the encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.68 million. Located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland, Thiruvananthapuram is a major Information Technology hub in Kerala and contributes 55% of the state's software exports as of 2016. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills; the Ays ruled the present region of Thiruvananthapuram until the 10th century. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the Chera dynasty; the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and Thiruvananthapuram was made capital of Travancore. Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained capital when the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956.
Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala, Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University, many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is home to research centers such as the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Space Research Organisation's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, a campus of the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research; the city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, is home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, India's first Infotainment Industrial park. Being India's largest city in the deep south, it is strategically prominent and hosts the Southern Air Command headquarters of the Indian Air Force, the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the upcoming Vizhinjam International Seaport.
Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala, the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala. In 2012, Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today; the city was selected as the best-governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy in 2017. The city takes its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA:, meaning "The City of Lord Ananta", referring to the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple located in the city. Thiruvananthapuram is known in the literature, popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE, it is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. The city was the trading post of spices and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala; the early rulers of the city were the Ays. Vizhinjam, now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of Ay dynasty. Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC. During the Ay dynasty rule, Thiruvananthapuram witnessed many battles in which the Chola and Pandyan dynasties attempted to capture the port town. After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in 925 AD, the glory of the Ays departed and all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty.
During the 10th century, the Cholas sacked Vizhinjam and surrounding regions. The port in Vizhinjam and the historic education center of Kanthalloor Sala was destroyed by Cholas during this period. A branch of the Ay family, controlling the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kayamkulam, Kottayam, Meenachil and Ambalapuzha. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district; the kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha; the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha; the city developed into a significant artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal.
This era saw the establishment of the first English school, the Observatory, the General Hospital, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College. The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda Co
Karamana is a river flowing through the city of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, India. The river starts near the southern tip of the Western Ghats at Agastyar Koodam; the river merges with the Arabian Sea at Panathura near Kovalam. The river gets its name from Karamana, a suburb of Thiruvananthapuram city, Aryanad through which it flows; the catchment area is forested, command area is under mixed dry land crops such as coconut, pepper, rice, etc. The Karamana rises in the vicinity of the Agasthiarkoodam about 1600 m above the sea level; the peaks of origin of the river are today known as Chemmunji Motta and Aathiramala and its upper tributary rivers are the Kaaviyaar, Attayaar and Thodayaar. The river flows for 66 kilometers in a south - south west direction before flowing into the Arabian Sea; the largest tributary of the Karamana is the Killiyar. It has five anicuts on it. Part of the water is diverted into the Kochar channel which in turn feeds the Padmatheertham pond outside the Padmanabhaswamy Temple.
There are several temples located along the Killiyar's banks, the most famous of, the Attukal Temple. The Killiyar drains its basin is rich in avian fauna; the river merges with the Arabian Sea through the Pozhikkara estuary. In its final lap, the river runs parallel to the sea and the river here is known as the Edayar; the Karamana river has two important dams on it. These are the Aruvikkara Dam, built in the 1930s and the Peppara Dam which lies further upstream and was built in 1983; the Aruvikkara Dam was completed with the aim of providing piped drinking water to the city. The Trivandrum Water Works, inaugurated by and named after Lord Willingdon in 1933, is in charge of receiving and distributing the Karamana's waters to the city today. A JICA funded project is under way to augment the water distribution network in the city; the Peppara Dam regulates the flow of water into the Aruvikkara Dam by unifying all the upper tributaries of the Karamana river. The Peppara Dam has played a crucial role in eliminating the floods that once used to characterized the Karamana.
There is a 3 MW hydel power station at Peppara. The Karamana river has several bridges across it; the largest is at Karamana itself. This was built by Lt Col. Horsley, the author of the earliest English treatise on history of Travancore, inaugurated in 1853. Other important bridges are at Thrikkunnapuram, Mangattu Kadavu, Kundamon Kadavu, Jagathi bridge, Aryanad bridge,Aruvikkara, Maruthoor kadavu; the Karamana river basin supports a range of plants. These include the wild cane, mangroves, water lilies and coconut trees; the screw pine or pandanus is another common species along the river's banks. The Cerbera odollam, called Othalam in Malayalam, is found along the lower reaches of the river. Fish species found in the Karamana include Karimeen, Kariyida, Cherumeen, Nedumeen, Aaral and Paaval; the Karamana has been facing the problems of pollution and fish kill in recent years. The causes for the deterioration in the river's water quality include the discharge of untreated sewage and domestic and industrial effluents into the river and the unregulated development of tourism in the river basin area.
This has resulted in the lowering of dissolved oxygen levels in the river's water and caused fish kill downstream of the river. Illegal mining of river sand is another significant threat being faced by the river; the beauty of the Karamana and the fact that it wound through forests earned the river the name Vanamala, the garland of the forest, in Sanskrit. It is referred to as the ‘Makaraakara’ river in the Jain ascetic Udyodana Suri's 8th century Prakrit text Kuvalayamaala; the Karamana river closely influenced the development of music in Kerala. Some of the singers and composers who are associated with the river include Irayimman Thampi, Neelakanta Sivan and K S Chitra. Besides, the composer-king Swathi Thirunal was influenced by the river's scenic beauty. Over a dozen of his court musicians hailed from the Karamana village on the banks of the river
Varkala Sivagiri railway station
Varkala Railway Station, station code VAK, is a major railway station serving the district of Thiruvananthapuram of Kerala starting on 1912 as metre gauge line. It is situated in the municipality of Varkala, 40km from Trivandrum City and 15km from Attingal municipality, it falls in the Thiruvananthapuram railway division of the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways. It is on Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram railway line and is the busiest railway station in Trivandrum district, after the Trivandrum Central based on passenger handling. Station is well connected to major cities like Trivandrum,Hyderabad, Delhi,Bangalore,Chennai,Mumbai,Kolkata,Goa etc. In 2017-18 FY about 39lakh passengers were passed through this station and make a profit of 10.58 cr. In close proximity to the station is Varkala Municipal Bus Station, it serves the people from Chirayinkeezhu Taluk. The station name used to be'Varkala' till 2005, it was renamed "Varkala Sivagiri" after the samadhi of Sri Narayana Guru,situated in Varkala in the year 2005.
Most of the trains are allowed temporary halt in this station during a week period of the famous "Sivagiri Theerthadanam". Varkala beach, one of the popular tourist destination in kerala is at a distance of 3.1 km from the railway station. Sivagiri Mutt founded by the social reformer Sree Narayana Guru is situated at the top of the Sivagiri hill near Varkala. Janardana Swami Temple is a Vaishnavite shrine, estimated to be 2000-year-old. Thiruvananthapuram Central railway station Kappil railway station Kollam Junction railway station Paravur railway station Karunagappalli railway station Punalur Kazhakoottam railway station