Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo. Sabah has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and Indonesia's Kalimantan region to the south; the Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off the Sabah coast. Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah state government. Other major towns in Sabah include Tawau; as of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the state's population is 3,543,500. Sabah has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species; the state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park. Kinabatangan River, second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah as well as of Malaysia; the earliest human settlement in Sabah can be traced back to 20,000–30,000 years ago along the Darvel Bay area at the Madai-Baturong caves.
The state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries while the eastern part of the territory fell under the influence of the Sultanate of Sulu between the 17th and 18th centuries; the state was subsequently acquired by the British-based North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah was occupied by the Japanese for three years, it became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah was granted self-government by the British. Following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia alongside Sarawak and the Federation of Malaya; the federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the threats of annexation by the Philippines, threats which continue to the present day. Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity and language; the head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister.
The government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature systems in Malaysia. Sabah is divided into 27 districts. Malay is the official language of the state. Sabah is known for the sompoton; the Sabah International Folklore Festival is the main folklore event in Malaysia, other festivals including the Japanese Bon Odori Festival, Borneo Bird Festival, Borneo Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival, Kota Kinabalu Food Fest, Kota Kinabalu Jazz Festival, Sabah Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah Fest and Sabah Sunset Music Festival. Sabah is the only state in Malaysia to celebrate the Kaamatan festival. Sabah has abundant natural resources, its economy is export oriented, its primary exports include oil, gas and palm oil. The other major industries are ecotourism; the origin of the name Sabah is uncertain, there are many theories that have arisen. One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba because of the presence a variety of banana called pisang saba, grown on the coast of the region and popular in Brunei.
The Bajau community referred to it as pisang jaba. While the name Saba refers to a variety of banana in both Tagalog and Visayan languages, the word in Visayan has the meaning of "noisy". Due to local dialect, the word Saba has been pronounced as Sabah by the local community. While Brunei was a vassal state of Majapahit, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama described the area in what is now Sabah as Seludang. Meanwhile, although the Chinese since during the Han dynasty had long been associated with the island of Borneo, they did not have any specific names for the area. Instead during the Song dynasty, they referred to the whole island as Po Ni, the same name they used to refer to the Sultanate of Brunei at the time. Due to the location of Sabah in relation to Brunei, it has been suggested that Sabah was a Brunei Malay word meaning upstream or "in a northerly direction". Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay word sabak which means a place where palm sugar is extracted. Sabah is an Arabic word which means "morning".
The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name. It is nicknamed "Land Below the Wind" as the state lies below the typhoon belt of East Asia and never battered by any typhoons, except for several tropical storms; the earliest known human settlement into the region existed 20,000–30,000 years ago, as evidenced by stone tools and food remains found by excavations along the Darvel Bay area at Madai-Baturong caves near the Tingkayu River. The earliest inhabitants in the area were thought to be similar to Australian aborigines, but the reason for their disappearance is unknown. In 2003, archaeologists discovered the Mansuli valley in the Lahad Datu District, which dates back the history of Sabah to 235,000 years; the first southern Mongoloid migration occurred 5,000 years ago, as evidenced from the discovery of archaeological site at Bukit Tengkorak in Semporna District, famed for being the largest pottery making site during the Neolithic Southeast Asian period.
Some anthropologists such as S. G. Tan and Thomas R. Williams be
Sri Kuala Lumpur
Sri Kuala Lumpur is a private non-profit educational institution located in Subang Jaya, Petaling District, Malaysia wholly owned and managed by a not-for-profit foundation. The school consists of two sections: Sri Kuala Lumpur Primary School Sri Kuala Lumpur Secondary School Sri Kuala Lumpur Primary School was established in January 1979 in Jalan Nipah, Kuala Lumpur with an initial enrolment of six students. In August 1979, the school moved to Jalan Anak Gasing. Enrolment had increased to 100 by January 1980 and over 300, 12 months when it moved to Jalan Ampang. Further moves occurred in December 1984, to Taman Mayang, Petaling Jaya and in January 1986 to SS15, Subang Jaya; the secondary school was opened in 1987. In 2005, the Education Minister, Dato Seri Hishamuddin Tun Hussein declared the new facilities block to be opened. On 4 January 2010, 2 started the Cambridge System for secondary education. Beginning 2010, secondary students from Form 1 could have the choice of studying the government or Cambridge syllabus.
The school introduced the smart school concept in the primary section during 1999. The secondary school was declared a'smart school' by the Minister of Education, Tan Sri Musa Mohamad in June 2000. Unlike many other schools, Sri Kuala Lumpur starts its school year one week into January and ends around mid-November; the school day starts around 7:50 and ends at 3:30 Except for students in Year 10 or 11, students are not allowed to pick or drop classes. Instead, they are sorted into "Classes." "Classes" have 30 students and has their own classroom. Class names are based on a fruit for primary classes. For example: "6 Salak"; the "6" stands for Standard/Level 6, the "Salak" is the fruit. "Classes" have one main teacher. Other teachers come in and out depending on the subject; the main teacher is called the "Class Teacher" and represents the class. Classes can have assistant monitors assigned to the class too; the class teacher is the one. All classes are air-conditioned; each class has a whiteboard, message board and 2 push-pin boards, one at the front right side and one at the back.
Cambridge classes and KBSM classes have additional facilities, Promethean Activboards, SMART boards and Epson Multimedia Projectors. Teachers and students use these boards for interactive teaching; each class can hold a maximum of 30 students. Teachers have an ActivPen for their use in teaching; the staffroom is well stocked with teaching materials, iMacs for use. Each department has a computer to assist in teaching. There are 2 canteens, the Primary Canteen located adjacent to the Primary Courtyard and the Great Hall; the Great Hall is used for assembly on Thursdays, but is used for tests, competitions and events. There is a swimming pool, a library, multiple playgrounds, an art room, a music room, a staff room and two football/basketball courts. On the secondary side, there is a gym, dance room, book shop, another staff room, a nurses office, an auditorium. List of schools in Selangor Official website
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
International School of Kuantan
The International School of Kuantan is a private international school in Kuantan, established in 1996. It provides education to elementary and high school students based on the curricula and practices of public and private schools in the United States. English is used as the medium of instruction to prepare students for admission to university; the International School of Kuantan is a private international school registered with the Registrar of Schools and Teachers in the Pahang State Department of Education. ISK is a full member of the East Asia Regional Council of Overseas Schools and in 2003 was accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Schools of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. ISK's campus has the capacity for over 250 students, it contains eleven classrooms, six of which are equipped with interactive whiteboards, three science labs with smart boards, two computer labs, music room, art room, counseling room, sick bay, convenience store, multi-purpose hall equipped AV facilities, three badminton courts, basketball court and female dressing room with shower, futsal court, volleyball court, netball court.
Students in Kindergarten through Grade 12 have the opportunity to participate in a variety of extra-curricular clubs and sports throughout the school year depending on their grade level, ability and experience. License to operate the school was approved in 1996, by the Ministry of Education Malaysia to Effective Energy Sdn. Bhd. a private company incorporated with the Registrar of Companies Malaysia. The International School of Kuantan opened on the ground floor of two units of shop lots at A33, Jalan Tanjung Api, Padang Lalang, Pahang, Malaysia. Initial student body of sixteen students in grades seven through twelve. Four teachers were hired with three being expatriates; the first graduating class in June 1999 included three graduates who have all continued their education at the International Islamic University in Malaysia. The school became a candidate for accreditation by the Accrediting Commission for Schools, Western Association of Schools and Colleges; the school was granted accreditation by the Accrediting Commission for Schools, Western Association of Schools and Colleges.
The school recorded a 50% in enrollment and the school expanded to 50 students due to a 40% quota granted by the government to all international schools to allow enrollment of Malaysian students. Land was acquired to build a new campus for the school in order to be able to accommodate the growing student body. Effective 1 July 2012, the 40% quota for Malaysian students allowed to enroll in international schools was lifted by the Malaysian Government. Enrollment at ISK increased by 40% to a total of 79 students for school year 2012/2013. Faculty was increased by 50% to accommodate the growing student body. Completion of school design plan to begin construction of the new campus. Construction of the new campus began. In January, 2015 the school moved to a beautiful, new purpose-built facility at Bandar Indera Mahkota, Pahang MALAYSIA. In 2018, student enrollment expanded over 100 students for the first time. Official Website EARCOS Member Schools ASC-WASC https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/community/2015/06/12/international-school-in-kuantan-caters-to-expats https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/community/2015/06/19/open-day-at-international-school-well-received
Japanese School of Kuala Lumpur
The Japanese School of Kuala Lumpur is a Japanese international school in Saujana Golf and Country Club in Subang, Malaysia. The syllabus at this school is based on the Japanese Education Curriculum. List of schools in Selangor 現代アジア事典, Bunshindo, 2009, p. 321, ISBN 9784830946493 Online access: Taura, Kazuko. "Research on the Internationality of Students of the Japanese School of Kuala Lumpur". Intercultural Communication Studies, 51-68, 2000-02. 愛知淑徳大学大学院コミュニケーション研究科異文化コミュニケーション専攻・言語文学研究所. English abstract available. See profile at CiNii, See profile at Aichi Shukutoku Knowledge Archive. Ozawa, Michimasa. "クアラルンプール日本人学校,シンガポール日本人学校チャンギ校及び中学部,バンコク日本人学校における特別支援教育の実情と教育相談支援". 世界の特殊教育 21, 51-55, 2007-03. National Institute of Special Needs Education. See profile at CiNii. No online access: Kamiya, Tsuyoshi. "クアラルンプール日本人学校における国際理解教育: 環境教育及び現地素材を開発して." 在外教育施設における指導実践記録 22, 43-46, 1999. Tokyo Gakugei University. See profile at CiNii. 田邉 保博. "マレイシア・クアラルンプール日本人学校の教育事情." 在外教育施設における指導実践記録 26, 109-111, 2003. Tokyo Gakugei University.
See profile at CiNii. 小川 陽司. "クアラルンプール日本人学校の国際交流 " 在外教育施設における指導実践記録 33, 97-98, 2010-12-24. Tokyo Gakugei University. See profile at CiNii. JSKL website
Klang Valley is an area in Malaysia, centered in Kuala Lumpur, includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. A more recent alternative reference to this would be Greater Kuala Lumpur; the Klang Valley is geographically delineated by Titiwangsa Mountains to the north and east and the Strait of Malacca to the west. It extends to Rawang in the northwest, Semenyih in the southeast, Klang and Port Klang in the southwest; the conurbation is the heartland of Malaysia's commerce. As of 2012, the Klang Valley is home to 7.9 million people. The valley is named after the Klang River, the principal river that flows through it that start at Port Klang and end at Hulu Klang, linked to the early development of the area as a cluster of tin mining towns in the late 19th century. Development of the region took place in the East-West direction but the urban areas surrounding Kuala Lumpur have since grown south towards the border with Negeri Sembilan and north towards Rawang. There is no official designation of the boundaries that make up Klang Valley but it is assumed to comprise the following areas and their corresponding local authorities: Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur City Hall Selangor district of Petaling Shah Alam City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Subang Jaya Municipal Council Selangor district of Klang Klang Municipal Council Selangor district of Gombak Selayang Municipal Council Selangor district of Hulu Langat Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Kajang Municipal Council Selangor district of Kuala Langat Kuala Langat District Council Even though the Klang Valley consists of separate cities and suburbs, integration between these cities is high, with a developed road network and an expanding rapid transit system.
Many expressways criss-cross the metropolis making cars the most convenient way to get around. However, this has led to the Klang Valley's notorious traffic jams which span whole kilometres of expressways and make driving during peak hours exhausting. Since the 1990s, new rapid transit systems, such as the Rapid KL's light rail transit, KTM Komuter and the monorail have been developed. Most of these systems have gone through extensive expansion as a superproject, in which the two LRT lines are being extended into outlying suburbs such as Puchong and Subang Jaya; the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System, as of now, are being upgraded to become fully-fledged mass rapid transit systems with the construction of three new Klang Valley MRT lines that are being built from the southeastern suburb of Kajang to the northwestern suburb of Sungai Buloh, as well as Putrajaya and through Kuala Lumpur itself. Buses that operate around Klang Valley is extensive. 1998 Klang Valley water crisis Greater Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur List of metropolitan areas in Asia by population Public Transport in Klang Valley
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci