Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in most common law jurisdictions. The LL. of the abbreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum, creating an abbreviation for a plural, especially from Latin, is often done by doubling the first letter, thus LL. B. Stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin, today in Canada the predominant first degree in common law is the Juris Doctor degree having replaced the LL. B. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, the first academic degrees were all law degrees in medieval universities, and the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities were the glossators of the 11th century, the first university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. The University of Bologna served as the model for law schools of the medieval age.
The bachelors degree originated at the University of Paris, whose system was implemented at Oxford, the arts designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics. On continental Europe the bachelors degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford, the teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practise law. The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford, with the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew. The apprenticeship programme for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the rules as the apprenticeship programmes for the trades.
The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until in the century, and even the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions. When law degrees were required by the English bar and bar associations in other common law countries, law students studied both canon law and civil law. Today, this is less common. In most common law countries, the Bachelor of Laws programme is generally entered directly after completion of secondary school, Masters courses are offered to university graduates, those who graduate from such courses are entitled to use the initials LL. M. Additionally, of the thirty-six Law Schools thirteen of those universities have started offering the Juris Doctor as a Graduate entry degree. Bangladesh is a common law country, like other Common Law countries, Bachelor of Laws degree is a condition precedent to practise as an Advocate in the Courts of Law of Bangladesh.
Both LL. B. and LL. B. degrees are offered in different Public, only seven Public Universities offer LL. B. degree
Somasundaram Nadesan, QC was a leading Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, civil rights activist and member of the Senate of Ceylon. Nadesan was born on 11 February 1904 in Anaikoddai in northern Ceylon and his father was a school administrator and Nadesan was educated at Jaffna Hindu College before entering Royal College, Colombo on a Governors scholarship. After school he joined Ceylon University College before proceeding to Ceylon Law College, Nadesan started practising law in the 1930s. He served on the bar for 55 years and was made a Queens Counsel in 1954 and he was president of the Bar Council from 1970 to 1972. He dismissed the suggestion that federalism could lead separation, saying that separatist movements only took root in unitary states, Nadesan was elected to the Senate of Ceylon in 1947 after being nominated by independent members of the House of Representatives. In the senate he took part in debates on social and labour legislation and his most famous speech in the senate was that in April 1971 following the start of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna insurrection.
When the constituent assembly was established in 1971 Nadesan was highly critical of the new constitution. Except for a period, he remained a member of the senate until it was abolished in 1971. Despite his passionate defence of minority rights Nadesan remained aloof of Tamil nationalistic politics and was critical of the Vaddukoddai Resolution, the political violence of the 1970s/1980s forced Nadesan to move away from politics and towards human rights protection. In 1980 Nadesan was tried, and acquitted, for breach of parliamentary privileges and he died on 21 December 1986 aged 82. Somasunderam Nadesan Q. C. at Tamil Nation
Admission to practice law
An admission to practice law is acquired when a lawyer receives a license to practice law. In jurisdictions with two types of lawyer, as barristers and solicitors, barristers must gain admission to the bar whereas for solicitors there are distinct practising certificates. Becoming a lawyer is a widely varied process around the world, Common to all jurisdictions are requirements of age and competence, some jurisdictions require documentation of citizenship or immigration status. However, the most varied requirements are those surrounding the preparation for the license, whether it includes obtaining a law degree, passing an exam, in English, admission is called a law license. Basic requirements vary from country to country, as described below, in some jurisdictions, after admission the lawyer needs to maintain a current practising certificate to be permitted to offer services to the public. Legal practice in Kenya is governed by the Advocates Act, Chapter 16 of the Laws of Kenya, only lawyers admitted to the Bar, known as Advocates of the High Court of Kenya, have the right of audience before Kenyan courts.
The call is made in court by taking an oath before the Chief Justice who pronounces the admission. Usually, several lawyers are admitted to the Bar at the same session, to maintain eligibility to practice before courts, one must pay an annual fee for a practising certificate to the Law Society of Kenya, although the certificate is issued by the Court Registrar. Non-payment renders one ineligible to appear before courts, to appear before the Supreme Court, one must be an advocate of seven years standing. Admission to practice is a matter for each State, New Zealand practitioners may apply for admission pursuant to Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Act 1997. New South Wales A person is admitted as a legal practitioner after completing the required academic and these matters are dealt with in the Legal Profession Act 2004. The applicant applies to the Legal Profession Admission Board who assesses applications, after admission, a person is entitled to apply for a practising certificate from the Law Society of New South Wales, or the NSW Bar Association.
The practising certificate requires the payment of fees, insurance and a contribution to the fidelity fund, the Legal Profession Rules 2008 replace articles of clerkship with supervised workplace training and make changes to the process of admission to practice. In the Peoples Republic of China, one must first obtain a degree, pass the National Judicial Examination. Hong Kong makes a distinction between barristers and solicitors, Admission to either profession requires a law degree and a Postgraduate Certificate in Laws. The apprenticeship to become a barrister is only one year, while a solicitor must apprentice for two years, foreign lawyers may be admitted as solicitors by passing the Overseas Qualified Lawyers Examination and satisfying a three months residence requirement. Foreign lawyers may be admitted as barristers by passing the Barristers Qualification Examination, in India, prospective lawyers must complete an undergraduate law degree after 12 years of schooling and obtain an Honours Law Degree, where the course is a five years course.
The first undergraduate foundational and generic degree, is awarded three years of study, and the professional Law Degree called the LL. B
Dissanayake Mudiyanse Ralahamilage Lionel Gamini Dissanayake was a prominent Sri Lankan politician, a powerful minister of the United National Party, and Leader of the Opposition. He was designated as the UNP candidate in the 1994 presidential election, but was assassinated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. He was born in Kandy as the eldest son of a family of seven children to Andrew Dissanayake who served as an MP and his mother, Welegedara Samaratunga Kumarihamy of Kotmale. Born and bred in Kotmale, his basic values were cultivated in this rural milieu social surrounding, the wealthy Dissanayake family resided in both Kandy as well as Nuwara Eliya. Dissanayake had his schooling at the prestigious Trinity College in Kandy, in life, he completed an MPhil Degree in International Relations at Cambridge University UK. He comfortably secured his Nuwaraeliya-Maskeliya multielectorate seat in the 1977 elections and was appointed as the minister of Mahaweli Development, dissanyake spearheaded the Mahaweli Development Project.
This was a project which was expected to take 30 years to finish. But due to Dissanayakes skills he managed to finish the project within 6 years, the Mahaweli Development Project is the largest development project conducted in Sri Lanka after independence. The whole country was affected by the project focused on irrigation, hydro power generation, agriculture. Further it was criticised by the time as to introduce shinhala population into Tamils motherland and he was the chairperson of the Sri Lanka Cricket Board in the early 1980s and helped his country to gain the Test Status in cricket. He played a role in signing the Indoo-Lanka Peace Accord in 1987. In 1989 he was re elected as a MP from Nuwaraeliya District securing the highest percentage of votes obtained by any UNP MP. He was the Minister of Estate Development during Premadasa regime and he was not awarded a portfolio in 1990 cabinet reshuffle and remained as a back-seat MP in the parliament. Dissanayake was accused of abduction of Prof.
Ralph Bultjens, Prof Rohan Goonarathne in an interview with Hasitha Kuruppu told that Dissanayake did that as Bultjens in his lectures accused Dissanayake for swindling of money. Later he was acquitted from the courts and he played a major role in the aborted impeachment motion against President Premadasa and as a result was expelled from UNP in 1992. In the same year Dissanayaka joined Lalith Athulathmudali to form United National Democratic Front which was a political force of that era. Dissanayaka contested to Kandy District at 1993 provincial council elections and became a member of the Central Provincial Council, after the assassination of Athulathmudali, Dissanayake became the leader of DUNF. Later he rejoined UNP and was appointed to the parliament as a national list MP and was offered a portfolio in the Wijethunga Government
Geography of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. Sri Lanka has maritime borders with India to the northwest and the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lankas documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to World War II. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, Sri Lankas recent history has been marred by a thirty-year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan military defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. A diverse and multicultural country, Sri Lanka is home to many religions, ethnic groups, in addition to the majority Sinhalese, it is home to large groups of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, Burghers, Malays and the aboriginal Vedda. Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka is a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system.
The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the capital and largest city. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of the two countries in South Asia that are rated among high human development on the Human Development Index. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names, according to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Mahabharata, the island was referred to as Lankā, in Tamil, the island is referred to as Eelam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā or Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni, as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon, it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. The country is known in Sinhalese as Śrī Laṃkā and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai, in 1972, its formal name was changed to Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Later in 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, as the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority.
The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years, the era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala and it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara. The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravanas airport, early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were probably ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering approximately 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka. According to the Mahāvamsa, a written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600BC and other signs of advanced civilization has discovered in Sri Lanka
University of Wales
The University of Wales was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK. The university was the second largest university in the UK, a federal university similar to the University of London, the University of Wales, UK was in charge of examining students, while its colleges were in charge of teaching. Historically, the University of Wales was the university in Wales until the establishment of the University of Glamorgan in 1992. In recent years, it announced its intention to merge with the University of Wales, Trinity University College, in 2007, the University of Wales changed from a federal structure to a confederal one and many of the constituent colleges became independent universities. As a result of a number of controversies in the late 2000s involving overseas affiliates and student visas and this process is projected to be completed in 2017. Prior to the foundation of the university, these three colleges had prepared students for the examinations of the University of London.
A fourth college, was added in 1920 and in 1931 the Welsh National School of Medicine was incorporated, in 1967 the Welsh College of Advanced Technology entered the federal university as the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology, in Cardiff. In 1971 St Davids College, Wales oldest degree-awarding institution, suspended its own degree-awarding powers, a financial crisis in the late eighties caused UWIST and University College Cardiff to merge in 1988, forming the University of Wales College of Cardiff. In 1992 the university lost its position as the university in Wales when the Polytechnic of Wales became the University of Glamorgan. The existing colleges became constituent institutions and the two new member institutions became university colleges, in 2003, both of these colleges became full constituent institutions and in 2004 UWCN received permission from the Privy Council to change its name to the University of Wales, Newport. Cardiff University and the University of Wales College of Medicine merged on 1 August 2004, the merged institution, known as Cardiff University, ceased to be a constituent institution and joined a new category of Affiliated/Linked Institutions.
At the same time, the university admitted four new institutions, the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama subsequently left the university in January 2007. In November 2008, Aberystwyth and Swansea Universities decided to exercise their right to students to study for their own awarded degrees. In October, the University announced that it would cease validating courses and this led to calls from the vice chancellors of the universities of Aberystwyth, Cardiff and Swansea for the University of Wales to be wound up. It was announced in October that the University of Wales would be effectively abolished, which itself merged with Swansea Metropolitan University on 1 August 2013. At present, the University of Wales is still functioning in its own right, the administrative office of the University of Wales is located in Cardiffs Civic Centre. It runs a highly rated research centre, the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies, the first edition of Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, which has the same status for Welsh as the OED does for English, was completed in 2002, eighty-two years after it had been started.
The University of Wales Press was founded in 1922 and publishes around seventy books a year in both English and Welsh, the university has a study and conference centre at Gregynog, near Newtown
Herbert Sri Nissanka
Herbert Sri Nissanka, KC was a Ceylonese lawyer and statesmen. Elected to the first post independence parliament, he was one of the members of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Educated at Ananda College and at Royal College Colombo, Nissanka entered St Edmund Hall and he studied law was called to the bar at Middle Temple. Thereafter practiced in Ceylon as Junior to E. W. Jayewardene, KC appearing before Sir Thomas De Sampayo and he went on to become a prominent criminal lawyer. He was an officer of the Ceylon Light Infantry in the 1930s. Nissanka was the Member of the Board of Appeal of the Rubber Commissioner’s Department, entering politics as member of the Colombo Municipal Council in January 1944, he served till December 1946. Nissanka he was elected to Member for Kurunegala in the first Parliament in 1947 an independent candidate, in 1951 along with S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Sri Nissanka formed the Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Nissanka was a founder of the Salagala Monastery, the Biyagama Monastery and he was the President, Dumb Friends League and Honorary Counsel to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Progressive politician reflections of a legend, Herbert Sri Nissanka K. C. Maya avenue to be renamed Sri Nissanka Mawatha by President mMahinda Rajapaksa on 26 February 2011
Chandrasekera Rohitha Bandara Bogollagama is a Sri Lankan politician and former Sri Lanka Freedom Party chief organiser for the Kotte Electorate. He had served as the Cabinet Minister of Foreign Affairs from 28 January 2007 until he was defeated in the General Elections held on 8 April 2010, losing his seat in parliament. He had a career in law running from 1976 to 1999. Born in Nikaweratiya, North Western Province, to Chandrasekera Malala Banda Bogollagama and Vinitha Bogollagama, Bogollagama attended Ananda College in Colombo and the Sri Lanka Law College, passing out in 1976. He was called to the Bar and enrolled as Attorney-at-Law by the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka in October 1976 and he was Chairman of the Sri Lanka Cement Corporation and Chairman and Director General of the Board of Investment of Sri Lanka. On 12 December 2001, Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe appointed him Minister of Industries, as minister he initiated the Yuga Dekma, a large industrial fair, in 2002. In 2004 president Chandrika Kumaratunga dissolved parliament and removed non-cabinet ministers on 12 February and he became the Minister of Enterprise and Development on 23 November 2005.
As Minister, he argued in favour of returning Sri Lanka to GMT +05,30 time and he represented the government of Sri Lanka at two rounds of peace talks with the LTTE at Geneva in 2006. He was defeated in the General Elections held on 8 April 2010 and he is married to Deepthi Samarakone, She is the youngest daughter of Donald Samarakone & Srima Samarakone has three sisters Kusum and Jayathri. Rohitha & Deepthi Bogollagama have son & daughter, dhakshitha a BBM graduate in Finance from the Singapore Management University, Singapore and Dr. Dilshani Bogollagama
Sri Lankabhimanya Christopher Gregory Weeramantry, AM was a Sri Lankan lawyer who was a Judge of the International Court of Justice from 1991 to 2000, serving as its Vice-President from 1997 to 2000. Weeramantry was a Judge of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka from 1967 to 1972 and he was served as an Emeritus Professor at Monash University and the President of the International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms. He gained a BA from the newly established University of Ceylon and went on to gain a LL. B, after completing the law exams at the Colombo Law College, he took oaths as an Advocate of the Supreme Court of Ceylon in 1948. He retired from the Supreme Court in 1972 and moved to Australia where he assumed duties as Sir Hayden Starke Professor of Law, in 1991, he was appointed as a Judge of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, becoming its Vice-President in 1997. He presided as Vice-President over several important cases before the Court, including a case on the illegality of the use, from 2000 to 2002 he served the ICJ as an Ad hoc Judge.
Weeramantry serves on the Legal and Human Rights Advisory Board of the Genetics Policy Institute, Weeramantry is a councillor of the World Future Council, and the Honorary Patron and International Advisor of the Centre for International Sustainable Development Law. He was Emeritus Professor at Monash University, having served as Sir Hayden Starkes Chair of Law from 1972 to 1991. A former Lecturer and Examiner at the Colombo Law College, he was a Member of the Council of Legal Education in Ceylon and he was an honorary Member of Advisory Committee of Environmental Law Institute and Chairman of the International Council, Institute of Sustainable Development, McGill University. Weeramantry died in Colombo, Sri Lanka of natural causes on 5 January 2017 at the age of 90, Weeramantry is a recipient of the following honours and awards, Sri Lankabhimanya, the highest National Honour of Sri Lanka. Right Livelihood Award UNESCO Prize for Peace Education Honorary Member of the Order of Australia,2003 Deshamanya title from the Government of Sri Lanka.
W, reprinted 1999,2013 The Law in Crisis, Bridges of Understanding, London 1975. Equality and Freedom, Some Third World Perspectives, Hansa Publishers, Human Rights in Japan, Melbourne,1979. An Invitation to the Law, Melbourne,1980, reprinted Sarvodaya 2007, Stamford Lake The Slumbering Sentinels and Human Rights in the Wake of Technology, Melbourne,1983. Law, The Threatened Peripheries, Lake House, Colombo,1984, Nuclear Weapons and Scientific Responsibility, Longwood Academic, New Hampshire,1987. Islamic Jurisprudence, Some International Perspectives, London and St. Martin’s Press, Environmental Damage under International Trusteeship, Oxford University Press,1992. Vol I, Furthering Human Rights, Kluwer Law International,1997, the Lord’s Prayer, Bridge to a Better World, Liguori Publications,1998. Justice Without Frontiers, Vol II, Protecting Human Rights in the Age of Technology, the World Court, Its Conception and Contribution, Sarvodaya,2002. Universalizing International Law, Martinus Nijhoff,2004, Sustainable Justice, Reconciling Economic and Environmental Law, With Marie-Claire C.
Reflections On The Hostilities in Iraq, Sarvodaya,2005, a Call for National Reawakening, Stamford Lake,2005
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations. Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice, the Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court. The Courts workload covers a range of judicial activity. Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce Court rulings, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the Nicaragua case. The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute, elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge in an election to complete the term. No two judges may be nationals of the same country, according to Article 9, the membership of the Court is supposed to represent the main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world.
Essentially, that has meant common law, civil law and socialist law, the exception was China, which did not have a judge on the Court from 1967 to 1985 because it did not put forward a candidate. Judicial independence is dealt with specifically in Articles 16–18, judges of the ICJ are not able to hold any other post or act as counsel. A judge can be dismissed only by a vote of the other members of the Court. Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned, judges may deliver joint judgments or give their own separate opinions. Judges may deliver separate dissenting opinions, Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby ad hoc judges sit on contentious cases before the Court. The system allows any party to a case if it otherwise does not have one of that partys nationals sitting on the Court to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible that as many as seventeen judges may sit on one case, the system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases.
Although this system does not sit well with the nature of the body. Ad hoc judges usually vote in favor of the state that appointed them, the Court sits as full bench, but in the last fifteen years, it has on occasion sat as a chamber. Articles 26–29 of the statute allow the Court to form smaller chambers, usually 3 or 5 judges, Two types of chambers are contemplated by Article 26, chambers for special categories of cases, and second, the formation of ad hoc chambers to hear particular disputes. In 1993, a chamber was established, under Article 26 of the ICJ statute