Post-classical history is the period of time that immediately followed ancient history and preceded modern history. Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years 200–600 and 1200–1500, the major classical civilizations the era follows are Han China, the Western Roman Empire, the Gupta Empire, and the Sasanian Empire. The post-classical era itself was followed by the modern era, and forms the middle period in a three-period division of world history, post-classical. The era is thought to be characterized by invasions from Central Asia, the development of the world religions. The name of this era of history derives from antiquity of Europe. In European history, post-classical is synonymous with the time or Middle Ages. Art and architecture were characterized by Christian themes, several attempts by the Crusades to recapture the Holy Land for Christianity were unsuccessful. East Asia experienced the establishment of power of Imperial China, which established several prosperous dynasties influencing Korea, Vietnam.
Religions such as Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism spread, gunpowder was originally developed in China during the post-classical era. The invention of gunpowder led to the invention of fireworks, to its use in warfare, the invention spread around the world. The Mongol Empire greatly affected much of Europe and Asia, the latter of which was conquered in many areas, the Mongols were able to create safe trade and stability between the two regions, but inadvertently encouraged the spread of the Black Plague. The timelines of the civilizations of the Americas – Maya, the Aztec. In Europe, it is called the Middle Ages in the sense of being between the two periods in time, ancient times and modern times. Humanist historians argued that Renaissance scholarship restored direct links to the classical period, the term first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas. In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, first recorded in 1604, English is the only major Western European language that retains the plural form.
Medieval historians did not, of course, think of themselves as being in the middle of history, they wrote history from a universal and theological perspective. They divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires and they considered the Roman period, especially the time of the Apostles, a historical peak, followed by a long slide toward the Apocalypse. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, from Petrarchs Italian perspective, this new period was an age of national eclipse
Caboloan, referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan, was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital. It traded with the Kingdom of Ryukyu, Ashikaga shogunate and for trading with and sending tribute to Ming dynasty, specializing in the export of seashells and silver. The Chinese records of this began when the first tributary King, sent an envoy offering horses. Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires rose in Indonesia and Malaysia, urduja, a mythical woman warrior, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century. In the 16th century, Pangasinan was called the Port of Japan by the Spanish, the locals wore apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments and they blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals.
They used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households, japanese-style gunpowder weapons were encountered in naval battles in the area. In exchange for goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves. Other than a more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south. Limahong, a Chinese corsair and warlord, briefly invaded the wangdom after his failure in the Battle of Manila and he set up an enclave of wokou in Pangasinan. Pangasinan History of the Philippines Pangasinan people Cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines
Cebu is a 1st provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, and consisting of the main island itself and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, Cebu City forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities and eight other local government units. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines, Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a hub for shipping, furniture-making, business processing services. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others, Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire.
The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya and he was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 established a period of Spanish exploration and colonization, losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and they reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain.
Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos, the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized, Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated, according to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellans body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellans second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain.
Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure, in 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, and established a colony
Biag ni Lam-ang
Lam-ang is an extraordinary being, manifesting when he begins to speak in his early years, thus enabling him to choose his own name. His adventures begin when his father, Don Juan, set out for a battle, at barely nine months, Lam-ang goes to search for Don Juan in the highlands where the latter was said to have gone. Aware that her child was a blessed, exceptional creature, his mother Namongan allows him to go, Lam-ang goes off in search of his father, leaving his grieving mother behind. He sees his father beheaded and the put on a spike. While the headhunters are celebrating, in his anger, he challenges all of them to a duel, the headhunters throw spears at him, but he just catches it and throws it back to them. He defeats the headhunters, kills all and takes his fathers head down to the plains. An example is the scene in which Lam-ang was on his way home and he passes by a river and decides to have a dip. The dirt and blood that came off from his body causes the death of the fish, crabs. As he is bathing, some of the maidens who were present at the river gladly attend to him, upon arriving home, Lam-ang decides to court his love interest, Ines Kannoyan who lives in Calanutian.
Despite his mother’s disapproval, he follows his heart and set off again on another journey to his love and he faces one of Ines’ suitors and various monsters, but again is able to vanquish them with ease. Aiding him are his pets, a cat, a dog. The bird flaps its wings and a house toppled over and this feat amazes everyone present, especially Ines. Then, Lam-ang’s dog barks and the house rose up, invited to lunch with the family of Ines, Lam-ang impresses her parents with his wealth and upon returning, he gives the family two golden ships. After his death due to being eaten by a fish, Lam-angs bones are recovered. Ines is ordered by the rooster to wrap the bones with her tapis while the hen flapped its wings, in an instant, Lam-ang is happily reunited with his wife. In 2012, a adaptation of the story of Lam-ang was made. Called Lam-Ang, the film starred actors Rocco Nacino and Rochelle Pangilinan and it was originally intended to be a TV series, but it was decided to turn it into a film adaptation by Gabriel Lorenzo Quizon instead.
Philippine mythology Philippine literature Pedro Bucaneg Philippine epic poetry Summary in Tagalog Summary in English Bilingual version
A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a mononym, or single name. In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, in other cases, it has been determined by the custom of the country or by some interested segment. In the case of historical figures, it may be the one of the individuals names that has survived and is still known today. The structure of persons names has varied across time and geography, in some societies, individuals have been mononymous, receiving only a single name. Alulim, first king of Sumer, is one of the earliest names known, later, Biblical names were typically mononymous, as were names in the surrounding cultures of the Fertile Crescent. Mononyms in other ancient cultures include the Celtic queen Boudica and the Numidian king Jugurtha, however the historical record of eg Boudicca is scanty, and there is no evidence that she did not have other names. Between Columbus arrival in the New World and the late 19th century, examples include Moctezuma, Anacaona, Agüeybaná, Urracá, Guamá, Lempira, Tamanaco, Auoindaon and Tecumseh.
Uniquely, the Dutch-Seneca diplomat Cornplanter received both a Seneca-language mononym from his mother and a name and surname from his father. His descendants, such as Jesse Cornplanter, used Cornplanter as the name instead of Abeel. In the 19th century, most chiefs involved in the Apache Wars had mononym birth names, and some replaced those with mononymous nicknames, Victorio, and so on. Since the medieval period, mononyms in the west have almost exclusively used to identify people who already had surnames. These nicknames were either adopted by the persons themselves or conferred by contemporaries, some French authors have shown a preference for mononyms. In the 17th century, the dramatist and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin took the stage name Molière. In the 18th century, François-Marie Arouet adopted the mononym Voltaire, the new name combined several features. Arouet would not have served the purpose, given that names associations with roué, in the 20th century, a fourth French writer, Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, used her actual surname as her mononym pen name, Colette.
Some French actors and singers have used their name or surname as a stage mononym. In the 17th and 18th centuries, most Italian castrato singers used mononyms as stage names, the German writer, mining engineer and philosopher, Georg Friedrich Philipp Freiherr von Hardenberg, became famous as Novalis. In 2002 Multatuli was proclaimed by the Society for Dutch Literature to have been the most important Dutch writer of all time, the Dutch writer Jan Hendrik Frederik Grönloh wrote under the pseudonym Nescio
Mindanao is the second largest and southernmost major island in the Philippines. It is the name of one of the three groups in the country, consisting of the island of Mindanao and smaller outlying islands. As of the 2010 census, the population itself is 20,281,545 people, while the Mindanao island group has 21,968,174 inhabitants. Davao City is the most populous city in Mindanao hosting 1,632,991 people, followed by Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro City, the island has seen a communist insurgency as well as armed Moro separatist movements. Mindanao is considered the food basket of the Philippines, eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines come from here. Mindanao is dubbed with the monikers The Philippines Land of Promise, although many attempts made, it was never occupied by Spain for their 333 years of stay in Luzon and Visayas. Yet during Spains defeat and Treaty of Paris in 1898, they illegally included by coordinates Mindanao, evidence of human occupation dates back tens of thousands of years.
In prehistoric times the Negrito people arrived, sometime around 1500 BC, Austronesian peoples spread throughout the Philippines and far beyond. Native people of the Maluku Islands refer the island as Maluku Besar, the evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence. Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have found in caves, together with shell bracelets, beads. Many of the objects are from the Yuan and Ming periods. Evidently, there was a history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter’s contact with Islam. In the Classic epoch of Philippine history, the people of Mindanao were heavily exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia, artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, and the Ganesh pendant. These cultural traits passed through Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, in coastal areas, the Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest, whereas in interior parts, influences were indigenized into local animist beliefs and customs and appeared more subtly.
The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most compete local version of the Ramayana. The Maguindanao at this had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana epic saga that survives to the modern day. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan. The coming of Islam happened in the 14th century, the first mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul
There are around 13 indigenous communities, of which the majority have converted to the religion of Islam and are now Muslims or Moros, most are the followers of Islam of the Shafii madhhab. The term Moro came into use during the Spanish colonial period by the Spaniards and it was originally used to refer to the Berber/Arab Muslims who ruled Muslim Spain, but for a time it came to be used informally by the Spaniards to refer to all Muslims. The term is self-prescribed by the communities themselves, on both declarations, the signatories used the word, Moro Nation which translates as Bangsa Moro. In modern history, influential groups such as the Moro National Liberation Front espoused the Moro identity to unify all Muslim groups in the Philippines and this is different from the Filipino identity as it was more seen as an epithet to Catholic converted ethnic groups. The Moro people mostly live in Mindanao and Palawan, many Moros have emigrated to Malaysia and Brunei in the last half of the 20th century due to the conflict in the Southern Philippines.
Newer communities can be today in Kota Kinabalu, Semporna in neighbouring Sabah, North Kalimantan in Indonesia. The recently coined term Bangsamoro, derived from the old Malay word bangsa, the term Bangsamoro carries the aspiration of the Filipino Muslims to have an Islamic country or state. The term was used again by the Spanish when they arriving in the Philippine archipelago. Marvic Leonen, who was the Chief Peace Negotiator for Philippine government with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, has said, There is Bangsamoro, the place, there is Bangsamoro, the identity. The established historical and political factors of the Moro communities made them a separate country unethically annexed to the emerging Philippine Republic. It was adopted as a name for separatist organisations such as the Moro National Liberation Front, the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro recognises Bangsamoro as an identity and calls for the creation of a new autonomous political entity called Bangsamoro. The native Moro Communities of Mindanao and Sulu are termed considered as Filipino Muslim by the Philippine government and it includes the cities of Cotabato, Dipolog, General Santos, Marawi.
Conflict immediately broke out on the following the decision, with nearly half a million people displaced. This definition of the people by the bangsamoro is purely owned by the bangsamoro. Moro by definition still means Muslim who are still the minority population of Mindanao, the Bangsamoro share similarities with the Malay people of Malaysia, Brunei and southern Thailand, while being distinct from them. Islam is the most dominant influence on the Moro cultures since the era of the Sultanate of Maguindanao and small mosques can be found all over the region. In accordance with Islamic Law and fornication are prohibited and pork byproducts are not permissible. Another practice is fasting during Ramadan and providing charity for the poor, the Hajj is a major requirement as it is one of the five pillars of Islam
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more, the Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of which is now Sri Lanka, Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala. He successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia, the Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan Dynasty, which ultimately caused their downfall.
The Cholas left a lasting legacy and their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship and they pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture, the Cholas are known as the Choda. There is very little available in regarding their origin. Its antiquity is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature, Later medieval Cholas claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE, Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South. A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the annotator Parimelazhagar said, The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means.
Other names in use for the Cholas are Killi and Sembiyan. Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and this word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in times. Valavan is most probably connected with valam – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country, in Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. There is very little evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples, the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period
Lapu-Lapu was a ruler of Mactan in Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because he was the first native to resist Spanish colonization and he is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27,1521, where he and his soldiers defeated Ferdinand Magellan. Monuments to Lapu-Lapu have been built in Manila and Cebu while the Philippine National Police, besides being a rival of Rajah Humabon of Cebu, little is known about the life of Lapu-Lapu. The only existing documents about his life are those written by Antonio Pigafetta and his name, origins and fate are still a matter of controversy. Lapu-Lapu is known under the names Çilapulapu, Si Lapulapu, Salip Pulaka, Cali Pulaco, the historical name of Lapu-Lapu is debated. The earliest record of his name comes from Italian diarist Antonio Pigafetta who accompanied Magellans expedition, Pigafetta notes the names of two chiefs of the island of Matan, the chiefs Zula and Çilapulapu. The honorific Çi or Si is a corruption of the Sanskrit title Sri, in an annotation of the 1890 edition of Antonio de Morgas Sucesos de las islas Filipinas, José Rizal spells this name as Si Lapulapu.
The Aginid chronicle calls him Lapulapu Dimantag, the title Salip is frequently used as an honorific for Lapu-lapu and other Visayan datus. Despite common misconception, it is not derived from the Islamic title Khalīfah, like the cognate Si, it was derived from the Sanskrit title Sri Paduka, denoting His Highness. The title is used today in Malaysia as Seri Paduka. The 17th century mestizo de sangley poet Carlos Calao mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name of Cali Pulaco in his poem Que Dios Le Perdone, the name, spelled Kalipulako, was adopted as one of the pseudonyms of the Philippine hero, Mariano Ponce, during the Philippine Revolution. The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence of Cavite II el Viejo, there had been many folk accounts surrounding Lapu-lapu’s origin. One oral tradition is that the Sugbuanons of Opong was once ruled by datu named Mangal, another is from oral chronicles from the reign of the last king of Cebu, Rajah Tupas. This was compiled and written in Baybayin in the book Aginid, the chronicle records the founding of the Rajahnate of Cebu by a certain Sri Lumay, who was a prince from the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra.
His sons, Sri Alho and Sri Ukob, ruled the neighboring communities of Sialo and Nahalin, the islands they were in were collectively known as Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya. Sri Lumay was noted for his policies in defending against Moro raiders and slavers from Mindanao. His use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbo to the town, which was shortened to Sugbo. Upon his death in a battle against the raiders, Sri Lumay was succeeded by his youngest son, Sri Bantug, Sri Bantug died of an epidemic and was succeeded by his son Rajah Humabon
Raja, is a title for a Monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia. The female form Rani applies equally to the wife of a Raja, usually as queen consort and occasionally as regent. The title has a history in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia, being attested from the Rigveda, where a rājan- is a ruler, see for example the dāśarājñá. Sanskrit rājan- is cognate to Latin rēx King, Gaulish rīx, Gaelic rí, etc. originally denoting heads of petty kingdoms and it is believed to be ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European *h3rēǵs, a vrddhi formation to the root *h3reǵ- to straighten, to order, to rule. The Sanskrit n-stem is secondary in the title, apparently adapted from the female counterpart rājñī which has an -n- suffix in related languages. Cognates of the word Raja in other Indo-European languages include English reign, rather common, practically equivalent variants in Rajasthani and Hindi, used as equivalent royal style in parts of India include Rana, Raol and rawat and Yuvraj prince heir.
Maharaja, or great king, is literally a title for more significant rulers in India, hence during the British raj, precedence was rather determined by the gun salute. Raja රජ means King in Sri Lanka, Rajamanthri is the Prince lineage of Kings generation in Sri Lanka. Rajamanthri title is aristocracy of the Kandiyan Kingdom මහනුවර in Sri Lanka, badan Singh was styled Raja Mahendra and founded the city and state Bharatpur, which his dynasty ruled as Maharajas. Raja Sahib was the style in Bansda until its upgrade from c.1829 to higher counterpart Maharaja Sahib. Raja-i Rajgan was notably the royal style of, the former Rajas of Jind from * until their 1911 upgrade to Maharaja, the former Rajas of Kapurthala from 1861 until their 1911 upgrade to Maharaja. Two consecutive rulers of Patiala, the first of which was originally styled Maharaja, Raja Bahadur, and remained the rulers of Raigarh. as 1763 upgrade from the family title Raja Sar Desai in Maratha state Savantvadi. e. Third prince in line for succession, there were many more Rajas among the feudatory states, such as jagirs.
In Pakistan, Raja is still used by Muslim Rajput clans as hereditary titles, Raja is used as a given name by Hindus and Sikhs. Most notably Raja is used in Hazara division of Pakistan for the descendants of a Turkic dynasty and these Rajas ruled that part of Pakistan for decades and they still possess huge land in Hazara division of Pakistan and actively participate in the politics of the region. In Sinhalese, the title Raja means King of Sri Lanka, Rajamanthri is the Prince lineage of Kings generation especially Rajamanthri is aristocracy of the Kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka history. Indonesian has the word raja for king, leaders of local tribes and old Hindu kingdoms had that title before Indonesia became an independent nation. Various traditional princely states in Indonesia still style their ruler Raja, in the Malay language, the word raja means king